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PSY 250 Exam 2 Study Guide (Chapters 4-6)

by: Kristen Shelton

PSY 250 Exam 2 Study Guide (Chapters 4-6) PSY 250

Marketplace > Central Michigan University > Psychlogy > PSY 250 > PSY 250 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapters 4 6
Kristen Shelton
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Just like always... Pink- facts Blue- terms/definitions Purple- supporting details I added in exact page numbers of terms and facts from the textbook! I hope this helps!
Abnormal Psychology
Deskovitz, Mark
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Shelton on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 250 at Central Michigan University taught by Deskovitz, Mark in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 244 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
Exam 2 Review Covering Chapters 4,5, & 6 Exam Date: Tuesday, February 16   th Chapter 4 I. Diagnosis  Uses the DSM­5  Take into consideration the social & behavioral history ­ how they were brought up ­ how the past is reflective of how future treatments should proceed ­ need to have cultural understanding such as cultural confidence and the factors of the  environment that the client grew up in  Need to have standardization, which is a comparison over a wide range. Symptoms are  common among a wide range of people who have that certain disease/disorder.  Must have a general physical exam from a medical doctor. This allows the clinician to  know any previous medical conditions that may play a part in certain symptoms that the  client is experiencing.  Clinical Diagnosis­ the process through which a clinician arrives at a general “summary  classification” of the patient’s symptoms by following a clearly defined system such as  the DSM­5 or ICD­10. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 101)   There needs to be trust and a good relationship between the client and clinician in order  for an assessment to be fully accurate. If there is trust, the client will feel comfortable  describing symptoms that they are experiencing which will help the clinician make an  accurate diagnosis. II. Neurological Scan  Some mental disorders are caused from a malfunction in the brain. Therefore,  neurological examinations are used to assess where in the brain there might be an  abnormal malfunction.  EEG­ electroencephalogram; a graphical record of the brain’s electrical activity; assesses  brain wave patterns in awake and sleeping states; places electrodes on the scalp &  amplifies the small brain wave impulses from different areas of the brain; the impulses  move pens that trace the waves on a slip of paper. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p.  105)  Dysrhythmia­ irregular pattern; EEG will reveal these (Abnormal Psychology Textbook:  p. 105)  CAT scan­ computerized axial tomography scan; use of X­rays; reveals images of parts  of the brain that might be diseased. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 105­106)  MRI­ magnetic resonance imaging; replaced CAT scans; sharper images of the interior of the brain because it differentiates differences in the soft tissue; far less complicated to  administer; does not expose patient to ionizing radiation  Have been problems with MRI such as claustrophobia because it involves being placed  into a narrow cylinder; also, questions were raised about how the MRI doesn’t provide  the truth about the body and might not lead to better outcomes. (Abnormal Psychology  Textbook: p. 106).  PET scans­ positron emission tomography scan; reveals how an organ is functioning;  provides metabolic portions by tracking natural compounds like glucose; pinpoints sights  for episodes such as epileptic seizures, trauma, stroke, & brain tumors; shows problems  that aren’t anatomically apparent; have had problems of limited value because of the low  dependability of pictures and the cost is very expensive. (Abnormal Psychology  Textbook: p. 106).  fMRI­ functional MRI; measures changes in local oxygenation (such as blood flow) in  specific areas of the brain tissue; psychological activity like sensations, images and  thoughts can be mapped out and reveal the areas of the brain that are involved.  (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 106)  There are limitations to fMRI such as the errors that could happen because of the slight  movements of the client undergoing this procedure; results could also be hard to  interpret; understands brain function but might not be a good tool for diagnosing mental  disorders. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 107). III. Intelligence Tests  IQ tests are objective and sometimes people will take the results too far; for example, if  the deviate to the right of the mean, they can be labeled as “genius” or vice versa  Crystallized Intelligence­ stuff you already know and will always continue to know  Fluid Intelligence­ how efficiently you can retain new information  The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children­Revised (WISC­IV) and the current version of the Stanford­Binet Intelligence Scale are used for measuring intelligence in children.  (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p.111)  The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is mostly used for measuring intelligence in  adults. Uses both a verbal and performance portion. