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Botany 105 Lecture Midterm 1 Study Guide

by: Kellie Ventura

Botany 105 Lecture Midterm 1 Study Guide 105

Marketplace > Humboldt State University > Botany > 105 > Botany 105 Lecture Midterm 1 Study Guide
Kellie Ventura

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This covers everything from day one up to 2/10/16. I think Friday's lecture will also be fair game for the midterm but I have to upload this four days in advance so I'm sorry about that! I'm runnin...
General Botany
Courtney Otto
Study Guide
botany 105
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kellie Ventura on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 105 at Humboldt State University taught by Courtney Otto in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see General Botany in Botany at Humboldt State University.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
1 Midterm Study Guide Botany 105 1. What are the 3 basic types of plastids and how can you tell them apart? What are their functions? Where did we find these cells in lab? 2. Define protoplasm and vacuole. Where is the vacuole located in the cell? 3. What is chromatin and where can it be found in the cell? What are nucleoli and what is their function? What is the difference between nucleoli and the nucleus? 4. What is the primary cell wall made out of? What is its function? Where is it located? 5. What is the secondary cell wall made out of? What is its function? Where is it located? 6. Define plasmodesmata and middle lamella? Are they inside or outside of the cell? How are they used for cellular communication? 7. Which plants are vascular? 8. Name the 3 main cell types of vascular plants. Are they alive or dead at maturity? What is their basic function? Which cells have secondary cell walls? Where can these cells be found? How can you tell these cells apart? 9. Define lumen, bordered pits, and simple pits. 10.What are the four types of sclerenchyma cells? Which have perforation plates? Which have simple pits or bordered pits? What is their primary function? Where can the cells be found? 11.Draw and label each kind of sclerenchyma cells (lumen, simple pits, secondary cell wall, bordered pits, perforation plate). 12.Where can the epidermis be found? Is it a simple or complex tissue? What cell type(s) are present? What are 2 specialized epidermal cells and what are their function? 13.Define stoma (pl. stomata) and where it can be found on a plant. 14.What is the function of the xylem? Is it a complex or simple tissue? What cell type(s) can be found in it (be as specific as possible)? 15.What is the function of the phloem? How is it different from the xylem? Is it a complex or simple tissue? What cell types can be found in it (be as specific as possible)? 1 Midterm Study Guide 16.Draw and label sieve-tube elements (sieve plate, cytoplasm, slime-plug). Where can they be found in the plant? What cell type are they? Do they have a nucleus? 17.Define p-protein/slime plug and companion cells. 18.What are the two main phases in the lifecycle of the cell? Which is the cell in most? 19.What are the results of mitosis and cytokinesis? What do they each divide? 20.Draw and label a duplicated chromosome (sister chromatids, centromere, kinetochore). 21.What are the four major phases of mitosis? (Hint: PMAT) 22.Draw each phase. Pay attention to the nuclear envelope and the placement of the duplicated chromosomes. 23.In which phase are the chromatids separated? When does the cell plate begin to form? When does the chromatin condense into duplicated chromosomes? When do the chromosomes line up in the middle? 24.What do spindle fibers do? 25.Does primary growth lengthen or widen a plant? What about secondary growth? Which plants go through secondary growth? 26. Where can the Root Apical Meristem (RAM) be found? What is its function? The RAM divides in 2 directions: interior and exterior. What do the exterior cells become? What about the interior? 27.Name the 3 primary meristems. What do they turn into? 28.From which primary meristem does the epidermis originate? Vascular tissue? Ground tissue? 29.What are the 3 regions of the root? How can you tell them apart? 30.Define cortex and root hair. 31.Draw and label a primary tissue root cross-section (cortex, vascular cylinder, primary xylem, primary phloem, endodermis, pericycle, epidermis). 32.Where is the casparian strip located? What is it made out of? 33.What is the difference between vascular cambium and cork cambium? 1 Midterm Study Guide 34.What is the difference between pericycle and periderm? 35.Draw and label a secondary tissue root cross-section (vascular cambium, pericycle, periderm, phelloderm, epidermis, cortex, endodermis, primary xylem, primary phloem, secondary xylem, secondary phloem). 36.Does the phloem or xylem have fiber bundles? 37.What’s the difference between taproots and fibrous roots? Which is more likely to double as storage? 38.Are adventitious roots always prop roots? Are prop roots always adventitious? 39.What characterizes pneumatophore roots? 40. What is a shoot? What does it do? What are its components? 41.Draw and label a generic shoot (stem, leaves, nodes, internode, axillary bud). 42.Define alternate, opposite, and whorled leaf arrangements. Which is most common? Which is least common? 43.Define leaf scar and vascular bundle scar. Where can you find vascular bundle scars? 44.Define lenticel. 45.What is a terminal bud? Where is it found? What does it do? What kind of meristem is it made of? 46.How can you age a branch? 47.Draw and label a branch (terminal bud, terminal bud scales, terminal bud scale scars, leaf scar, vascular bundle scars, axillary buds, lenticel). 48.What is the difference between axillary bud primordia and leaf primordia? 49.Define exogenous. 50.Which tissue can be expected to mature first? Why? 51.What differentiates eudicot and monocot? Which have bundle sheaths? Which have open vascular bundles and which have closed? 52.What is the difference between open and closed vascular bundles? 53.Draw a eudicot stem cross-section (cortex, pith rays, pith, vascular bundles, residual procambium, epidermis, primary phloem, primary xylem). 1 Midterm Study Guide 54.Create a flow chart between the Shoot Apical Meristem (SAM), primary meristems, primary tissues, secondary meristems, and secondary tissues. Include: phelloderm, cortex, pith, epidermis, pith ray, secondary phloem, primary phloem, secondary xylem, primary xylem, cork cambium, ground meristem, procambium, protoderm, ground meristem, vascular cambium. 55.What is the difference between fascicular cambium and inter-fascicular cambium? What structure do they make up? 56.What happens to the cortex and epidermis as a plant goes through secondary growth? What takes its place? 57.What kind of tissue forms the wood (with growth rings) in trees? What are the light bands called? What about the dark bands? 58.What is the difference between heartwood and sapwood? What are their functions? 59.What makes up the bark of trees? What part is alive and what is dead? What are the functions of bark? 60.How can you visually tell the difference between hardwood and softwood? What cells are present? What trees are hardwoods and which are softwoods? 61.How can you visually tell the difference between the phelloderm and the cortex? 62.What are some advantages to shedding bark annually? 63.What makes cork unique from other cell types? 64.What prompts the formation of a new periderm? What is responsible for making the new periderm? 65.Define girdling. If a tree is girdled, can it survive? 66.What is responsible for regenerating secondary phloem? What is a synonym for secondary phloem? (Hint: it’s a part of the bark)


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