HLED 3203 Consumer Health Programs - Exam 1
HLED 3203 Consumer Health Programs - Exam 1 HLED 3203
Arkansas Tech University
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HLED 3203 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Kirkpatrick in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Consumer Health Programs in Nursing and Health Sciences at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Exam 1: Study Guide Chapter 2: Questions to study: 1. What is the scientific method and how does it evaluate information? List and discuss the three characteristics of the scientific method. The scientific method is used to determine facts and determines the validity of already known fact. The first characteristic of the scientific method is that it is selfcorrecting method; it is used to produce conclusions that subsequent studies may modify. This is what makes science cumulative. The second is that it requires objectivity. The finding must not be changed by a researchers beliefs, bias, or emotions. The scientific method results often lead to new questions that should be explored. The third characteristic is that experiments must be reproducible. This is to validate or discredit previous results. 2. Discuss the four types of studies used by medical scientists to investigate health and disease. Why are anecdotal reports not used as supporting evidence my medical researchers? What are “blind” and “doubleblind” studies? The four types of studies medical scientists use to investigate health and disease are case studies, laboratory experiments, epidemiologic studies, and controlled clinical trials. Case studies involve systematic observation of people who are ill. Laboratory experiments include studies of animals, living tissue, cells, and diseasecausing agents. Epidemiologic studies analyze data from various population groups to identify factors related to occurrence of diseases. Controlled clinical trials offer the most credible evidence. Anecdotal reports are personal observations that have not been made under strict experimental conditions. They can be used to suggest a hypothesis, but never as supporting evidence. Blind studies, the participants do not know which treatment they receive. In a double blind study, the people administering the study, as well as the participants don’t know what treatment is being giving to each participant. 3. What is peer review and how does it operate? What are the two most prestigious American medical journals? Peer review is a process in which work is reviewed by others who usually have equivalent or superior knowledge. It may be used during the development or execution of a study, as well as afterward. When studies are completed, researchers strive to publish their results in journals so that others can use or criticize the findings and science can advance. The two most prestigious American medical journals are: JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) and The New England Journal of Medicine. 4. Where do consumers obtain health information in our society? What is it difficult to determine the reliability of sources of information? What characteristics does an establishment scientist possess? Does scientific training guarantee reliability? Consumers often obtain health information through many different sources, such as: advertisements, newspapers, magazines, books, television, and the internet. While there are many different resources people can use to obtain health information, it can be difficult to determine how reliable these resources are. This can be difficult due to research data conflicting between experts, inaccurate health information may be spread in order to make a profit, or it could even be as simple as people wanting to believe something is accurate. For a scientist to be considered a reliable source, they need to have proper credentials and knowledge within the specific area they are being relied upon for knowledge. However, to say that everyone who has scientific training is a reliable source would be misleading. There have been many cases in which seemingly reputable sources have endorsed products or treatments that accurate or useful. 5. What are the four main functions of the media? What problems are often evident when the media attempt to present health information? The main four functions of the media are to entertain, to inform, to carry advertisements, and to make money for their stockholders. When the media attempt to present health information, problems are often evident: coverage of a subject is inadequate because of the limited time; selection or screening of speakers or subject areas is poor; pseudoscientific claims often are presented without rebuttal from qualified experts; attempts are made to sensationalize and overdramatize preliminary or new findings, especially about cancer, heart disease, arthritis, or alleged environmental dangers; and attempts are made to attract large audiences with claims that “alternative” methods are effective. 6. Discuss topic selection in tabloid and women’s magazines. What do advertisers do to mislead consumers about health products. Tabloid and women’s magazines print articles on “quickie” reducing diets and super foods. Methods that advertisers use to mislead consumers include overemphasizing benefits, minimizing possible harms, and neglecting to adequately discuss costs. The text states that consumers should be wary of reports indicating studies were completed using small numbers of subjects. Done in foreign countries (evidence of accuracy is difficult to ascertain), or based on animal studies alone. Also, preliminary findings can be important but they do not become established as facts unless additional studies support them. Chapter 3: Questions to study: 1. Define quackery and health fraud. How is most quackery promoted? Explain the relationship between quackery and malpractice. Quack is a person who talks pretentiously without sound knowledge of the subject discussed. The definition of a health fraud is the promotion, for profit, of a medical remedy known to be false or unproven. Most quackery is promoted by way of unwitting victims. People that have used/seen a product that they believe work will share their personal experiences and other misinformation to others without realizing what they are doing or if it has even been proven. Malpractice and quackery are similar, but different as well. They differ by the fact that malpractice has to do with negligence when practicing methods of care. The book uses the example of someone performing surgery and leaving a surgical instrument in a patient’s abdomen or even operating on the wrong part of the body. Whereas quackery is more commonly defined as “anything involving overpromotion in the field of health.” 2. How much money is spent annually on ineffective and unsafe products and services? How many persons in the U.S. use a quack product each year? Why do people turn to questionable methods for solution to their health problems? Billions are wasted annually. Examples are “alternative” treatments, fad diets, spurious food remedies, and unnecessary vitamins and minerals. There’s no reliable number though. It just says many people turn to these methods. Some reasons why are, individuals underestimate the degree of illness, patients distrust physicians or question the quality of their methods, and many people are very gullible to certain things. 3. Which groups of people tend to be vulnerable to health frauds and quackery? What are spontaneous remission and the placebo effect? The terminally ill, the elderly, and various cultural minorities are especially vulnerable to health frauds and quackery. Spontaneous remission is recovery from illness without treatment. The placebo effect is favorable treatment response that does not result from pharmacologic effect of other direct physical action. 4. Discuss four common misconceptions about quackery discussed in the text. There are many common misconceptions about quackery. Although quackery is not a good thing, it is not necessarily what most people believe it to be. Most quacks are not frauds or crooks like many believe, they honestly believe in the information they are spreading. People also tend to believe that quackery is dangerous, which isn’t completely true. The most likely danger of quackery to people, is to their bank account. Another common misconception is that the media can’t be trusted. While many things about the media can be considered reliable, there are often many promoters of questionable products as long as there is money to be made. Finally, most people tend to believe that experience is the best way to determine if something is reliable, especially when treating illness. There are many “cure all” products out there, and many people believe they work but even incurable illnesses can vary from day to day. It can be easy to credit a product for helping after feeling better the day after taking it. 5. Discuss the three classifications of Quacks. What are testimonials and why are they so powerful? Dumb Quacks People who know not, and don’t know that they know not. They are uneducated, ignorant people who believe they have a secret formula or cureall that no one else possess; usually a smalltime operators. Deluded Quacks People who know but have been misled into knowing not. Their beliefs are based on faulty observations and equally faulty reasoning. (may command large audiences—can be dangerous). Dishonest QuacksPeople know not, and know they know not. Primary Goal is money. They have no scruples. A Testimonial is a claim by the user that a treatment method has been effective. Testimonials are powerful because they build trust. They also standout because there is a voice and not just some piece of paper that says it works. They are usually a credible source and someone that the audience can relate too.
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