EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT SPRING 2016
EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT SPRING 2016 HS 2813
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaela Brewington on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HS 2813 at Mississippi State University taught by Angel Fason in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Child Development in Human Development at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
HS 2813 Child Development Study Guide Be prepared to answer multiple choice AND short answer questions about the following material: Introduction to the course, scientific observation, and ethical considerations Be able to define child development THE PHYSICAL, COGNITIVE, SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL CHANGES THAT CHILDREN GO THROUGH FROM CONCEPTION ON Be able to describe at least three reasons why observation is valuable when working with young children WITNESS CHILD DEVELOPMENT, ASSESSMENT, REFLECT ON YOUR OWN PRACTICES Be able to describe the difference between naturalistic and controlled observation. NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION: OBSERVING AND RECORDING EVENTS AS THEY NATURALLY OCCUR CONTROLLED OBSERVATION: OBSERVING AND RECORDING EVENTS BY SETTING UP AND CONTROLLING THE SITUATION Be able to describe at least one pro (benefit) and one con (downside) of both types of observation. NAT. PRO: WATCH THINGS IN REAL TIME NAT. CON: CANNOT SEE SOMETHING IN PARTICULAR CON. PRO: CAN SET UP SPECIFIC EXPERIMENT CON. CON: CHILD COULD ACT DIFFERENTLY THEN IN A NATURAL ENVIRONMENT Be able to describe the difference between a participant and nonparticipant observer PARTICIPANT OBSERVER: OBERSERVE WHILE ALSO INTERACTING WITH KID NONPARTICIPANT: SIT QUIETLY AND WATCH Be able to identify good examples of observation notes and those that do not follow the guidelines discussed in class. Be able to list the goals of HDFS. 1. DESCRIBE DEVELOPMENT 2. EXPLAIN AND PREDICT DEVELOPMENT 3. INTERVENE TO ENHANCE DEVELOPMENT Physical development during early childhood: Body growth, brain, and motor development Be able to describe the concept of developmental asynchrony. BODY SYSTEMS DIFFER IN THEIR PATTERNS OF GROWTH (BY HEIGHT AND WEIGHT) Be able to answer questions about the important developments related to physical appearance (growth) that occur during early childhood o HEREDITY AND HORMONES o HEALTHY ROUTINES o NUTRITION o INFECTIOUS DISEASE IMMUNZATIONS o HEREDITY AND GENES o SAFETY AND CHILDHOOD INJURIES o SLEEP (SPIINE LENGTHENS AND STRAIGHTENS, POSTURE AND BALANCE IMPROVE, DECLINE IN BODY FAT/ INCREASE IN MUSCLE, SKELETAL GROWTH (45 NEW EPIPHYSES), LOSE PRIMARY TEETH, RAPID GROWTH IN INFANCY, SLOWS DOWN IN EARLY CHILDHOOD, ACCELERATES IN ADOLESCENCE) What are epiphyses and how many new epiphyses are formed during early childhood? 45 NEW ONES EPIPHYSESGROWTH CENTERS WHERE CARTILAGE ATTACHES TO THE BONE Be able to answer several questions about the key changes (we covered five of the most significant) in the brain that occur during early childhood. Also be able to answer questions about the percentage of the adult weight the brain is during early childhood. BETWEEN AGES 26 THE BRAIN GROWS 70% TO 90% OF ITS ADULT WEIGHT 1 FRONTAL LOBE: PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION LEFT HEM.: LANGUGAE SKILLS AND HANDEDNESS PRESCHOOLERS IMPROVE IN A WIDE VARIETY OF SKILLS DIFFERENCES IN RATES BETWEEN TWO HEMISHPERES o BASIC UNIT OF THE BRAIN ACTIVITY IS THE NEURON o NEURON=SPECIAL KIND OF CELLA NERVE CELL o FUNCTION? TO CONTROL ACTIVITY AND BEHAVIOR/ TO TRANSMIT INFORMATION AND MESSAGES THROUGHOUT THE BRAIN AND BODY o DENTRITIES: BRANCHES THAT RECEIVE MESSAGES o AXON TERMINALS: BRANCHES THAT SEND MESSAGES TO OTHER CELLS o AXON: CARRIES THE MESSAGE o SYNAPSES: TINY GAPS BETWEEN AXONS AND DENTRITES o (BRAIN IS BEINF RESHAPED AND REFINED) Be able to discuss the changes in the brain influence what skills young children are capable of. Be able to discuss at least one practical implications of the information on the brain in early childhood. 