AHI 1B Midterm 2 Study Guide
AHI 1B Midterm 2 Study Guide AHI 1B
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Dillard on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AHI 1B at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Ch'ien in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Medieval and Renaissance Art in Art History at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
AHI 1B Midterm 2 Study Guide (Remember, the course is cumulative, so you will still need to study the images from the first midterm study guide as well.) The Hildesheim Doors, Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany, 1015 left side of the doors recounts the book of • Genesis and the right side recounts the life of Christ • made out of a single sheet of bronze • the scenes on the left correspond to the scenes directly across from them on the right Presentation of Eve toAdam, Hildesheim Doors (above) • Adam and Eve reach out to each other the leaning out from the door helps people see • the figures from below • God is much larger and in higher relief Fall ofAdam and Eve, Hildesheim Doors (above) • Adam and Eve were caught eating the fruit • They cover their nakedness • God points toAdam, who points to Eve, who points to the serpent Expulsion from the Garden of Eden, Hildesheim Doors (above) • the natural world around them reflects the scene’s mood • Adam and Eve are exiting the gates of Eden The Temptation, Hildesheim Doors (above) • the trees are twisted and the world is beginning to rupture • Adam and Eve are being separated • the ground line is uneven The Crucifixion, Hildesheim Doors (above) • Christ is on the cross paying for the sins of others • St. Mary and St. John are both present and are physically off balance • the figures are all separate from each other and the ground is uneven—showing the earthquake Otto I presenting Magdeburg Cathedral to Christ, from an altar or pulpit in Magdeburg Cathedral, 962-968 • Otto is depicted very small, which is unusual because he is a ruler—he shows humility in the presence of Christ • made of ivory Saint-Étienne, Vignory, France, 1050-1057 • architecturally clear and coherent • there are radiating chapels on the end of the apse to hold more altars • ambulatory allows people to go around the places that are reserved for priests Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, 1070-1120 • pilgrimage church—they have a lot of people visiting • extra long nave so getting to the end is more exciting double isles, lots of radiating chapels • • the isles have groin vaulting Christ in Majesty, Bernardus Gelduninus, relief in the ambulatory of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, 1096 • Christ is in a mandorla (named after an almond) halo • Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John are in the four corners • statue remains flat and planar but there are many different forms and plains Madonna and Child (Morgan Madonna), 2nd half of the 12th century • Madonna as the throne of wisdom • she is supportive and encloses Christ in her arms, she becomes the throne • Christ’s arm was probably raised giving a blessing Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy, Conques, France, 11th century • looks like a fairytale • has radiating chapels • long nave crossed by a transept • houses reliquary Reliquary Statue Sainte-Foy, late 10th to early 11th century with later additions • made of gold, silver, gilt, and jewels over a wooden core • Sainte-Foy was a greedy saint—she demanded that people gave her all of their jewels • wears a Roman helmet ThirdAbbey church (Cluny III), 1088-1130 • The abbey was only under the supervision of the Pope because the man that donated the land relinquished his rights to profit • so they made more art South Portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, 1115-1135 • depicts the second coming of Christ • he is surrounded by the 4 evangelics • 24 crowned historical kings are shown • last judgement scene—clearly religious message so people entering are reminded of judgment day Cloister at Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, 1100-1115 • the trumeau has intertwined birds and columns have nonreligious subjects • each capital is different Notre Dame, Fontenay, 1139-1147 • monochromatic stone • plain altar, no gold • all light comes from the apse • beauty comes from elegance of stonework Bayeux Tapestry, 1070-1080 • 230 ft long, 20 in wide, 8 different colors of wool • used as a ceremonial item on feast days (draws attention) but not a religious narrative • political document that shows how William of Normandy became William the conqueror The Flaming Star at Harold’s Coronation, Bayeux Tapestry (above) • stars were a sign of ominous disaster • Harold is off balance on his thrown • William’s boats are shown along the bottom Harold Sailing the Sea, Bayeux Tapestry (above) • their feet are shown through the water and the wavy lines show the water depth • figures descend into the water to get in boats Durham Cathedral, Durham, England, begun 1093 • fortified complex: castle, monastery, cathedral —no separation