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by: Sierra

Assessment Biol 28600


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Practice exam for Exam 1
Introduction to Ecology and Evolution
Joshua Springer
Study Guide
Ecology, evolution, Biology
50 ?




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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sierra on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 28600 at Purdue University taught by Joshua Springer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ecology and Evolution in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
BIOL 286 ASSESSMENT I 10 February 2015 Name (PRINT CLEARLY)____________________________________ Student Number ____________________________ Score ________________/ 100 Answer sheet—Place ALL answers here. Nothing on the question sheets will be graded. Write clearly please! When more than one response is required, simply list your choices on the same line. 1. _________________________ 21. _________________________ 2. _________________________ 22. _________________________ 3. _________________________ 23. _________________________ 4. _________________________ 24. _________________________ 5. _________________________ 25. _________________________ 6. _________________________ 26. _________________________ 7. _________________________ 27. _________________________ 8. _______ ________ _______ 28. _________________________ 9. _________________________ 29. _________________________ 10. _________________________ 30. _________________________ 11. _________________________ 31. _________________________ 12. _________________________ 32. _________________________ 13. _________________________ 33. _________________________ 14. _________________________ 34. _________________________ 15. _________________________ 35. _________________________ 16. _________________________ 36. _________________________ 17. _________________________ 37. _________________________ 18. _________________________ 38. _________________________ 19. _________________________ 39. _________________________ 20. _________________________ 40. 41. 42. Read each question carefully. Some answers may require you to choose more than one response—those questions are indicated. Place all responses on the answer sheet provided—nothing on the question sheets will be graded. Please show your student ID when you turn in your assessment. 43. 44. Grades will be posted to Blackboard as soon as possible—it will take all of us some time to get everyone’s graded! Please be patient. 45. 1. In populations of organisms, natural selection acts, or selects those that are best fit from a pool of: (2 points) a. Variants b. Stable types c. Genotypes d. Hypotheses 46. 2. The most appropriate definition of evolution is: (2 points) a. The change of an organism over the growing season b. Ability of organisms to be best fit for the next year c. Change in allele frequencies over time d. Change in the number of individuals in a population over time 47. 3. Choose all answers that apply to this statement. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assumes: (5 points—List all answers on your answer sheet in the spaces provided) a. Small population size b. Moderate population size c. Large population size d. No mutation e. No genetic drift f. Recombination is not occurring g. There is no migration h. There is much migration into a population 48. 4. Most mutations that occur are: (2 points) a. Helpful for a population to adapt b. Bad—they’re selected out of the population fairly quickly c. Harmful to the parents that produced the mutant offspring 49. 5. An example of an adaptation is (choose all that apply): (4 points) a. Growing thicker fur in preparation for winter b. Changing leaf color on trees in the fall c. Producing offspring that have more hair each generation (heritability) d. Each consecutive generation of prey can more easily outrun a predator 50. 51. 52. 53. 6. Genetic drift would have its greatest influence on a population size of ______. 54. Choose from the following choices below (2 points). a. 53,000 b. 14 c. 275 d. 9,384 55. 7. Which of the following explain(s) how the Theory of Evolution is more powerful/scientific than any other explanation for the origin of life on Earth? More than one answer may be correct. (6 points) a. Theory of Evolution is modifiable on the basis of newly observed evidence. b. Theory of Evolution was/is flawless from when Darwin finished On the Origin of Species. c. Theory of Evolution stands up to testing and provides reproducible results. d. Theory of Evolution has made predictions that later have been evidenced with uncovered fossils or vestigial structures. e. Theory of Evolution is not more powerful/scientific; some structures (ex., vertebrate eye) are irreducibly complex. 56. 8. Match the following example to the kind of selection and also to its graph: (6 points) 57. ___Plants that make more seeds are more likely to have some seeds that survive and grow to adulthood and make their own seeds. 58. ___Plants that grow to a moderate size exhibit better resilience to disease and predators, therefore moderately sized plants are more likely to survive thru reproduction. 59. ___A plant species survives a very dry growing season and the following very wet growing season. The third growing season is neither very dry nor very wet and many fewer plants survive to reproduction. 60. a. Stabilizing selection 61. b. Directional selection 62. c. Disruptive selection 63. d. e. f. 64. 65. 9. Which of the following are some of the postulates of Evolution by Natural Selection? Multiple answers may be correct. (4 points) a. Individuals within a population are variable. b. Some variation is heritable. c. Differential reproductive success is at least partly tied to variation among individuals. d. Natural selection “chooses” species best suited for the current and subsequent generations. e. All of the above. f. None of the above. 