Sociology Study Guide exam 1
Sociology Study Guide exam 1 Sociology 20213
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mallory Notetaker on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 20213 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Hampton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Sociology Study Guide Exam 1 Key: everything in Bold = need to know deﬁnition for test Chapter 1 (book reading from Newman) Individualistic explanations: attributing people’s achievements and failures to their personal qualities relationships are not private entities, but always inﬂuences by a outside network of people sociology: the systematic study of human societies sociological imagination: ability to see the impact of social forces on our private lives Primary theme of sociology is that our everyday thoughts and actions are the product of a complex interplay between mass media and our lives Sociological Perspective: is the ability to see the impact of social forces on our private lives - an awareness that our lives like at the intersection of personal biography and societal history. How does sociology differ from other disciplines like biology and psychology biology- how body works psychology- inside the mind sociology- social interactions, how outside forces impact individuals Chapter Two: the Effect of Social Structure on our everyday lives -Statuses -Roles -Groups -Organizations -Institutions Status: a social position that a person holds. -Status is a part of our social identity and deﬁnes our relationships to others -Each of us holds many statuses at once. i.e. being a parent and a student Status Set -The term status set refers to all the statuses a person holds at a given time -For ex: a teenage girl may be a daughter her parents, a sister to her brother, a student at school, and an athlete Ascribed and Achieved Status -Ascribed status: is a social position a person receives at birth or takes on involuntary later in life -Ex: kardashian Achieved status: in contrast, is a social position we take on voluntarily or acquire by our own efforts Master Status -Some statuses matter more than others -The status has special important for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life. ex: CEO of a company Roles Whether ascribed or achieved, statuses are important sociologically because they all come with a set of rights, obligations, behaviors, and duties that people occupying a certain position are expected or encouraged to perform. i.e. mother Role conﬂict and role strain Role conﬂict- describes situations in which people encounter tension in trying to cope with the demands of incompatible roles. -People may feel frustrated in their efforts to do what they feel they’re supposed to do when the role expectations of one status clash with the role exactions of another Role Strain -is a tension among the roles connected to a single status -Ex: teacher may want to be friendly with students but need to remain objective Social Institutions Family Education Economy Politics and law Religion Health Care Military Mass Media 1/22/16 Three major Theoretical Approaches: 1. Structural -functionalist perspective 2. Conﬂict Perspective 3. Symbolic Interactionism Structural-Functionalist -All the components of society work together to make everything run smoothly -Focuses on the way various parts of society are structured and interrelated to maintain stability and order What is the level of analysis? -we can analyze society in the way we analyze the body, even if something is dysfunctional in society but it remains to exist it must be playing a vital role in society Limitations to this perspective -By focusing on social stability and unity, critics argue that structural-functionalism is not critical of inequalities based on social class, race, ethnicity, and gender, all of which cause tension and conﬂict. -In general, its focus on stability at the expense of conﬂict makes this approach somewhat conservative. Conﬂict Perspective -views the structure of society as a source of inequality that always beneﬁts some groups at the expense of other groups What is the level of analysis? -see it as a competition between people over limited resources -different people who have different amounts of power and inﬂuences -focus on stability at expense of conﬂict makes this approach somewhat conservative Limitations of this perspective Because the conﬂict perspective focusses so much on conﬂict, it tends to downplay or overlook the elements of society that different groups and individuals share In addition, it is motivated by political agenda Macro-level vs. Micro-level orientation Macro: way of examining human life that focuses on the broad topics in society, structural functional Micro: focuses on the immediate everyday of experiences of individuals Symbolic interactionism -attempts to understand human life by a micro level, everyday interactions -explains society and social structure through an examination of the microlevel, personal, day-to-day exchanges of people as individuals, pairs, or groups. Limitations -By focusing on individuals it runs the risk of ignoring larger social patterns and structures -thus, this perspective risks overlooking the widespread inﬂuence of culture, as well as factors such as class, gender, and race. Vocab: Group: set of people who interact more or less regularly who are conscious of their identity as a unit Culture: language, values, beliefs, rules, behaviors, and artifacts that characterize a society Organization: large, complex network of positions created for a speciﬁc purpose and characterized by a hierarchical division of labor. Primary group: collection of individuals who are together for a relatively long period. whose members have direct contact with and feel emotional