Chemistry: Exam 1 Study Guide
Chemistry: Exam 1 Study Guide Chemistry 1110-002
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anzlee on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chemistry 1110-002 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Earl Pearson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Chemistry: Exam 1 Study Guide This exam covers topics such as: • Temperature Conversions • Unit Conversions • Significant Figures and Appropriate Decimal Places • Nomenclature (including polyatomic ions listed on D2L) • Density • Balancing Equations • Percent Composition • Law of Multiple Proportions *for additional problems for practice, refer to D2L • The energy and composition of matter changes throughout its different states (gas, liquid, solid) • Pure substances: compounds or elements • Law of Definite Proportions- each substance is independent of location; compounds are identical and the chemical composition ratio always stays the same • Compounds are distinguished by their properties: o Chemical-the way they react o Physical- the way they appear Chemical Composition SI Base Units: Mass Kilogram- kg Length Meter- m Temperature Kelvin- K Amount of Substance Mole- mol Time Second- s Metric System: 12 Tera- 10 Giga- 10 9 Mega- 10 6 3 Kilo- 10 -1 Deci- 10 Centi- 10 -2 Mili- 10 -3 -6 Micro- 10 -9 Nano- 10 Pico- 10 -12 -15 Femto- 10 Additional Conversions: 1 inch 2.54 centimeters 1.00 quarts 946 milliliters 1.00 pound 454 grams Temperature • The randomness of motions generates a temperature in a BULK sample of matter • Higher temperature- more motion and interactions between molecules • Convert temperature (degrees F or C): o Add 40 to the initial temperature o Multiply by the conversation (9 degrees Celsius = 5 degrees Fahrenheit) o Subtract the 40 degrees • Kelvin: K= C+273.16 Density • Mass/Volume Making Measurements and Rounding • Accuracy- how close one is to the correct value (hard to know if correct value is not given) • Precision- how closely each the found values agree • Significant Figures 1. All non-zero digits 2. Zeros that are between non-zero digits or are on the right-hand side of numbers with a decimal § Ex. 2100 only has 2; however, to represent it with 4 3ig figs, you must write it like: “2100.” or in scientific notation (2.1 * 10 ) • Order of Operations 1. Parenthesis 2. Powers/roots 3. Multiplication/division 4. Addition/subtraction o LEFT TO RIGHT!!! • Round Off Rules o For multiplication and division, the answer should have the least amount of given significant figures o For subtraction and addition, the answer should have the least amount of given decimal places o If last digit is greater than 5- round up; less than 5- keep as it is o Example: Dalton’s Atomic Theory • Two different compounds that contain the same elements only will carry the same ratio Example: Compound CO CO 2 Ratio 1:x 1:(2)x • One can find the ratio between elements by calculations such as in this example. -Note: the mass of one elements must be found to equal zero (sulfur) to find the mass of the other element (fluorine). Periodic Table: • Arranged by increasing average mass • Horizontal rows- periods • Vertical rows- families/groups Isotopes • Same element with a different number of neutrons, and therefore a different atomic mass • Can be found with a mass spectrometer • Average mass of each element is found through calculations using the mass of the various isotopes Ions • Ions are elements with a charge • Anions- negative • Cations- positive • Ions bond through electrostatic attraction (usually gain or lose electrons) o Metals lose electrons and become cations o Non-metals gain electrons and become anions • Compounds must form in a fixed ratio Law of Conservation of Mass • the same number of each atom much be in the reactants and products of a chemical reaction • balancing equations (either by ‘guess and check’ or by using variables) *there is a set of practice equations on D2L to work out o example used in class: Nomenclature • Basics of naming compounds (unless hydrogen is present): o cations (metal) are named first o anions (nonmetals) are named after and the ending changes to “-ide” • Acids: o if anion ends in “-ide”, then it is said as “hydro-stem-ic acid” § example of ‘stem’: chlor § example: HCl= hydrochloric acid o if hydrogen is paired with a polyatomic ion, “hydro” is not used; they ar enamed from the anion § “-ate” changes to “-ic” § “-ite” changes to “-ous” § example: H 2O =4sulfuric acid 2 di- • Binary Molecular Compounds (all non-mentals): 3 tri- o the more metallic elements are named first 4 tetra- o prefixes may be used to signify how many there are: 5 penta- 6 hexa- o second elements ends in “-ide” 7 hepta- 8 octa- 9 nona- 10 deca- *For memorizing polyatomic ions, refer to the list posted on D2L Types of Reactions • Combustion: involve oxygen (O )2as a reactant and the other reactants will form their oxide • Decomposition: reaction breaks down (more products than reactants) • Combination: reaction synthesizes (more reactants than products) Periodic Properties of Elements • Metals: shine, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity, varied melting points; form ionic oxides that can produce basic solutions; form cations when react • Metalloids: look like metals but have some non-metallic properties • Alkali metals are more reactive that alkali earth metals • Noble gases are very unreactive • Refer to chart for locations of various types of elements:
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