1. SYNAPTIC PRUNING o HANDEDNESS: 90% ARE RIGHT HANDED o AFFECTED BY EXPERIENCE – POSITION IN UTERUS AND PRACTICE o BEGINS AS EARLY AS 1 YEAR AND STRENGHTENS 2. DEVELOPMENT OF CEREBELLUM o CEREBELLUM BETTER CONNECTED TO CEREBRAL CORTEX o BALANCE AND COORDINATION 3. RAPID SYNAPTIC GROWTH IN RETICULAR FORMATION o ATTENTION 4. RAPID SYNAPTIC GROWTH IN HIPPOCAMPUS o MEMORY AND SPATIAL UNDERSTANDING 5. CORPUS CALLOSUM DEVELOPMENTAL PEAKS o CONNECTS THE TWO CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE Be able to distinguish between gross and fine motor developments during early childhood GROSS: LARGE MUSCLE GROUPS (RUNNING, KICKING, JUMPING) FINE: SMALL MUSCLE GROUPS (COLORING, WRITING) Be able to make suggestions for things that can be done in the home and group settings to enhance both gross and fine motor development in young children Be familiar with information on perceptual competence and perceptualmotor development. 1. PERCEPTUAL MOTOR DEVELOPMENT o SENSORY AND MOTOR EXPERIENCES ENHANCE EDUCATION 2. BODY AWARENESS 3. LATERALITY o AWARENESS OF AN ABILITY TO USE BOTH SIDES OF BODY 4. BALANCE o ADJUSTMENTS MADE TO KEEP FROM FALLING 5. BODY BUILD ALTER MOTOR DEVELOPMENT 6. SEX DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS Be able to identify gross and fine motor skills that are appropriate for children in early childhood and when those should be achieved. 1. GROSS MOTOR SKILLS o 2 YEAR OLDS PUT ON AND TAKE OFF CLOTHING o 3 YEAR OLDS TAKE CARE OF TOILETING NEEDS o BETWEEN 4 AND 5 THEY CAN DRESS AND UNDRESS WITHOUT SUPERVISION o AGE 4 THEY CAN USE FORK WELL o AROUND 5 OR 6 THEY CAN USE A KNIFE TO CUT SMALL FOOD o SCRIBBLES 2 o REPRESENTATIONAL FORMS o REALISTIC DRAWINGS o EARLY PRINTING 2. GROSS MOTOR o 23: WALK RHYTHMICALLY, RUNS, JUMPS, WALKS, THROWS, AND CATHCES o 34: WALKS UP STAIRS, ALTERNATING FEET, LEADING WITH ONE FOOT, PEDALS AND STEERS TRICYCLE o 45: WALKS DOWN STAIRS ALTERNATING FEET, RUNS SMOOTHLY, SKIPS o 56: INCRASES RUNNING SPEED, GALLOPS, DISPLAYS MATURE THROWING AND CATCHING o RIDES BICYCLE WITH TRAINING WHEELS o MASTERING THOUGH PLAY Be able to answer questions related to motor skills for children with special needs. IDEA INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT o SPECIAL NEEDS FALL INTO 3 CATEGORIES 1. DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY: DELAYS IN 1 OR MORE DEVELOPMENTAL DOMIANS 2. ATYPICAL DEVELOPMENT: PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMETN ARE DIFFERENT FROM EXPECTED FOR THE AGE RANGE 3. MEDICALLY DIAGNOSED CONDITIONS: ANY OF NUMEROUS POSSIBLE DIAGNOSES INTERVENTION SERVICES SHOULD BE MADE AVAILABLE TO CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS Be able to discuss motor skill differences in girls and boys; also be able to discuss ways to enhance motor development in early childhood. BODY BUILD: o TALLER, LONGER LIMBED BETTER AT RUNNING AND JUMPING SEX o BOYS: BETTER AT POWER AND FORCE o GIRLS: FINE MOTOR SKILLS, BALANCE, FOOT MOVEMENT Be able to describe the sequence of drawing skills in early childhood. 1. SCRIBBLES 2. REPRESENTATIONAL FORMS 3. REALISTIC DRAWINGS 4. EARLY PRINTING Be able to answer questions about children’s early printing skills. 