66. 10. Which is (are) true of a population: (6 points) a. A population is a group of interbreeding individuals that share a gene pool. b. At the population level, genes can be monomorphic or polymorphic. c. Changes in populations can be modeled by examining allele and genotype frequencies. d. Multiple evolutionary forces can act on a population, and can have differing effects depending on population size. e. All of the above. f. None of the above. 67. 11. How does the word “theory” differ in a scientific context vs. casual usage? More than one answer may be correct. (6 points) a. There is no difference between “theory” in a scientific and casual usage: both are opinions based on speculation. b. A scientific theory is based on evidence gathered from a long- documented set of reproducible experiments. c. A scientific theory can be amended and changed based on new evidence. d. A scientific theory cannot be amended and changed based on new evidence. e. A scientific theory is a testable hypothesis formed on the basis of observation and measurements. 68. 12. Under which 3 conditions can (or does) Natural Selection occur? (6 points) a. The trait to be selected is not heritable b. Some phenotypic trait is variable in the population c. All individuals in a population share the same phenotype d. Heritability of the trait to be selected e. Differential reproductive success between different phenotypic traits f. Population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium 69. 13. Which specific type of Natural Selection would be the example of peppered moths? (2 points) a. Stabilizing Selection b. Directional Selection c. Disruptive Selection 70. 14. What does migration cause (or lead to) in a population? (4 points) a. Prevents speciation b. Increases variability c. Promotes adaptation d. Increases gene flow e. Homogenizes populations f. All are correct 71. 72. 15. What is one direct cause of ocean acidification? (2 points) a. Increase of Earth’s average temperature b. Decrease in atmospheric CO 2 c. Increase in atmospheric CO 2 d. Increase of heavy metal concentration at sea 73. 16. Which of the next options is not a resource? (2 points) a. Preys b. Temperature c. Habitat for nesting d. Water 74. 17. If the picture to the right represents leaves from the same tree, what biological phenomenon could we observing? (2 points) a. Natural Selection b. Adaptation c. Phenotypic Plasticity d. Dehydration 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 18. In which part of the world would you expect a 80. greater diversity of ectotherms? (2 points) a. Polar regions b. Deserts c. Tropical forests d. Temperate grasslands e. Mountains 81. 19. Why? (see question 18 above) (2 points) a. Because the temperature is always below 0ºC b. Because ectotherms perform better when temperatures are not extreme and stable c. Because habitat type is homogeneous d. Because there are no natural predators 82. 83. 20. Where do plants obtain the largest amount of their carbon? (2 points) 84. a. They take it up through their roots. 85. b. Gaseous CO i2 the atmosphere. 86. c. CO 2issolved in rainwater falls on them. 87. d. Absorbed from eating insects with modified leaves. 88. 89. 21. Every winter, Peter the Wolf grows thicker fur. This is an example of: (2 points) 90. a. acclimatization. 91. b. evolution. 92. c. natural selection. 93. d. evapotranspiration. 94. 95. 22. Stabilizing selection: (2 points) 96. a. increases the phenotypic variance of the population. 97. b. maintains the phenotypic variance of the population. 98. c. decreases the phenotypic variance of the population. 99. d. introduces new genotypes to the population. 100. 101. 23. At which point would migration have the greatest genetic influence on this population shown above? (2 points) 102. 103. 104. 105. 24. In a body of water in a temperate climate (such as Indiana), turnover is an important process. Turnover: (2 points) 106. a. is a more sophisticated form of pie. 107. b. is the cycling of water due to wave action in windy parts of the year. 108. c. prevents field runoff from increasing eutrophication in lakes and ponds 109. d. occurs in the fall when temperature stratification goes away. 110. 111. 25. What is the most effective strategy for treating an HIV infection that we know evolves quickly as a population inside one human individual over time? (2 points) 112. a. One specific drug, like AZT, that is especially effective at interfering with a necessary virus function such as reverse transcriptase. 113. b. Several antiviral drugs, each targeting the same function in different ways, used sequentially. 114. c. Several antiviral drugs, each targeting a different viral pathway, used sequentially as the virus changes. 115. d. several antiviral drugs, each targeting a different pathway, used all at the same time. 116. 117. 26. Unfortunately, many uninformed people consider themselves ‘anti-vaccine’ because ‘they don’t want those chemicals in their children’s bodies’. These same people would demand antibiotics for an insignificant (or major) infection their child gets after playing on a playground and gets cut. Antibiotics contain many chemicals that are targeted toward an infective agent—in this case a population or community of bacteria. We know that evolution occurs in very short time periods in bacteria. Why is it important for a patient to complete a course of antibiotics unless told to end the course of treatment by their doctor (for good medical reason)? (2 points) 118. 119. a. it’s not important—I know when my infection is ‘cured’ and I don’t need antibiotics for longer—I know my body best. 120. b. bacteria that are least resistant to the antibiotic will be killed quickly while those that have some level of higher resistance will survive longer to perpetuate the infection until antibiotic levels in the body increase 121. c. mutation rates increase in the bacterial population over the course of the infection 122. 123. 124. 