of church and state • looks like a military base—thick walls, small windows, symmetrical towers • interior has: fluted columns, chevron patters, long nave, clear architecture Ely Cathedral, began 1083 • tall with second story windows that are 2 stories tall, “love of towers, building of peace” • string course goes over the engaged columns unlike Saint-Sernin Sainte-Étienne, Caen, France, begun 1067 • very plain facade • resembles castle fortress—has small windows • towers match—shows they were moving very quickly through construction and had the money at the time to make both • 3 part elevation and exceptionally wide arches —gives sense of expansion • ribbed vaulting that goes across 2 bays— ribbed vaults are like groin vaults but pointier and more elevated in the center—allows for lighter, less expensive material Cathedral complex in Pisa, Italy, Cathedral 1063, Baptistery 1153, Campanile 1174, Campo Santo 1278 • complex contains: cathedral, campanile, baptistry—and all of the buildings are architecturally related (white marble and blind arcades) Cathedral (from above) • long nave, double isles, transept has its own isles and mini apses on the side, main apse on the eastern end • facade is 5 stories high, covered in plasters, blind arcades, engaged columns • the sun creates shadows behind the columns that move throughout the day • has a delicate feel Baptistry (from above) • building dedicated to baptism • central plan (like Santa Costanza) • no altar in the center—baptism spot instead Campanile • “Leaning Tower of Pisa” • the leaning occurred during the process of building it • has open arcades Campo Santo • rectangular structure with a grass courtyard • less decorated • less projected toward the outside world— internally oriented place to think about the dead • graves are not in the grass—but instead are along the sides of the walkway • layout encourages meandering because there is no “event” at the end Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence, Italy, begun 1059 dedicated to St. John the baptist (city’s patron • saint) • striped green and white stone—looks Tuscan but the Florentines thought it looked ancient Roman Saint-Denis, Saint-Denis (near Paris), France, 1140-1144 • the façade has 3 sculpted portals • the apse has an ambulatory around it with a “circular string of chapels” • rib vaulting allows the walls to be thinner and they can take out most of the wall and replace it with stained glass • the windows reflected colored light all around —Abbot Suger called this “lux nova” Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, 1145-1155 • 118 ft tall—flying buttresses allowed this • important pilgrimage site—had Virgin Mary tunic relic that was donated from royalty—it even survived the fire (“Virgin allowed the fire to happen”) • focal point for town life • enormous tax burdens for the people in order to build it Notre Dame de la Bella Verrière, window, before 1194, Chartres Cathedral (above) • uses light to create a spiritual world • 16x7x8 ft • Virgin and Child enthroned with angels framing them in a blue background Our Lady of the Pillar (Black Madonna of Chartres) 1508 replacing a 13 c. silver statue, destroyed in the French revolution, replica sculpted in 1856, whitened in a 2013 restoration • wood comes from France • dark skinned Madonna that was restored to be white • Question to ponder: should old art be restored or left alone? Virgine of Jeanne d’Evreux, abbey church of Saint-Denis, France 1339 • she stands with a swaying S curve • donated from the French Monarchy • made of silver gilt and enamel Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, France, 1243-1248 • so much stained glass that it is like there are no walls at all • light comes in from all sides, there is candlelight inside also—“swimming pool of light” • space is eliminated • 49 ft tall • built to hold a relic—the crown of thorns (crown that Christ wore when he was crucified) Madonna and Child Enthroned, Cimabue, 1280-1290 • set on an altar • gave people something to meditate on during the sermon that was being told in a language they didn't know • 12 ft tall Madonna and Child Enthroned, Giotto, 1310 • set on an altar (same purpose as above) • Virgin is enthroned but we don’t look up to her —we can see the top of her legs where Christ sits • the angels take the place of perspective because they are below her and are looking up • Virgin seems larger because of her relationship to her throne • the angels’halos cover parts of each other’s faces Palazzo Vecchio, 1299-1310 • town hall—city government in a city that has constant political strife • heavily invested in military appearance • rusticated stones—to look sturdy • crenellations are mean for business, tower is meant for watch • fortified lower story Palazzo Ducale, begun 1340-1345 • incredibly lavash palace—about refinement • crenellation is like lace because their government is stable—Venice is the longest recorded republic • first 2 stories are completely open Ambrogio Lorenzetti Sala della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Sienna, Italy, 1338-1339 • room has