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Chemistry: Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Anzlee

Chemistry: Exam 1 Study Guide Chemistry 1110-002


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About this Document

This review is to help you on the first Chemistry test scheduled for Monday, February 15th. This study guide even covers material that was not covered well in class such as nomenclature and general...
General Chemistry I
Earl Pearson
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anzlee on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chemistry 1110-002 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Earl Pearson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
Chemistry: Exam 1 Study Guide This exam covers topics such as: •   Temperature Conversions •   Unit Conversions •   Significant Figures and Appropriate Decimal Places •   Nomenclature (including polyatomic ions listed on D2L) •   Density •   Balancing Equations •   Percent Composition •   Law of Multiple Proportions *for additional problems for practice, refer to D2L •   The energy and composition of matter changes throughout its different states (gas, liquid, solid) •   Pure substances: compounds or elements •   Law of Definite Proportions- each substance is independent of location; compounds are identical and the chemical composition ratio always stays the same •   Compounds are distinguished by their properties: o   Chemical-the way they react o   Physical- the way they appear Chemical Composition SI Base Units: Mass Kilogram- kg Length Meter- m Temperature Kelvin- K Amount of Substance Mole- mol Time Second- s Metric System: 12 Tera- 10 Giga- 10 9 Mega- 10 6 3 Kilo- 10 -1 Deci- 10 Centi- 10 -2 Mili- 10 -3 -6 Micro- 10 -9 Nano- 10 Pico- 10 -12 -15 Femto- 10 Additional Conversions: 1 inch 2.54 centimeters 1.00 quarts 946 milliliters 1.00 pound 454 grams Temperature •   The randomness of motions generates a temperature in a BULK sample of matter •   Higher temperature- more motion and interactions between molecules •   Convert temperature (degrees F or C): o   Add 40 to the initial temperature o   Multiply by the conversation (9 degrees Celsius = 5 degrees Fahrenheit) o   Subtract the 40 degrees •   Kelvin: K= C+273.16 Density •   Mass/Volume Making Measurements and Rounding •   Accuracy- how close one is to the correct value (hard to know if correct value is not given) •   Precision- how closely each the found values agree •   Significant Figures 1.   All non-zero digits 2.   Zeros that are between non-zero digits or are on the right-hand side of numbers with a decimal §   Ex. 2100 only has 2; however, to represent it with 4 3ig figs, you must write it like: “2100.” or in scientific notation (2.1 * 10 ) •   Order of Operations 1.   Parenthesis 2.   Powers/roots 3.   Multiplication/division 4.   Addition/subtraction o   LEFT TO RIGHT!!! •   Round Off Rules o   For multiplication and division, the answer should have the least amount of given significant figures o   For subtraction and addition, the answer should have the least amount of given decimal places o   If last digit is greater than 5- round up; less than 5- keep as it is o   Example: Dalton’s Atomic Theory •   Two different compounds that contain the same elements only will carry the same ratio Example: Compound CO CO 2 Ratio 1:x 1:(2)x •   One can find the ratio between elements by calculations such as in this example. -Note: the mass of one elements must be found to equal zero (sulfur) to find the mass of the other element (fluorine). Periodic Table: •   Arranged by increasing average mass •   Horizontal rows- periods •   Vertical rows- families/groups Isotopes •   Same element with a different number of neutrons, and therefore a different atomic mass •   Can be found with a mass spectrometer •   Average mass of each element is found through calculations using the mass of the various isotopes Ions •   Ions are elements with a charge •   Anions- negative •   Cations- positive •   Ions bond through electrostatic attraction (usually gain or lose electrons) o   Metals lose electrons and become cations o   Non-metals gain electrons and become anions •   Compounds must form in a fixed ratio Law of Conservation of Mass •   the same number of each atom much be in the reactants and products of a chemical reaction •   balancing equations (either by ‘guess and check’ or by using variables) *there is a set of practice equations on D2L to work out o   example used in class: Nomenclature •   Basics of naming compounds (unless hydrogen is present): o   cations (metal) are named first o   anions (nonmetals) are named after and the ending changes to “-ide” •   Acids: o   if anion ends in “-ide”, then it is said as “hydro-stem-ic acid” §   example of ‘stem’: chlor §   example: HCl= hydrochloric acid o   if hydrogen is paired with a polyatomic ion, “hydro” is not used; they ar enamed from the anion §   “-ate” changes to “-ic” §   “-ite” changes to “-ous” §   example: H 2O =4sulfuric acid 2 di- •   Binary Molecular Compounds (all non-mentals): 3 tri- o   the more metallic elements are named first 4 tetra- o   prefixes may be used to signify how many there are: 5 penta- 6 hexa- o   second elements ends in “-ide” 7 hepta- 8 octa- 9 nona- 10 deca- *For memorizing polyatomic ions, refer to the list posted on D2L Types of Reactions •   Combustion: involve oxygen (O )2as a reactant and the other reactants will form their oxide •   Decomposition: reaction breaks down (more products than reactants) •   Combination: reaction synthesizes (more reactants than products) Periodic Properties of Elements •   Metals: shine, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity, varied melting points; form ionic oxides that can produce basic solutions; form cations when react •   Metalloids: look like metals but have some non-metallic properties •   Alkali metals are more reactive that alkali earth metals •   Noble gases are very unreactive •   Refer to chart for locations of various types of elements:


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