Species and speciation
Species and speciation ANTH 196
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Date Created: 02/12/16
9 Species and Speciation 1. What was the major mechanism of adaptive change? a. Mutation and Natural Selection 2. Early Modern Synthesis reconciled transmission genetics and key evolutionary principles. Emphasized how evolutionary forces shape populations a. FISHER, WRIGHT, HALDANE, MALECOT 3. Late Modern Synthesis brought ecology, speciation, systematics, and paleontology into the fold a. DOBZHANSKY, MAYR, SIMPSON, LACK 4. Modern Synthesis established that all evolutionary forces were responsible for evolutionary change but that natural selection solely produces adaptations by shaping variation = is also called evolutionary synthesis 5. Microevolution evolution occurring below the species level. It usually operates over much shorter time scales and is sometimes synonymous with “population genetics” = evolutionary change in populations in a particular species 6. Macroevolution evolutionary change that results in the production of new species. It operates over much longer time scales = the origin of species 7. PreDarwinian views a. Designed by God, variations are simply, godly deviations. Species had one essential form or type 8. Darwin’s influence Replaced typological thinking with populational thinking 9. Typological there is a single “blueprint” or “type” members of a species are inferior variations on this type 10.Populational all members are equally real and they have natural variation 11.Modern Species Conceptuse principles and processes of evolution to develop species definitions 12.Biological species concept focuses on reproductive isolation among groups = the most important species concept a. Species are groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups. Focuses on factors that reproductively isolate different groups 13.Allopatric Speciationnew species form due to initial geographic isolation or separation 14.Allopatry species living in different geographic area 15.Sympatry species living in the same geographic area 16.What types of evolutionary forces can help create new species in primates? Natural selection and genetic drift as these force can act to create genetic divergence between two groups that become isolated from one another 17.Founder effect speciation isolating event in which a small population becomes separated from its parent population. Over time reproductive isolation may evolve 18.Other Processes influencing speciation a. Geophysical features can influence speciation b. Any factor that can induce isolation among populations i. Plate tectonics c. Continents can separate causing isolation d. Geophysical features can influence speciation e. Any factor that can induce isolation among populations i. Meteor impacts ii. Climate change f. Can cause cycles of speciation and extinction 19.Factors causing extinctions and mass extinctions global climate change, predation, competition, change in sea level, volcanic eruptions, asteroid impacts = extinctions can trigger adaptive radiations 20.Ecological niche the position of a species within its physical and biological environment (how the species is adapted it its environment) 21.Saddleback tamarin niche a. Diet gums, insects b. Habitat secondary growth forests c. Competitors rodents, birds, other primates d. Predators snakes and raptors e. Activity pattern active by day f. Its locomotion quadrupedalism / jumping 22.Adaptive radiation is the rapid expansion and diversification of species into new ecological niches. It occurs: a. Extinction of competitors b. Colonization of area where no competitors are found c. Adaptive breakthroughs 23.How do we recognize extinct species? need to understand variation 24.Intraspecific Variation Variation among members of a species (due to age, sex, and individual variation) 25.Interspecific Variation variation between two or more species (due to the fact that each species shares a unique gene pool 26.Paleospecies a member of a past lineage 10 Systematics 1. Two Key questions: a. How should we scientifically classify the earth’s species? b. How do scientists go about reconstructing evolutionary relationships among species? 2. Taxonomy the theory and practice of classifying organisms. Its focus is the naming and grouping of earth’s species into a coherent framework 3. Determining evolutionary relationships the science of inferring evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms 4. John Ray came up with the terms “species” and “genus: He recognized that groups of species were sometimes similar and could be grouped into genera 5. Carl Linnaeus developed a hierarchical classification scheme of nested groups. He formalized binomial nomenclature 6. Taxonomy: the Linnaean hierarchy a. Kingdom Animalia b. Phylum Chordata c. Class Mammalia d. Order Primates e. Family Hominidae f. Genus Homo g. Species H. Sapiens 7. What criteria are used to classify species into groups? a. Linnaeues used “similarity” of various traits and that each species possesses and arranged them into nest groups 8. Humerus bone in forelimb found in chicken wing, porpoise flipper, baboon arm, and human arm because it was also found in the common ancestor of these species 9. Homologies similarities due to common ancestry that are present in two or more species 10.Analogies are superficial similarities of features based on common function, not common ancestry often caused by natural selection 11.Homoplasy is the term for the separate