attachment to one another Secondary group: relatively impersonal collection of individuals that is established to perform Norm: culturally deﬁned standard or rule of conduct Social institution: stable ste of roles, statuses, etc. that provides a foundation for behavior in some major area of social life Symbol: something used to represent or stand for something else Value:standard of judgment by which people decide on desirable goals and outcomes Social Construction of Reality: the process through which facts, knowledge, truth and so on are discovered, made known, reafﬁrmed, and altered by the members of society. Culture and Language -we interact through language, its a key tool in the construction of society, language gives meaning to people, events, and ideas of our lives Reporters were using the word refugee to describe someone that was an american citizen (that was a tax payer) so that word was problematic Language: used to reinforce prevailing ideas and suppress conﬂicting ideas about he world Euphemism: Language is sometimes used to purposely conceal as well -ex: a euphemism is an innocuous expression substituted for one the tight be offensive -they shape perceptions and emotions Language of War -contains euphemisms designed to minimize the public’s discomfort an increase its support -ex: collateral damage (civilian deaths during military combat) or friendly ﬁre (accidental shooting of fellow soldiers) -“war” on Terrorism, War on Terror, Global War on Terror, “A Global Struggle against violent extremism” Building the Walls: Conﬂict, power and social institutions -The conﬂict perspective points out, certain people or groups of people are more inﬂuential in deﬁning reality than others. -In our society, socioeconomic classes, ethnic and religious groups, age groups, and political interests struggle for control over resources. The Economics of reality -Deﬁnitions for reality frequently reﬂect underlying economic interests -someone is beneﬁtting at the expense of someone else The Politics of Reality -The institution of politics is also linked to societal deﬁnitions of reality. -To a great extent, politics is about controlling public perceptions so people will do things or think about issues in ways that political leaders want hem to. The Medium is the message -Communication media are the primary means by which we are entertained and informed about the world around us. -But the messages we receive from the media also reﬂect dominant cultural values. Who “Owns” the media? -in 1983, 50 companies controlled 90% of all US media outlets -By 2011, just six companies - comcast, disney, news corp, time, warner, viacom, CBS- owned 90% of all media outlets, Moral Entrepreneurs -Certain people have social concerns they passionately want to translated into law For example: groups that seek to outlaw or increase punishment for things like -pornography, drunk driving, sexually explicit songs -they are crusading for the creation of a new public conception of morality -They are not necessarily wealthy or inﬂuential, could have just been related to victims of the event -Good at using publicity and public relations -Successful in neutralizing any opposing viewpoints -make good poster childs Contributions of Sociological research Sociologists, as well as other social scientists, seek to identify reality through systematic, controlled empirical research -Qualitative : research based on non numeric info that describes social life -more in depth, interviews -Quantitative: research based not he collection of numerical data that utilizes precise statical analysis advantages Vocab: Theory: is a set of statements or propositions that seeks to explain or predict a particular aspect of social life. Hypothesis: is a researchable prediction that speciﬁes the relationship between two or more variables. Variable:any characterstic, attitude, behavior, or event that can take on two or more values or attributes Indicator: measurable event, characteristic, or behavior commonly thought to reﬂect a particular concept Sample: subgroup chosen for a study because its characteristics approximate those of the entire population Reactivity: a problem associated with certain forms of research in which the very act intruding into people’s lives may inﬂuence the phenomena Experiments -a search situation designed to elicit some sort of behavior under closely controlled laboratory circumstances -Advantages -the researcher can directly control all the relevant variables, thus can easily study casual relationships -Disadvantage --not a natural environment, subjects may behave differently Field Research: -direct observation of people in their natural settings -nonparticipant observation: researcher observes people without directly interacting with them or without them knowing they are being observed -participant observation: researcher directly interacts with the subjects. in some cases, the researcher openly identiﬁes herself or himself. Advantages -provides detailed and descriptive understandings of people’s everyday lives -generally inexpensive to conduct Disadvantages -time consuming -difﬁcult to replicate -difﬁcult to generalize to other groups -particularly susceptible to ethical issues Surveys data collected through questionnaires or interviews advantages large population can be studied random, representative sample results can be generalized disadvantages little in-depth information about people’s behavior or experiences questions need to be correctly worded Unobtrusive Research researcher does not have direct contact with subjects in order to avoid reactivity -used when the act of intruding into people’s living may inﬂuence study -adjusting the light in the a factory (Hawthorne effect) Analysis of existing data -relies on secondary data contact analysis -cultural shifts over time Historical analysis -relies on existing historical documents The trustworthiness of social research -In order to evaluate the results of social research, it is necessary to examine a researcher’s samples, the indicators used to measure important variables, and the researcher’s personal qualities - namely, values, interests, and ethics. Sample, represetative, indicators Sample- a smaller subgroups of respondents selected form a larger population Values, interest, and ethics in sociological research -Ideally, research is objective and nonbiased. However, sociologists are people and they do have biases and preconceptions. Values- can inﬂuence the questions that researchers ﬁnd important to address in the study Ethics - another important quality that impacts the trust worthiness of social research Milgrim Experiment Video -An experiment to see if a person would administer an electric shock to another person if their authority (the experimenter) told them to Differences in female responses should be notes during the video -females were more likely than males to give the shock -73% of women gave the highest shock possible -65% of men gave the highest shock possible -women seemed unemotional towards the comments of the person they were shocking -Women were more likely to just comply to the experimenters direction Discussion in the video: -Well aren’t we supposed to just do what we are told? -When asked why they kept shocking the person, some volunteers put blame on the learner (person getting shocked) because that person volunteered and knew what they were signing up for. Standford Experiment -jail simulation experiment -The guards wore sunglasses so the prisoners could not see their eye -this was described as loss of humanity -After just 2 days there was a rebellion in the prison -guards could treat the prisoners however they wanted -woke up them up in the night, made them clean toilets with their hands -one prisoner told others that no one could get out and even though they knew it was an experiment, they started going crazy because they believed they really could not leave. -inhumane experiment Bush video, address the nation on the issue of crack cocaine -lots of talk of putting more strict drug laws -mass incarceration (too many people in prison already, overcrowded) -not much said about treatment and rehabilitation, only talk of pouring a large amount of money into this domestic problem -He spoke as if we are all united and so we need to put 8 billion dollars into this -there was no imperial (statistical) evidence included (important) -showed a bag of cocaine to the camera Material Culture: Material culture includes all the human-made objects we can touch Non-material Culture: nonmaterial culture reverts to the thoughts, lnaguage, feelings, etc. -they are the invisible and intangible parts of culture. -they are very instrumental in determining how we think, feel and behave -involves society rules of behavior and how we interact with their environment Subcultures -Culture can also exist in smaller, more narrowly deﬁned units -These subcultures consist of the values, behaviors etc that distinguish it from other groups -ex: ethnic groups, such as Mexican americans Counterculture -refers to cultural patterns or groups with expectations nd values that contrast sharply with the dominant values of a particular society. -ex: hippies- during the 1960’s, rejected mainstream culture as too competitive, self- centered, and materialistic -ex: amish - drive horse-drawn buggies and don’t use electricity Cultural Change -Culture is always complex and always changing -Changing in one dimension of a cultural system usually sparks changes in others -Ex: communication over the years, technology has changed the way we communicate and this affects society, more digitally connected, less emotionally connected Discussion Question -you might be in a subculture -these subcultures might have some landmarks —tcu —bell tower -also you had to learn a lot of new nonmaterial information -Question: What are the norms, values, and material artifacts that distinguish members of subculture from those who do not belong to it? Four main elements of nonmaterial culture Values - are shared judgement about what is desirable or undesirable, right or wrong Beliefs - are more speciﬁc ideas that we hold about life Norms - rules of behavior shared by members of a society and rooted it in the value system -Norms can be classiﬁed into three categories - folkways, mores, and laws - based largely on how important norms are in the society -Folkways - are customs or desirable beahviors, but they are not strictly enforced, not criminal behavior. ex: scratching your genitals in public, good eating manners -violation of these can cause people to think you are weird but won’t translate to you being immoral or criminal -Mores - norms that most members observe because they have great moral signiﬁcance in society -matter of right and wrong, if violated the offender is treated very seriously -ex: being honest, not cheating on exams, and being faithful in a marriage -Laws: have been formally encoded by those holding political power in society ex: stealing, killing someone -violator: there is a legal punishment -Sanctions- reinforce normas through rewards and penalties Formal sanctions - are rewards or punishments conferred by recognized ofﬁcials to enforce the most important norms - ﬁnes for parking illegally, lowered grades on an assignment for plagiarism Informal Sanctions - are unofﬁcial rewards or punishments such as smiles, frowns, or ignoring the unacceptable behaviors Ex: a private word of praise by your professor (positive) -gossip by other students about your weird clothes (negative)
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