1. SCRIBBLES o DURING SECOND YEAR 2. FIRST REPRESENTATIONAL FORMS o LABEL ALREADY MADE DRAWINGS: AROUND AGE 3 o DRAW BOUNDARIES AND PEOPLE: 34 YEARS 3. MORE REALISTIC DRAWINGS o PRESCHOOL TO SCHOOL AGE 4. EARLY PRINTING o AGES 46 YEARS Be able to answer questions about the importance of sleep on physical growth during early childhood, the recommended amount of sleep a child needs, and give recommendations for helping children get a good night’s rest. Also, be able to discuss sleep problems in early childhood. AVERAGE SLEEP AMOUNT IS 1112 HOURS OVER A 24 HOUR PERIOD (9.5 TO 14.5) MOST KIDS STOP NAP BETWEEN 3 AND 4 BUT SOME CONTINUE TILL 6 YEARS OF AGES o 3: 92% o 4: 57% 3 o 5: 27% Be able to discuss the influences on physical growth during early childhood. There were several mentioned in class. Be able to answer questions about any or all of them. Examples are emotional wellbeing, diseases, injuries, sleep, nutrition, etc. o HEREDITY AND HORMONES o HEALTHY ROUTINES o NUTRITION o INFECTIOUS DISEASE IMMUNZATIONS o HEREDITY AND GENES o SAFETY AND CHILDHOOD INJURIES o SLEEP (AMIABLE VS CRANKY, METALLY SHARP VS SLOW) Be able to answer questions about children’s appetites during early childhood. o APPETITE BECOMES UNPREDICTABLE o LIKE FAMILIAR FOODS o SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCES FOOD CHOICES POVERTY EMOTIONAL CLIMATE REPEATED EXPOSURE TO FOOD IMITATE ADMIRED PEOPLE PARENTAL PRESSURE o AIM FOR PREDICABLE MEAL TIMES o OFFER SMALLER PORTIONS AND ALLOW CHILDREN TO GET SECONDS o KEEP MEALTIMES PLEASANT o OFFER NEW FOODS EARLY Be able to discuss how sleep influences children’s development in the different developmental domains. o LACK OF SLEEP IS ASSOCIATED WITH SLOWER RESPONSE TIMES AND CONCENTRATION o INCREASES THE LIKELIHOOD OF ACCIDENTS o LACK OF CONCENTRATION IS PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT FOR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT Be able to discuss children’s eating habits during childhood. o APPETITE BECOMES UNPREDICTABLE o LIKE FAMILIAR FOODS o SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCES FOOD CHOICES Be able to discuss ways to reduce unintentional injuries in children. TRANSPORTATION SAFETY o PRIMARY CAUSE OF INJURY TO CHILDREN o 40% OF AMERICANS DON’T PLACE THEIR CHILDREN IN SAFETY SEATS o 82% EITHER INSTALL THEM OR USE THEM INCORRECTLY PLAYGROUND SAFETY o APPROPRIATE SUPERVISON o EQUIPMENT AND SURFACE SAFETY Be able to answer questions related to safety issues for young children. o TRAMPOLINES o GARAGE DOORS o BURNS o CHOCKING o POISIONING o WATER o BOYS 1.5X’S MORE LIKELY TO BE INJURED 4 Be able to discuss ways to reduce unintentional injuries in childhood. o AGE APPROPRIATE SUPERVISION o KNOW CHILD’S TEMPERAMENT o ELIMINATE SERIOUS DANGERS FROM HOME o RESTRAIN CHILD PROPERLY o SELECT SAFE PLAY EQUIPMENT o BE EXTRA CAREFUL AROUND WATER o PRACTICE SAFETY AROUND ANIMALS Be familiar with the information on toilet learning in young children. TOILET LEARNING RATHER THEN TOILET TRAINING o GIRLS TYPICALLY LEARN FIRST Be familiar with the following terms: perception, perceptual motor development, laterality, and balance o PERCEPTION: THE ABILITY TO SEE, HEAR, OR BECOME AWARE OF SOMETHING o PERCEPTUAL MOTOR DEVELOPMENT: THE ABILITY TO RECEIVE, INTERPRET, AND RESPOND SUCCESSFULLY TO SENSORY INFORMATION. o LATERALITY: DOMINANCE OF ONE SIDE OF THE BRAIN IN CONTROLLING PARTICULAR ACTIVITIES o BALANCE: AN EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF WEIGHT ENABLING SOMEONE OR SOMETHING TO REMAIN UPRIGHT AND STEADY Note: This study guide is a guide only. Questions on additional topics may be included at the discretion of the instructor. 5
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