evolutionary development of analogies in different (not closely related) species 12.Same basic structure same limb bones support the body in mice and crocodiles 13.Same relationship to other features the limb bones are always connected in similar ways in 4 limbed vertebrates 14.Same development the limbs of all 4 limbed vertebrates have similar development pathways 15.Cladograms we are building a caldogram when figuring out the relationships of the chicken porpoise baboon and human it has a relative time component which means it reflects relative recency of common ancestry / does not reflect overall similarities and differences 11 Geochronology, Plate Tectonics, and Mammalian traits 1. The chronology of the Cenozoic era a. Cenozoic 65mya to present i. Quaternary (1.8mya to present) 1. Holocene (10k to present) 2. Pleistocene (1.8 to 10k) ii. Tertiary (65mya to 1.8mya) 1. Pliocene (5 to 1.8mya) 2. Miocene (23 to 5mya) 3. Oligocene (35 to 23mya) 4. Eocene (53 to 35mya) 5. Paleocene (65 to 53mya) 2. Lithospheric the ocean floors and continents are positioned on eight major lithospheric plates, which “float” on a hot and dynamic (asthenosphere). These plates can collide and can move underneath another (subduction) causing mountains to form (orogeny) 3. Continents 125 million years ago two major landmasses (Laurasia and Gondwana) 4. Plate Tectonics contact between continents facilitates dispersal of flora and fauna 5. Mammals a. First mammal like creatures appeared around 225mya b. Mammalian diversity flourished during the Tertiary 6. Mammals differentiate from reptiles a. Features focusing on reproduction i. Mammary glands milk producing glands ii. Suckling behavior mothers nurse young iii. Vivipary most mammals give birth to live young iv. Parental care more care of offspring, and longer period of offspring dependency b. Features focusing on metabolism i. Endothermy ability to generate constant body temperature from internal metabolism ii. Body Hair possession of at least some body hair not scales. Limits heat loss iii. Sweat Glands glands to dissipate body heat via convection iv. Diaphragm better control of inhalation and exhalation c. Cranial anatomy only one bone forms each side of the jaw in mammals i. Mammalian ear ossicles are homologous with reptile jaw bones d. Dental anatomy i. Mammals have 4 types of teeth: 1. Incisors in front for harvesting 2. Canines at corners of mouth for puncturing 3. Premolars between canines and molars 4. Molars back of mouth for chewing ii. Heterodonty having different type of teeth iii. Diphyodonty two sets of teeth milk teeth and permanent teeth e. Brain Differences i. Brain size much larger than expected in mammals ii. Cerebellum controls movement iii. Neocortex cognitive aspects with respect to dictating the appropriate behavioral response based on sensory input and finetuned sensory processing f. Locomotor differences i. Limbs positioned underneath body not sprawled as in reptiles 12 Introduction to the Primates 1. Primate Classification Traditional a. Prosimilil (lemurs lorises tarsiers) b. Anthropoidea (monkeys, apes, humans) c. Difference ^: Anthropoidea have larger brains, post orbital closure, no grooming claw or toothcomb, increased reliance on color vision 2. Primate Classification revised a. Strepsirhines (lemurs, lorises) b. Haplorhines (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, humans) 3. What characteristics define primates? a. The postcranium i. 5 fingers and toes, prehensile hands, nails instead of claws, friction or tactile pads on fingers and toes, diversity of modes of locomotion b. The cranium i. Emphasis on vision: convergent eyes, stereoscopic vision, visual processing part of brain well developed ii. Brain large for body size c. Life history i. Life history refers to how an organism spreads its reproduction out over its lifetime d. Ecology i. Omnivorous, many anthropoids are diurnal, also are gregarious (reside in social groups), tropical distribution (many other mammal orders not restricted to tropics) 4. Hypothesis accounting for primate traits a. Arboreal hypothesis (traditional view) i. Primate traits arose as a response to living in a three dimensional environment. Living in the trees requires good vision, grasping capabilities, and a somewhat advanced brain to mange these requirements b. Visual predation hypothesis (Matt Cartmill) i. Arboreality alone cannot account for private traits, since squirrels and other mammals seem to get along just fine without the diagnostic primate traits, C 5. Lemurs and Lorises a. Africa and Asia (lorises) / Madagascar (lemurs) b. Tooth comb, grooming claw, tapetum lucidum 6. Tarsiers a. Southeast Asia, Philippines b. Grooming claw, no tapetum lucidem, No toothcomb, nocturnal 7. Platyrrhines (new world monkeys) a. South America, Central America, Southern Mexico 8. Cercopithecoidea (old world monkeys) a. Africa, Asia b. Two major groups cercopithecines (African) and colobines (Asian) 9. Hominoidea a. Gibbons and Siamangs very specialized Locomotor adaptations, pair living b. Genus Pongo Orangutans males are terrestrial, very sexually dimorphic, frugivorous, very endangered c. Genus Gorilla mostly folivorous d. Genus Pan Chimpanzees 2 species (Pan Panisucus) and Pan Troglodytes) are mostly frugivorous but will also hunt and eat meat e. Genus Homo Humans bipedal, very large brained, very little body hair, omnivore i. Generally larger body size, no tail, large brain to body size ratio, long period of infant dependency ii. 2:1:2:3 dental formula