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AU / History / HIST 1020 / What were the weaknesses of the mughal empire?

What were the weaknesses of the mughal empire?

What were the weaknesses of the mughal empire?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History II
Professor: Michael smith
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: world history ii, Imperialism in Asia, India, China, Opium Trade, Spheres of Influence, and nationalism
Cost: 25
Name: notes29211.pdf
Description: These are the notes from class Tuesday and Thursday 2.9.16 and 2.11.16!
Uploaded: 02/12/2016
5 Pages 42 Views 2 Unlocks
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Alex Phillips


What were the weaknesses of the mughal empire?



HISTORY NOTES: HIST 1020  

Casteel

2.9.16 – 2.11.16

IMPERIALISM IN ASIA 

- Imperialism: one group dominating another

- 2 kinds of imperialism  

o 1. Formal: colonization by military force

o 2. Informal (business): dominating economy  

 in charge of its economy

 spheres of influence

- imperialism was a result of the Industrial Revolution  

INDIA – FORMAL IMPERIALISM 

- British East India Company

o Began 1600

o Coast of India was an ideal place to set up trade ports

o Taking advantage of weakness of Mughal Empire and conquering  lands


Which flowers are used as natural dyes for cotton industry?



o Eventually take control -> India becomes formal colony  - British India (new name for Mughal Empire)  

- De-industrialization of India  Don't forget about the age old question of Who are romulus and remus?

o British put clothing manufacturers in India out of business and  made them focus on growing cotton and using Indigo to color  that cotton

CHINA – INFORMAL IMPERIALISM  

- China made the best stuff, so they didn’t want/need British stuff; China just wanted their money (specifically silver)  

- Canton System - Illegal to trade in other cities in China other than  Canton  

- Within Canton there were only 13 places trade was allowed o Could only trade with Hong merchants  

o Only trade silver (not stuff)  


Why was china not interested in importing anything else?



- British setting up permanent posts in Canton so they began to  understand the language and culture better We also discuss several other topics like How does changing american population and other social trends affect the future of our nation?

o Effect: British found something the Chinese would buy

- British bough tea from China

o British population growth meant more tea = needed more $ o Silver shortage: British had to find something they could trade  with besides silver; Answer= Opium  

 The poppies that made opium came from India (Britain’s  other colony)

THE OPIUM TRADE

- Chinese used it recreationally  

- It was outlawed b/c it caused illegal trade and fighting o Messing up Canton system

o Opium trade was illegal: British smuggle opium into China b/c  they still need tea Don't forget about the age old question of Where country wwii impoverished citizens, reduced the population, destroyed capital?

- Opium stored in East India storehouses  

- Smuggled into Hong Kong  

- India is not getting anything out of this  

- 12 million people addicted -> becomes governmental issue  o solutions: 1. dumping it in the sea (poisoned it first so people  wouldn’t try to get it out); 2. Burned it (but people still got high  from that); 3. Cut off trade completely with Britain; 4. Arrested  anyone caught with it  

OPIUM WARS (2)  

- First Opium War 1839-1842

- Fought mostly on water b/c war was about trade not conquering land - Britain attacked cities on coast of China  

- British steam powered ships (a product of the Industrial Revolution)  were far superior to Chinese ships

- Treaty of Nanjing (unequal treaty)  

o China has to give $ for damage of Brit. Ships/property

o China has to trade w/ British  

o Honk Kong was controlled by Britain  

o Extraterritoriality: do not have to obey (Chinese) laws in 5 port  cities of China (areas of influence)

o Canton System is gone  

SPHERE OF INFLUENCE  

- others also sign treaties with China (unequal)  

- definition: trade controlled by foreign nations

- France, Britain, Germany, Japan, Russia Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of metabolism in the cell?

o U.S. wanted an open door policy to trade Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of opportunity cost in economics?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the power of the situation?

