LIN3041 -- Intro to Linguistics -- Exam 2 Study Guide
LIN3041 -- Intro to Linguistics -- Exam 2 Study Guide LIN3041
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabrielle Isgar on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LIN3041 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Gretchen Sunderman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
LIN3041 – Intro to Linguistics – Exam 2 Vocabulary Chapter 4 -- Morphology: The Analysis of Word Structure Word -- the smallest free form found in language Free form -- an element that does not have to occur in a fixed position with respect to neighboring elements Morpheme -- the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function Simple words -- words that consist of a single morpheme Example: and Complex words -- words that contain two or more morphemes Example: couple, couple-s Example: act, act-ive, act-iv-ate, re-act-iv-ate Free morpheme -- a morpheme that can be a word by itself Example: boy Bound morpheme -- a morpheme that must be attached to another element Example: plural -s Allomorphs -- the variant forms of a morpheme Example: the morpheme used to express indefiniteness in English has 2 allomorphs--an before a word that begins with a vowel sound and a before a word that begins with a consonant sound Root -- constitutes the core of the word and carries the major component of its meaning; typically belong to a lexical category Lexical categories -- noun (N), verb (V), adjective (A), preposition (P) Affixes -- do not belong to a lexical category and are always bound morphemes Example: -er; a bound morpheme that combines with a verb, giving a noun with the meaning "one who ____" Types of Affixes Prefix -- an affix that's attached to the front of its base Suffix -- an affix that's attached to the end of its base Inflix -- a type of affix that occurs within another morpheme Base -- the form to which an affix is added; also the root Word-based -- the majority of complex words in English are built from roots that are free morphemes Derivation -- an affixational process that forms a word with a meaning and/or category distinct from that of its base Example: the suffix -er added to a verb forms a noun with the meaning "one who does X" Derivational affixes Suffixes: -able: V->A -ing: V->A -ive: V->A -al: V->N -ant: V->N -(at)ion: V->N -er: V->N -ing: V->N -ment: V->N -dom: N->N -ful: N->A LIN3041 – Intro to Linguistics – Exam 2 Vocabulary -(I)al: N->A -(I)an: N->A -ic: N->A -less: N->A -ous: N->A -ize: N->V -ish: A->A -ate: A->V -en: A->V -ize: A->V -ly: A->Adv -ity: A->N -ness: A->N Prefixes: Anti-: N->N Ex-: N->N De-: V->V Dis-: V->V Mis-: V->V Re-: V->V Un-: V->V In-: A->A Un-: A->A Class 1 Affixes -- often trigger changes in the consonant or vowel segments of the base and may affect stress placement; often combine with bound roots Class 2 Affixes -- tend to be phonologically neutral, having no effect on the segmental makeup of the base or on stress placement Compounding -- the combination of two already existent words Compound word -- a word that's a combination of two already existing words; usually a noun, verb, or adjective Head -- the morpheme that determines the category of the entire word Endocentric compounds -- compound that denotes a subtype of the concept denoted by its head (the rightmost component) Example: dog food is a type of food, caveman is a type of man Exocentric compounds -- the meaning of the compound does not follow from the meanings of its head Example: redhead is not a type of head, redneck is a person not a type of neck Inflection -- the modification of a word's form to indicate grammatical information of various sorts Stem -- the base to which an inflectional affix is added Inflection vs. Derivation Category change -- inflection does not change category or meaning, derivation does Order -- the derivational affix must be closer to the root Productivity -- the relative freedom with which they can combine with bases of the appropriate category Semantic transparency -- the contribution of an inflectional affix to the word's meaning is usually completely transparent and consistent Case -- a change in a new word's form to indicate its grammatical role LIN3041 – Intro to Linguistics – Exam 2 Vocabulary Agreement -- takes place when one word is inflected to match certain grammatical properties or another word Internal change -- a process that substitutes one nonmorphemic segment for another to mark a grammatical contrast Example: sing (present)-sang (past) Suppletion -- replaces a morpheme with an entirely different morpheme in order to indicate a grammatical contrast Example: went (past)-go (present) Reduplication -- marks a grammatical or semantic contrast by repeating all or part of the base to which it applies Full reduplication -- repetition of the entire base Partial reduplication -- copies only part of the base Tone placement -- in some languages, tone can be used to make distinction between tenses Clitics -- morphemes that behave like words in terms of their meaning and function; must always be pronounced with another word Host -- the other word Proclitics -- those that attach to the beginning of their host Enclitics -- those that attach to the end of their host Cliticization -- attaching these elements to the preceding word Conversion (zero derivation) -- a process that assigns an already existing word to a new syntactic category Clipping -- a process that shortens a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables Blends -- words that are created from nonmorphemic parts of two already existing items Backformation -- a process