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook:  p.111)  Not many cases require knowledge about a client’s intelligence so the use of intelligence  tests aren’t recommended. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 112) IV. Rorschach Inkblot Test  This is a type of personality test and a projective test  Projective Tests­ are unstructured because they rely on various ambiguous stimuli like  inkblots or vague pictures other than verbal explicit questions and the person’s responses  are not limited. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 112)  People “project” their own problems to the clinicians by interpreting the stimuli in their  own way. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 112)  Rorschach Inkblot Test­ named after Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach; use 10  inkblot pictures where clients are instructed to tell what they see, what it makes them  think of and what it means to them; may take several hours; results can be unreliable  because of the interpretations of what the clients tell the clinicians. (Abnormal  Psychology Textbook: p.112)  Can uncover psychodynamic issues ­ Unconscious motivations ­ Perceptions of others (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 112) V. MMPI­2 Scales  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)  Was developed in a Minnesota State University Hospital  Used to make accurate diagnoses  Has validity scales and reliable scores  Can computerize the process and interpretations  However, you can’t only rely on this test because the interpretations aren’t always  reliable  Used in forensic (court related) assessment and in psychopathology research in the US  (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 115)  Used for adults  Has 10 clinical scales that measure tendencies to respond in psychologically deviant ways and many validity scales that detect whether a patient has answered questions in an  honest manner. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 116)  Compares scores to those of the “normal” population  Refer to page 115 in the textbook for a table of the scales of the MMPI­2!! VI. Reliability & Validity  Reliability­ degree to which an assessment measure produces the same result each time it  is used to evaluate the same thing (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 104)  Validity­ the extent to which a measuring instrument actually measures what it is  supposed to measure. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 104)  Both are very important factors in carrying out assessments for diagnosis!!!!  Chapter 5 I. PTSD & Acute Stress Disorder  PTSD­ post traumatic stress disorder; extreme amounts of stress over a long period of  time   Person has flashbacks & dreams of the traumatic event  Usually avoids stressors that trigger stress  Has negative thoughts  Experiences alterations in reactivity  Has issues with anger as well as depression  Sometimes shows up at a later time after a traumatic event and lasts a longer amount of  time  Acute Stress Disorder­ a diagnostic category that can be used when symptoms develop  shortly after experiencing a traumatic event and last for at least 2 days. (Abnormal  Psychology Textbook: p. 148) II. Causal Factors  Trauma  Individual Risk Factors ­ Occupations that expose people to stress (such as firefighters, paramedics, EMT’s,  etc.) ­ Male vs. Female: females are more at risk of developing PTSD because of the certain  kinds of traumatic experiences that they may be exposed to (such as rape) (Abnormal  Psychology Textbook: p. 149) ­ Being extroverted and a risk taker (may lead to some trauma) ­ Preexisting depression/anxiety ­ Different forms of self appraisal ­ Being a part of a minority group (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 154) ­ Environment/Social Factors: where you grow up; if it’s supportive; friend group and  support III. Prevention/Treatments  Prevention methods could include procedures much like receiving vaccinations: it builds  up “immunity” to certain events/stressors  Inoculation Training­ used mostly in military training; builds resilience to traumatic  events and stressors by exposing those people to various stressful events   There can be many different treatment methods for PTSD, however the most used and  successful is Exposure­Based Therapy.  Exposure Based Therapy­ continuous exposure to the traumatic event or the stressor  Systematic Desensitization can also be used  Medications such as antidepressants can be used  Crisis Intervention­ a therapist is utilized to help clarify the problem, suggest plans of  action, provide reassurance and provide needed info and support. (Abnormal Psychology  Textbook: p. 157)  Debriefing­ encouraging traumatized victims to talk about their experiences during the  crisis; structured discussion. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 157)  If a traumatized victim is participating in debriefing sessions too soon, it can be harmful  to them & their treatment/healing process. IV. Lifetime Prevalence   9.7% lifetime prevalence of PTSD in women  3.6% lifetime prevalence of PTSD in men V. Health Effects  Immune System:  ­ Trauma can play a negative factor on the immune system (a sample of HIV positive  men & women have experienced previous trauma) (Abnormal Psychology Textbook:  p. 159) ­ Stress can link diseases, like colds, that aren’t directly related to the nervous system ­ Stress causes a vulnerability to disease because it compromises immune functioning ­ Stress slows the healing of wounds by 24­40% ­ Immunosuppression­ suppressing the immune system caused by stress ­ Depression also compromises immune functioning (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 134­136)  Blood Pressure ­ Stress causes blood pressure to increase ­ Hypertension­ having a systolic blood pressure of 140+ and a diastolic blood pressure of 90+ ­ Medical problems, like stress can cause hypertension; this is called essential  hypertension. ­ Can cause coronary heart disease ­ Increases risk of heart attack (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 137­142)  Stress Hormones ­ The stress hormones that the adrenal cortex produces are called glucocorticoid this  then produces cortisol which is the stress glucocorticoid. ­ It prepares body for fight or flight ­ Inhibits innate immune response ­ If cortisol is not shut off, it can damage brain cells ­ Can stunt growth (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 133­134) Chapter 6 I. Rates/Types of Specific/Social Phobias  Specific Phobia­ a strong & persistent fear that is triggered by the presence of a specific  object or situation. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 166)  Types of specific phobias include: ­ Situations ­ Animals ­ Objects  12 % lifetime prevalence of developing a specific phobia  Social Phobia­ social anxiety disorder; disabling fears of one or more specific social  situations (such as public speaking, urinating in a public bathroom, eating or writing in  public). (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 173)  Many that suffer from social phobias believe that they will be subject to humiliation,  scrutiny, negative evaluation from others. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 173)  12% lifetime prevalence of developing a social phobia and 60% of sufferers are women II. Treatments of Phobias  Exposure­Based Therapy!!!  Unlearning negative perceptions (such as humiliating themselves, scrutiny, evaluation) III. Prevalence of Panic   Panic Disorder­ the occurrence of panic attacks that often seem to come “out of the blue.” DSM­5 states that the person must experience recurrent and unexpected attacks and be  persistently concerned about having another for at least a month. (Abnormal Psychology  Textbook: p. 178)  Panic Attacks­ “unexpected”, “un­cued” and feel like the person is having a heart attack.  85% of people usually show up to an ER. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 178)  Agoraphobia­ fear of being in public places; the most commonly feared and avoided  situations are streets & crowded places such as shopping malls, movie theaters & stores;  also standing in line. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 179)  Prevalence of panic disorders is 4.7% of the adult population  Also has a high comorbid rate (being associated with one or more other disorder) IV. Causal Factors/Symptoms of Panic  Causal Factors: ­ Could be genetic ­ Stress ­ Behavioral Learning (biggest cause) ­ Hypersensitivity to bodily changes followed by catastrophic thoughts  Symptoms: ­ Depersonalization (feeling detached from your own body) or derealization (external  world is strange/unreal) ­ Fear of dying ­ Fear of “going crazy” or “losing control” (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p.178) V. Treatment  Medications (not the best option)  Exposure­Based Therapy (best option)   VI. Prevalence of Generalized Anxiety Disorder & OCD  Generalized Anxiety Disorder­ free floating anxiety; DSM­5 specifies that the worry must occur on more days than not for at least 6 months and that it must be experienced as  difficult to control. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p.188)  Lifetime prevalence of 5.7%  Twice as more common in women than men  Comorbid with anxiety, PTSD & depression  OCD­ Obsessive compulsive disorder; the occurrence of unwanted & intrusive obsessive  thoughts or distressing images, accompanied by compulsive behaviors performed to undo or neutralize the obsessive thoughts or images or as a way of preventing some dreaded  event or situation. (Abnormal Psychology Textbook: p. 194)  Lifetime prevalence of 1.6%  Partly genetic  Mostly learned through operant conditioning VII. Characteristics of GAB & OCD  Characteristics of GAB: ­ Persistent worry ­ Restlessness ­ Impacts one’s life and functioning  Characteristics of OCD: ­ Suppressed thoughts ­ Distorted thoughts ­ Ritualistic behavior (i.e. washing hands continuously, checking if stove is off more  than once) VIII. Treatment of GAB & OCD  Treatment of GAB: ­ Medications (SSRI’s, Xanax, etc.) ­ Cognitive­Behavioral Therapy ­ Deep Breathing Techniques ­ Muscle Relaxation  Treatment of OCD: ­ Medications (these don’t have much effect) ­ Response­prevention exposure based treatment ­ Psychosurgery (this is for very severe cases, such as compulsions that could be  hazardous to one’s health) *********REMEMBER: This is an overview of what was covered in class & textbook,  looking through the chapters and reading the sections that are pertinent to this information would also be EXTREMELY helpful for this exam!  I hope this helps!


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