27. A majority of animals on Earth have a life strategy that forces them to rely on the external environment for the regulation of their internal body temperature—these organisms cannot generally generate their own body heat. They are called: _____________________ (use the most specific/precise term possible). (2 points) 125. 126. 127. 128. 28. Photosynthesis is the process energy production for plants. Respiration also occurs in plants whereby they use oxygen. In general, what equation below best relates these processes? (3 points) 129. a. Gross Photosynthesis = Respiration - Transpiration 130. b. Respiration * Photosynthesis = Net Photosynthesis 131. c. Net Photosynthesis = Photosynthesis – Respiration 132. d. Respiration = Photosynthesis – Net Photosynthesis 133. 134. 29. The reservoir on Earth with the greatest volume of water is/are: (2 points) 135. a. Groundwater reservoirs 136. b. Polar ice caps and glaciers 137. c. Oceans 138. d. The Wabash River 139. 140. 30. The reservoir on Earth with the greatest volume of freshwater is/are: (2 points) 141. a. Groundwater reservoirs 142. b. Polar ice caps and glaciers 143. c. Oceans 144. d. none, fracking chemicals have destroyed many freshwater sources 145. 146. For questions 31 and 32 review the following scenario and answer accordingly. 147. Albinism is a rare genetically inherited trait that is only expressed in the phenotype of homozygous recessive individuals (aa). The most characteristic symptom is a marked deficiency in the skin and hair pigment melanin (a very important pigment in protection from the suns harmful rays). This condition can occur among any human group as well as among other animal species. The average human frequency of albinism in North America is about 1 in 20,000. 148. 149. 31. If we assign q in the Hardy Weinberg equation to the recessive allele, what is the best approximate value of q (the frequency of the recessive allele) in the population? (3 points) 150. a. 0.00005 151. b. 0.007 152. c. 0.014 153. d. 0.09934 154. 155. 32. What would be the best approximation of the frequency of heterozygotes (carriers) in the population of humans in North America? (3 points) 156. a. 0.993 157. b. 0.007 158. c. 0.014 159. d. 0.00005 160. 161. 162. 163. 33. The fundamental unit in the study of Ecology is: (2 points) 164. a. the cell 165. b. a population of organisms 166. c. a community of interacting species 167. d. an individual 168. 169. 34. In experimental populations or in natural populations we can see a large reduction in genetic diversity resulting from a mass die-off such as a random event such as a storm. Only a few individuals survive that represent a small fraction of the former genetic diversity. What happened could be called: (2 points) 170. a. bottleneck event 171. b. struggle for existence 172. c. conservation concern 173. d. genetic struggle 174. 175. 35. Females in a certain species of bird preferentially choose male mates that exhibit characteristics quite different than their own phenotype. This could be considered an example of: (2 points) 176. a. Inbreeding 177. b. Positive Assortative mating 178. c. Negative Assortative mating 179. d. Control mating 180. 181. 36. Decreased fertility, loss of vigor, reduced fitness, reduced pollen and seed fertility, and death can be a result of: (2 points) 182. a. Inbreeding Depression 183. b. Loss of heterozygosity 184. c. Inbreeding 185. d. All of the above 186. 187. 37. Ten individuals of a population of a certain fish species are transferred to a new lake during a flood (they’ve been forced to migrate). These individuals, however, do not mate with members of the same species that had previously existed in the lake. Can this migration event be considered a mechanism of allele frequency change (evolution)? (3 points) 188. a. Yes, they still migrated to the new habitat 189. b. Yes, but they won’t have much of an effect on the existing population 190. c. No, they have not become part of the breeding population 191. d. No, they will die 192. 193. 194. 38. Plants, during respiration produce water vapor, CO ,2 energy (ATP), and O (2 points) 2 195. a. True 196. b. False 197. 198. 39. Which of the below types of habitats would experience the most/the greatest daily and seasonal variation? 199. a. A forest in central Indiana b. A coral reef in The Bahamas c. A tropical rainforest in central Brazil d. An alpine habitat in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado 200. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. Answer sheet—Place ALL answers here. Nothing on the question sheets will be graded. Write clearly please! When more than one response is required, simply list your choices on the same line. 1. __________A_______________ 16. __________B_______________ 2. ___________C______________ 17. __________C_______________ 3. ___________C, D, E, F, G___ 18. ___________D______________ 4. _________B________________ 19. ___________B______________ 5. _________C, D_____________ 20. ___________B______________ 6. ________B _________________ 21. __________A_______________ 7. __________A, C, D___________ 22. __________C_______________ 8. __B,E__ __A,D___ _C, F__ 23. __________B_______________ 9. ________A, B, C ____________ 24. __________D_______________ 10. _________A, B, C, D, E 25. __________D_______________ 26. ___________B______________ ______ 27. ______ectotherms________ 11. ________B, C, 28. ___________C, D___________ 29. _________C________________ E_____________ 30. __________B_______________ 12. ____________B, D, E 31. __________B_______________ 32. ___________A______________ ________ 33. __________D_______________ 13. __________B 34. ___________A______________ 35. ___________C______________ _______________ 36. ____________D_____________ 14. ___F or A, B, C, D,E 37. ____________C_____________ 38. ___________A______________ _________ 39. ____________A_____________ 15. __________C_______________ 40.


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