iii.Live in Asia and Africa 13A Primate Ecology and Behavior I 1. Primates lives revolved around Finding and eating food, avoiding predators, and finding mates – they also spend majority of time feeding moving and resting each day 2. Positional behavior the various Locomotor (movements) and postural (stationary) behaviors exhibited by a given species 3. Locomotor modes evolved via natural selection to solve ecological problems such as finding food avoiding predators and finding mates 4. Postural modes evolved via natural selection to solve ecological problems related to harvesting food and resting 5. Forest strata and locomotion discontinuous branches, horizontal and vertical, lots of leaping and climbing and specialized behaviors such as bridging 6. Food provides energy for growth survival and reproduction 7. Proteins essential for growth and basic body functions a. Insects, leaves, vertebrates 8. Carbohydrates a ready source of energy in the form of simple or complex sugars a. Fruit, gums, flowers 9. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) the rate of energy expenditure to maintain life when at rest. The relationship between BMR and body size is not linear meaning that larger animals use relatively less energy per unit of body mass than smaller animals. 10.Large Animals relatively less calories per unit of body mass a. Tend to eat leaves for protein and fruit or herbs for carbs b. Must find protein in other places than instead of insects 11.Small Animals relatively more calories per unit of body mas a. Smaller animals require more food per unit of body mass than large animals because they use more energy per unit body mass b. Tend to eat insects for protein and fruit or gums for carbs c. Can met their protein requirements in less time than larger animals 12.Insects lots of protein easy to digest, abundant, but difficult to find, finding one doesn’t guarantee finding another (high quality) 13.Leaves lots of protein, difficult to digest, abundant and easy to find, and finding one leaf guarantees finding another (low quality) a. Have a lots of cellulose and fiber difficult to digest 14.SLOW RATE OF ENERGY TURNOVER IN THE BODY slow food passage rate is facilitated by relatively low BMR 15.Folivorous have evolved sharp crests on teeth and elongated / enlarged stomachs and intestines and long digestion times 16.Dietary Adaptions primates have evolved a lot of different adaptations for harvesting, chewing, and digesting food 17.Nocturnal active at night (many prosimians, owl monkey) 18.Diurnal active during the day (monkey, apes, humans) 19.CATHEMERAL active during day and night; active at any point in 24 hour period (some lemurs) 20.Home ranges all primate individuals or groups move about over a relatively fixed geographic area, these areas contain all the resources a primate needs to survive 21.Territories home ranges that are actively patrolled and defended against conspecifics 22.WHY DEFEND A TERRITORY? a. To possess defendable resources AND to posses mates 13B Primate Ecology and Behavior 1. Why do most primates live in groups? a. Protection from predators AND enhanced ability to find and defend food sources b. More eyes to spot predator and alarm calls to warn others 2. Group size is a tradeoff of costs and benefits: a. Benefit ability displace other groups / individual chance of being eaten b. Cost intragroup feeding competition 3. Inbreeding offspring mates with a close relative 4. Philopatric remaining in the group or near home 5. Matriines related females 6. Scramble competition individuals loose access to resource because others have already found them. This occurs when food patches are low value, large and highly abundant A LOT OF IT SO THEY TRY AND EAT MORE 7. Contest competition individuals can systematically exclude other individuals from the resource. Occurs when food patches are clumped small and Defendable. Can monopolize the resource so there is direct competition for AGRESSION IS USED a. Contest competition within groups leads to female philopatry and dominance hierarchies among matrilines 8. Dominance is the predicable relationship between individuals established via fighting or aggressive displays of strength a. Dominance relationships are the outcome of a dispute over a contested resource 9. Polygyny one male, multifemale 10. Strive for high dominance rank to influence your reproductive success 11. Females spaced far apart males pair up with a single female (monogamy) or male ranges overlap with several solitary female ranges 12. Females clumped together males monopolize the whole group (onemale groups) or many males joining large female group 13. Intrasexual selection males compete with each other for females. Traits su a. PRECOPULATORY fighting, agility – men physically fighting b. POSTCOPULATORY sperm competition, infanticide, a female has 3 different sperm which one will reach that egg? 13C_Primate_behavioral_ecology_10_14.ppt Primate Ecology and Behavior III 1. William Hamilton- provided an intuitively easy explanation a. Reproductive Altruism- help your relative reproduce even if it means that you may not reproduce yourself 2. Grooming- hygienic and reinforces social bonds 3. Robert Trivers- cam up with reciprocal altruism as it could evolve between unrelated individuals – occurs when take turns helping, remembering who helped, and providing support to those who need help 4. TIT FOR TAT- individuals help those who helped them 5. Kin selection??????
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