- China not formally colonized but not completely free  

GREAT DIVERGENCE 

- Europe catches up and surpasses Middle East b/c of the Industrial  Revolution

- Separation of nations that were industrialized and those that were not o Colonizer vs. colonized

o Industrial revolution and imperialism meet

THE EMPIRE STRIKES BACK  

- connections b/w imperialism and nationalism  

- what is a nation?

o Features of a nation: shared language, religion, history, and  traditions

INDIA 

- At this point, few British people living in India  

o Mainly military people  

o At the beginning, queen Victoria lets them be in India for the  most part

- British Raj:

o Didn’t allow India to trade w/ anyone other than Brit.

o Caused unrest: British started to need to “police” India

o Hired Indian people to be soldiers (instead of bringing in own  British people)  

o Called Sepoys; trained in military tactics by British  

- Turmoil Grows

o Indian people tired of racism, and Brits trying to convert them  

NEW TECHNOLOGY 

- Enfield Rifle presented to Sepoys  

- Rumor that cartridge was lubricated with pig and cow fat; since they  were mostly Hindu and Muslim, this was against their religion, because  they had to put the cartridge in their mouths  

- Sepoys got angry b/c they thoughts it was a step to get them to  convert to Christianity and leave their religion  

REVOLT AND REBELLIONS 

- Sepoy soldiers wouldn’t shoot the guns or use them  

- Stole guns from armory and Sepoys start shooting at British with  Muskets (not accurate or fatal usually)  

- British have better, more powerful guns so rebellion didn’t last long

-

Rebellion: How  the Sepoys view

Mutiny: How the British view it

- British bring in more troops b/c they taught the Sepoys how to fight  and use weapons

- Important b/c it brought a feeling of nationalism as Indians b/c they  were against a common enemy

INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS 

- what the British allowed them to have so they would be less likely to  continue rebelling  

- only wealthy / elite Indians who owned land not owned by British  

MUSLIM LEAGUE 

- created to protect the rights of Muslims

- Muhammad Ali Jinnah: Leader  

- Decided they needed to get British out  

GHANDI 

- Indian National Congress leader  

- Encouraged non-violence

- Brit weak during this time b/c WWI  

- Seeds of nationalism  

CHINA 

- angry b/c spheres on influence

- series of rebellions after 1st Opium War  

TAIPING REBELLION 

- Hong Xiuquan: has dream that God tells him he is his adopted son and  tells him to overthrow the Qing Dynasty

- Millions of Chinese follow him b/c they are tired of Qing and foreigners  - Start taking over cities so Qing call for help from the Europeans who  live there

o Europeans willing to help b/c if the followers overthrow the Qing,  they will kick them out next  

- Europeans have superior technology so Qing and them then: about 30  million deaths (or more)  

- EFFECT: Qing weakened and there is an even worse hatred for  foreigners in China

THE BOXER UPRISING 

- Support Qing b/c they want to get rid of foreigners and everything  foreign  

- Mostly peasants: skilled in martial arts

- Righteous and Harmonious Fists – official name of the group - Attached everything the Europeans made (industrialized things)  - Qing support them b/c they are weak and the boxers basically are  

doing what the Qing couldn’t b/c of their weakened status  - 8 nations try to keep the rebellion from continuing  

o France, Japan, England, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, and U.S.  o Invaded Beijing

o Decided they needed to occupy China to stop the rebellions  - Boxers had to sign Boxer protocol (Unequal treaty)

o China pays $, 8 nations take Beijing, spheres of influence grow - EFFECT: people angry at Qing for letting it happen  

- China becomes weaker and poorer b/c $ paid for wars

- People upset b/c hungry and poor (Civil wars break out because of this) - New groups form to stop humiliation of China, Qing, and foreigners

REVOLUTION OF 1911

- Wuchang uprising overthrew Qing Dynasty

o No more Dynasties

- China (now Republic of China) ruled by 1st president Sun YatSen  o Promised people 1. Nationalism 2. Democracy 3. People’s  livlihood

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