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MSU / Lyman Briggs / LB 145 / biology dna notes

biology dna notes

biology dna notes

Description

School: Michigan State University
Department: Lyman Briggs
Course: Biology II: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Professor: Mecey
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: #Biology #DNA
Cost: Free
Name: Biology II DNA notes
Description: These notes cover what will be on the next exam
Uploaded: 02/12/2016
22 Pages 314 Views 1 Unlocks
Reviews


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  • There are different types of mutations
  • Point mutations - result from a single base change
  • Chromosome - level mutations
  • Are larger in scale
  • Often result from the addition of deletion of chromosomes from the individual's karyotype
  • Point mutations
  • Occurs when the DNA polymerase inserts the wrong base into the newly synthesized strand DNA
  • Result in a change in the DNA base sequence
  • Occurs if the DNA polymerase proofreading mismatch repair systems fail

Point mutations

  • Silent - change in nucleotide sequence that does not change the amino acid specified by a codon
  • No change in phenotype, neutral with respect to fitness
  • Missense - change in nucleotide sequence that changes the amino acid specified by codon
  • Change in primary structure of protein; may be beneficial, neutral, or deleterious
  • Nonsense - change in nucleotide sequence that results in an early stop codon
  • Leads to mRNA breakdown or a shortened polypeptide; usually deleterious
  • Frameshift - addition or deletion of a nucleotide
  • Reading frame is shifted, altering the meaning of all subsequent codons. Almost always deleterious

Nucleic Acids

  • DNA structure and function
  • Has a sugar - phosphate backbone
  • Phosphodiester bonds
  • Anti - parallel 5’ - 3’ DNA strands
  • Base pairing via hydrogen bonds
  • Nucleotides:

        Thymine                                                        Uracil

  • For both DNA and RNA
  • OH group on 3’ carbon can bind to phosphate group[
  • Phosphodiester bond between nucleotides
  • 5’ carbon is already bound to a phosphate group
  • Nucleotides can be added only to the strand of the 3’ end
  • Strands elongate in a 5’ - 3’ direction
  • A 3 base code is known as a triplet code
  • The triplet code is redundant
  • Same amino acids are specified by more than one triplet code
  • Codon
  • The group of 3 bases
  • Specifies a particular amino acid
  • Francis Crick and Sydney Brenner found that
  • The reading frame (sequence of codons) of a gene could be destroyed by mutation and then restored
  • If the total number of deletion or additions were multiples of 3
  • How did researchers crack the code?
  • Marshall Nirenberg and Philip Leder
  • Devise a system for synthesizing specific codons
  • Were able to decipher genetic code
  • By  determining which of the 64 codons code for each of the 20 amino acids
  • There is no start codon (AUG)
  • It signifies the start of the protein encoding sequence in mRNA
  • There are 3 stop codons (UGA, UAA, and UAG)
  • In the genetic code that signals the end of the protein - coding sequence
  • Base - pairing rules

We also discuss several other topics like How to use kinematic equations?

  • Figuring out DNA: what was known
  • DNA polymerase by formation of phosphodiester bonds
  • Chargoff’s Rules
  • Purines = pyramids
  • %A = %T and %G = %C
  • Scattering patterns revealed 3 repeated numbers: .34nm, 2nm, 3.4nm
  • Deoxyribonucleotides are linked by phosphodiester bonds

Don't forget about the age old question of What is an atom and an ion, or two ions, that have the same number and configuration of electrons.?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are some of Chomsky's view of language?
We also discuss several other topics like which term refers to the genetic control of continuously varying traits such as height?
If you want to learn more check out biology heredity notes
Don't forget about the age old question of What do you call a perception that does not match the physical reality of a physical object?

The case of seed taste evolution in Pea Plants

  • The natural history of round and wrinkled peas
  • Pisum sativum
  • Common name: field peas
  • Native to: near East - Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestine
  • Habitat: Agricultural and steppe fields
  • A key crop of the neolithic agricultural revolution, oldest recorded samples date to 10,000 BC
  • Traits selected during domestication
  • Non - dehiscent pods
  • Seeds stay protected within pods longer
  • Smooth seed coat
  • As opposed to a rough seed coat, smooth coats are harder to remove from the seed. This gives them more protection when stored
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