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AU / History / HIST 1020 / What were the weaknesses of the mughal empire?

What were the weaknesses of the mughal empire?

What were the weaknesses of the mughal empire?


School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History II
Professor: Michael smith
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: world history ii, Imperialism in Asia, India, China, Opium Trade, Spheres of Influence, and nationalism
Cost: 25
Name: notes29211.pdf
Description: These are the notes from class Tuesday and Thursday 2.9.16 and 2.11.16!
Uploaded: 02/12/2016
5 Pages 146 Views 2 Unlocks

Alex Phillips

What were the weaknesses of the mughal empire?



2.9.16 – 2.11.16


- Imperialism: one group dominating another

- 2 kinds of imperialism  

o 1. Formal: colonization by military force

o 2. Informal (business): dominating economy  

 in charge of its economy

 spheres of influence

- imperialism was a result of the Industrial Revolution  


- British East India Company

o Began 1600

o Coast of India was an ideal place to set up trade ports

o Taking advantage of weakness of Mughal Empire and conquering  lands

Which flowers are used as natural dyes for cotton industry?

o Eventually take control -> India becomes formal colony  - British India (new name for Mughal Empire)  

- De-industrialization of India  

o British put clothing manufacturers in India out of business and  made them focus on growing cotton and using Indigo to color  that cotton


- China made the best stuff, so they didn’t want/need British stuff; China just wanted their money (specifically silver)  

- Canton System - Illegal to trade in other cities in China other than  Canton  

- Within Canton there were only 13 places trade was allowed o Could only trade with Hong merchants  

o Only trade silver (not stuff)  

Why was china not interested in importing anything else?

- British setting up permanent posts in Canton so they began to  understand the language and culture better We also discuss several other topics like Where did romulus set up a sanctuary for criminals?

o Effect: British found something the Chinese would buy

- British bough tea from China

o British population growth meant more tea = needed more $ o Silver shortage: British had to find something they could trade  with besides silver; Answer= Opium  

 The poppies that made opium came from India (Britain’s  other colony)


- Chinese used it recreationally  

- It was outlawed b/c it caused illegal trade and fighting o Messing up Canton system

o Opium trade was illegal: British smuggle opium into China b/c  they still need tea

- Opium stored in East India storehouses  

- Smuggled into Hong Kong  

- India is not getting anything out of this  

- 12 million people addicted -> becomes governmental issue  o solutions: 1. dumping it in the sea (poisoned it first so people  wouldn’t try to get it out); 2. Burned it (but people still got high  from that); 3. Cut off trade completely with Britain; 4. Arrested  anyone caught with it  We also discuss several other topics like What are the major features of representative democracy?


- First Opium War 1839-1842

- Fought mostly on water b/c war was about trade not conquering land - Britain attacked cities on coast of China  

- British steam powered ships (a product of the Industrial Revolution)  were far superior to Chinese ships

- Treaty of Nanjing (unequal treaty)  

o China has to give $ for damage of Brit. Ships/property

o China has to trade w/ British  

o Honk Kong was controlled by Britain  

o Extraterritoriality: do not have to obey (Chinese) laws in 5 port  cities of China (areas of influence)

o Canton System is gone  


- others also sign treaties with China (unequal)  If you want to learn more check out What are the additional growth factors?

- definition: trade controlled by foreign nations

- France, Britain, Germany, Japan, Russia

o U.S. wanted an open door policy to trade

- China not formally colonized but not completely free  


- Europe catches up and surpasses Middle East b/c of the Industrial  Revolution

- Separation of nations that were industrialized and those that were not o Colonizer vs. colonized

o Industrial revolution and imperialism meet


- connections b/w imperialism and nationalism  

- what is a nation?

o Features of a nation: shared language, religion, history, and  traditions


- At this point, few British people living in India  

o Mainly military people  

o At the beginning, queen Victoria lets them be in India for the  most part

- British Raj: If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of metabolism in the cell?

o Didn’t allow India to trade w/ anyone other than Brit.

o Caused unrest: British started to need to “police” India

o Hired Indian people to be soldiers (instead of bringing in own  British people)  

o Called Sepoys; trained in military tactics by British  

- Turmoil Grows

o Indian people tired of racism, and Brits trying to convert them  


- Enfield Rifle presented to Sepoys  

- Rumor that cartridge was lubricated with pig and cow fat; since they  were mostly Hindu and Muslim, this was against their religion, because  they had to put the cartridge in their mouths  

- Sepoys got angry b/c they thoughts it was a step to get them to  convert to Christianity and leave their religion  


- Sepoy soldiers wouldn’t shoot the guns or use them  

- Stole guns from armory and Sepoys start shooting at British with  Muskets (not accurate or fatal usually)  

- British have better, more powerful guns so rebellion didn’t last long


Rebellion: How  the Sepoys view

Mutiny: How the British view it

If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of utility in economics?

- British bring in more troops b/c they taught the Sepoys how to fight  and use weapons

- Important b/c it brought a feeling of nationalism as Indians b/c they  were against a common enemy


- what the British allowed them to have so they would be less likely to  continue rebelling  

- only wealthy / elite Indians who owned land not owned by British  


- created to protect the rights of Muslims

- Muhammad Ali Jinnah: Leader  

- Decided they needed to get British out  


- Indian National Congress leader  

- Encouraged non-violence

- Brit weak during this time b/c WWI  

- Seeds of nationalism  


- angry b/c spheres on influence

- series of rebellions after 1st Opium War  


- Hong Xiuquan: has dream that God tells him he is his adopted son and  tells him to overthrow the Qing Dynasty

- Millions of Chinese follow him b/c they are tired of Qing and foreigners  - Start taking over cities so Qing call for help from the Europeans who  live there Don't forget about the age old question of What is the power of the situation?

o Europeans willing to help b/c if the followers overthrow the Qing,  they will kick them out next  

- Europeans have superior technology so Qing and them then: about 30  million deaths (or more)  

- EFFECT: Qing weakened and there is an even worse hatred for  foreigners in China


- Support Qing b/c they want to get rid of foreigners and everything  foreign  

- Mostly peasants: skilled in martial arts

- Righteous and Harmonious Fists – official name of the group - Attached everything the Europeans made (industrialized things)  - Qing support them b/c they are weak and the boxers basically are  

doing what the Qing couldn’t b/c of their weakened status  - 8 nations try to keep the rebellion from continuing  

o France, Japan, England, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, and U.S.  o Invaded Beijing

o Decided they needed to occupy China to stop the rebellions  - Boxers had to sign Boxer protocol (Unequal treaty)

o China pays $, 8 nations take Beijing, spheres of influence grow - EFFECT: people angry at Qing for letting it happen  

- China becomes weaker and poorer b/c $ paid for wars

- People upset b/c hungry and poor (Civil wars break out because of this) - New groups form to stop humiliation of China, Qing, and foreigners


- Wuchang uprising overthrew Qing Dynasty

o No more Dynasties

- China (now Republic of China) ruled by 1st president Sun YatSen  o Promised people 1. Nationalism 2. Democracy 3. People’s  livlihood

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