no center focal point • responsible for ordering and reforming the city • has images of good and bad rule Allegory of Good Government, Palazzo Pubblico (above) • large, enthroned figure in white personifies good government • virtues (peace, justice, fortitude, prudence, magnanimity) surround the figure Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country, Palazzo Pubblico (above) • people are dancing, there is trade and people selling things, there is a school • business goes well Allegory of Bad Government, Palazzo Pubblico (above) • tyranny (with horns) sits on the throne • he is surrounded by vices, cruelty, fraud, frenzy, divisiveness, war, greed, and injustice • justice is shown below tied up Effects of Bad Government in the City and in the Country, Palazzo Pubblico (above) • traveler has been robbed, a woman is being grabbed • buildings are crumbling Duccio di Boninsegna, Maestà, Siena Cathedral, 1308-1311 • 7 ft tall x 13 ft wide—large to show gratitude for the Virgin Mary • was carried in procession from the countryside into the city to be installed in the Cathedral— treated as if it were already a holy image • numerous Saints and angels surround the Virgin and Child Christ’s Entry into Jerusalem, Sienna Cathedral (above) • Christ enters from the left on a donkey and walks up the curved walkway to Jerusalem • background is unmitigated flatness with gold Giotto, paintings in the Scrovegni Chapel (Arena Chapel), 1305 • building exterior is very plain, but the entire inside is painted (fresco) • the vault is blue with gold stars each scene is sprayed by painted borders—the • bottom register looks like marble but is paint • (bottom left): Jonah and the Whale • (bottom right): Creation ofAdam Lamentation,Arena Chapel (above) • over the top in it’s sadness, overwhelming grief • dead tree—metaphor: tree of life is dead • the angels are in extreme, visible mourning also • everyone displays their own personal reaction to Christ’s death Betrayal of Christ,Arena Chapel (above) • moment of betrayal—Judas told the Roman soldiers that he will identify Christ with a kiss • both Christ and Judas are unflinching despite the chaos around them • the sky is painted with a very expensive stone that is crushed up—reads as a luxury expense Andrea Pisano, south doors of the Baptistery of San Giovanni, 1330-1336 • lower 8 panels are virtues and vices • above are scenes from the life of St. John the Baptist Sacrifice of Isaac, Filippo Brunelleschi, 1401-1402 • thin body that is twisted, vulnerable, and looking up at his father • swing of drapery is shown in clothing • the angel has to physically stop the killing Sacrifice of Isaac, Lorenzo Ghiberti • Isaac looks strong enough to fight back • angel doesn't need to physically stop the killing • occurs in 1 plane • swing of drapery is shown in clothing Ghiberti, North Doors, Florence, Baptistry, 1403-1424 • life of Christ in 20 panels and there are kings below Baptism of Christ, North Doors, Florence Baptistry (above) • the clothes have a huge swing of motion • St. John’s figure is curved • St. John the Baptist baptizes Christ in the River Jordan • the dove above represent the holy spirit • water is the same texture as the banks— requires faith in the viewer to know that it is the river Last Supper, North Doors, Florence, Baptistry (above) • the people are all squeezed on the bench • 12 people at the table, but the table cannot be seen—it is just assumed to be there • Christ looks like the rest of the people Duccio di Boninsegna, Maestà, 1308-1311 • Last Supper • table is tilted up, so everything is visible • very focused on visual clarity • all faces can be seen, and only the disciples on the far side of the table have halos because it would disrupt the visual clarity if the ones on the near side did also Ghiberti, St. John the Baptist Orsanmichele, 1412-1416 • swinging drapery • figure’s stance has a gentle sway • figure is meant to be seen from below, and Ghiberti considered that while creating it Donatello, Saint Mark Orsanmihele, 1411-1413 • changed the way the body was handled in art on the Italian Peninsula • drapery responds to the body-bunches at the waist where it is tied, hangs loosely where the leg is straight, and protrudes at the knee • he stands in contrapposto pose Donatello, David, 1440-1460 • stood in a courtyard of a Medici palace • free-standing nude, erotic sculpture, young, clearly adolescent • the decapitated giant’s head is under his foot, but David looks unconcerned • Florence likes to identify with David because he was the underdog Verrocchio, David, 1465-1470 • contrapposto pose • more muscular than Donatello’s version • was sold to the Florentine government to be placed in the Palazzo Vecchio Michelangelo, David, 1501-1504 • 17 ft tall, meant to go on cathedral roofline but was put in the town hall instead • doesn't have any attributes that would identify him as David except that he hold a rock in his and carries a sling on his shoulder • the Giant’s head isn't there and David still holds the rock—he hasn't won yet
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