that creates a new word by removing a real or supposed affix from another word in the language Example: ressurect was formed from ressurection Acronyms -- formed by taking the initial letters of (some or all) the words in a phrase or title and pronouncing them as a word Initialisms -- pronounced as a series of letters rather than a word Onomatopoeia -- words that have been created to sound like the thing that they name Coinage (word manufacture) -- a word created from scratch Eponyms -- words created from names Morphophonemics -- a word's pronunciation is often sensitive to the particular phonetic context in which phonemes occur; the study of this phenomenon Chapter 6 -- Semantics: The Analysis of Meaning Meaning -- the content of an utterance Semantics -- the study of meaning in human language Synonyms -- words or expressions that have the same meaning in some or all contexts Example: automobile/car, big/large Antonyms -- words or phrases that are opposites with respect to some components of their meaning Example: dark/light, boy/girl Polysemy -- occurs where a word has two or more meanings LIN3041 – Intro to Linguistics – Exam 2 Vocabulary Example: bright -- shining/intelligent Homophony -- exists where a single form has two or more entirely distinct meanings Example: light -- not heavy/illumination Lexical ambiguity -- a single form as two or more meanings Paraphrase -- two sentences that can have the same meaning Entailment -- when the truth of one sentence guarantees the truth of another sentence Example: The park wardens killed the bear. The bear is dead. Contradiction -- when one of the sentences is true, then the other sentence must be false Example: Charles is a bachelor. Charles is married. Connotation -- the set of associations that a word's use can evoke Denotation -- approach which attempts to equate the meaning of a word or phrase with the entities to which it refers Extension -- corresponds to the set of entities that it picks out in the world Intension -- corresponds to its inherent sense, the concepts that it evokes Componential analysis/semantic decomposition -- approach to meaning which tries to represents a word's intension by breaking it down into smaller semantic components Fuzzy concepts -- words that do not have clear-cut boundaries and pervades the human conceptual system Graded membership -- concepts members can be graded in terms of their typicality Prototypical exemplars -- the best option Metaphor -- the understanding of one concept in terms of another Spatial metaphor -- the use of words that are primarily associated with spatial orientation to talk about physical or psychological states Example: I'm feeling down. Lexicalization -- the process whereby concepts are encoded in the words of a language Motion verbs -- words that can describe motion through space Grammaticalized -- used to express the grammatical contrasts that are expressed as affixes and non-lexical (functional) categories Evidentiality -- the source of a speaker's evidence for a statement Principle of Compositionality -- the meaning of a sentence is determined by the meaning of its component parts and the manner in which they are arranged in syntactic structure Constructional meaning -- structural patterns themselves are capable of carrying meaning above and beyond the meaning of their component parts Structural ambiguity -- component words can be combined in more than one way Thematic roles -- the role that the referents of NPs play in the situations described by sentences used to categorize the relation between a sentence's parts and the event that it describes Agent -- the entity that performs and action Theme -- the entity undergoing an action or a movement Source -- the starting point for a movement Goal -- the end point for a movement Location -- the place where an action occurs Pronominals -- he, him, she, her, I, me, you, we, us, they, them, it LIN3041 – Intro to Linguistics – Exam 2 Vocabulary Reflexive pronouns -- himself, herself, myself, yourself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves Principle A -- a reflexive pronoun must have an antecedent that c-commands it in the same minimal IP Principle B -- a pronominal must not have an antecedent that c-commands it in the same minimal IP Presupposition -- the assumption or belief implied by the use of a particular word or structure Setting -- physical environment Spatial deictics -- forms whose use and interpretation depend on the location of the speaker and/or hearer within a particular setting Discourse -- the connected series of utterances produced during a conversation, a lecture, a story, or other speech act Old (given) information -- the knowledge that the speaker assumes is available to the addressee at the time of the utterance, either because it is obvious or because it has been previously mentioned in the discourse New information -- knowledge that is introduced into the discourse for the first time Topic -- what a sentence or portion of the discourse is about Conversational implicature -- information drawn from inferences about what is meant but now actually said Cooperative Principle -- make your contribution appropriate to the conversation Conversational maxims -- guidelines that ensure that conversational interactions satisfy the Cooperative Principle Maxim of Relevance -- be relevant Maxim of Quality -- try to make your contribution one that is true Maxim of Quantity -- do not make your contribution more or less informative than required Maxim of Manner -- avoid ambiguity and obscurity; be brief and orderly
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