ANNTH 196 ANTH 196
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hewan Ft on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 196 at James Madison University taught by Richard Lawler in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology 1. Bioarchaeology- the study if skeletal remains from archaeological sites (10kya to historical) in order to determine the biological context of life and death from a cultural and archaeological perspective 2. Forensic Anthropology- The study of skeletal remains and other evidence in order to determine the causes and context of death with respect to legal and criminal matters 3. Biological Sites / Crime Scenes a. The field site is the primary data source for bioarchaelogists and forensic anthropologists b. Sites can be found by accident, survey, or systematic thinking c. Data is collected so that the entire site/ crime scene can be reconstructed d. In forensic cases the data constitute legal evidence and a chain of custody must be established 4. Biological Profile- a. Age i. As individuals grow their skeleton / teeth change as well ii. One can use the fusion of the epiphyses (bony ends) to the shaft of the bone as an indicator of age in children from before birth to age 10-12 b. Sex i. Several bones indicate male and female differences especially in adults (PELVIS) ii. The Skull shows differences in gender iii. A combination of features is more accurate than a single feature c. Ancestry i. Can distinguish through traits of a particularly high frequency among population (shovel shaped incisors among some Asian populations) or culturally specific traits pertaining to particular groups ii. A suit of skeletal traits can statistically assign an individual to ancestral geographic area or race d. Injury / Disease i. Injuries and diseases can leave permanent marks/scars on our hard tissues such as teeth and bones ii. ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA- the defect in teeth, it is proportional to the length of time that growth was impeded iii. Repetitive or asymmetrical activities and stress can reshape skeletal elements which can be studied to infer activities 5. Taphonomy a. Bioarchaelogists are particularly interested in patterns of skeletal structures that occur antemortem (before death) from postmortem (after death) b. Helps distinguish human intention from natural processes 6. Forensic Anthropology- Identity and Identification a. Most forensic like to rely on having some record and or tissue samples of the individual while alive b. Tooth eruption, tooth position, and dental work can identify individual c. FORENSIC ODONTOLOGIST- can compare dental XRAYS taken from the individual while alive to those taken from the recovered individual d. The frontal sinus has a unique shape in humans- provided that there are x- rays of the frontal sinus taken from an individual while alive, forensic anthropologists can compare antemortem and postmortem x-rays to identify individuals. e. It is possible to compare genetic profile of a dead person to 1) their same genetic profile taken while alive; 2) the genetic profile of the individual’s relatives 7. Applications of Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology a. Both fields utilize deductive methods to produce biological information about individuals during their lifetime and especially after their death b. Bioarchaeology i. Mortuary archaeology ii. Health and disease studies iii. Subsistence change c. Forensic Anthropology i. Mass fatalities ii. Individual criminal cases iii. War crimes / War dead Human Biological Variation I 1. Direct Model of Phenotype- selection creates fixed adaptive traits in human populations 2. Human Biological Variation- a. Environment (sunlight) b. Alleles (determining skin color) c. Phenotype (tanning) 3. Phenotypic plasticity- selection creates the ability for traits to temporarily change due to the environment – allows us to have the capacity to change skin tone a. The ability to make beneficial physiological adjustments in phenotype in response to the environment. Such changes are not inherited, but the capacity to make such changes is inherited and adaptive. b. Human populations can have adaptations for different environmental circumstances (darker skin in tropical places) c. Humans have the ability to have phenotypically plastic responses to environmental circumstances (ability to tan in tropical regions) d. Examples: Temperature adjustment, altitude adjustment, UV radiation adjustment 4. Human biological variation: temperature a. Short term response to heat i. VASODILATION- expansion of blood vessels and increased blood flow to the skin b. Short term response to cold i. VASCONSTICTION- narrowing of blood vessels and reduced blood flow to the skin c. Long term adaptations in cold climates i. Larger body size, shorter limbs ii. More internal mass, relative to skin surface (heat retention) d. Long term adaptations to hotter climates i. Smaller body size, longer limbs ii. Less internal mass, relative to skin surface (heat release) 5. Human biological variation: altitude a. Oxygen is less concentrate at high altitudes leading to hypoxia: lack of oxygen in body b. Over short-term- body increases respiration and heart rate, and produces more red blood cells c. Over the long term- populations living in high altitudes have larger lungs, larger heart mass and slower rates of maturation 6. Human biological variation: temperature a. Skin is largest organ of human body (2 square meters of skin and 2mm thick) b. Composed of- Dermis and Epidermis c. 3 substance that influence color i. Hemoglobin ii. Carotene iii. Melanin- most important of skin pigmentation: more melanin = DARKER SKIN 1. Produced by melanocytes which all humans have the same amount of however humans differ with respect to the amount and size of melanin produced d. UV radiation i. Bad 1. From sunlight can penetrate skin and damage DNA leading to skin cancer. As it is most intense in equatorial regions. It damages folate acid (a vitamin B) ii. Good 1. Provides vitamin D for bone growth and important during pregnancy and lactation e. Folate acid- is necessary for DNA synthesis, red blood formation and spermatogenesis (in males) Low folate acid can lead to BIRTH DEFECTS (low fitness) f. Women have lighter skin then men due to increased needs for calcium during pregnancy (Vitamin D facilitates absorption of calcium) g. Darker skin protects against skin cancer and folate acid destruction (both caused by UV radiation, which is intense along the equator) and lighter skin allows for vitamin D synthesis in regions where UV radiation is less intense 7. Evolutionary Scenario for skin color a. CHIMPS i. Primitive skin color likely light skin ii. Forest cover provides more protection from UV radiation iii. Smaller group size means less ectoparasite transmission, no selection for body hair reduction b. Hominids i. Savanna means more sunlight and new adaptations to deal with heat/UV radiation against light colored skin ii. Larger groups means more ectoparasite transmission iii. Loss body hair necessitates melanin production c. Naked ape = fewer parasites d. Social creatures have higher probability of transmitting parasites to others e. Advantages to hairlessness- fewer parasites, better cooling f. Disadvantages- more exposure to UV radiation g. Solution- Melanin production regulates our ability to absorb UV and synthesize vitamin D, which results in differences in skin color across geographic regions (due to differences in UV) Human Biological Variation II 1. Historical Perspectives / Classify Human Diversity a. Phenotypic: Classifications based on an arbitrary but visible aspects of the phenotype: skin color, hair type, nose shape b. Ethnocentric and teleological: those doing the classifying placed themselves at top of the classification scheme c. BIOLOGICAL DETERMINISM- idea that social and cultural characteristics are genetically determined, and correspond to “racial” phenotypes d. TAXONOMICALLY ARBITRARY- mistaken idea that units below the species level had distinct biological boundaries 2. Anders Retzius developed a measure of cranial shape that could classify people as a. Dolichocephalic: long, narrow head (northern Europe, some African populations) b. Brachycephalic: wide head (southern Europe) 3. Racial Concepts in Physical Anthropology a. Earnest Hooton i. White / Negroid / Mongoloid b. United States immigration had 3 main categories: i. Northeast Asia (Mongoloid) ii. Western Africa (Negroid) iii. Northern Europe (Caucasoid) c. Carlton Coon (the origin of races) d. Used morphological criteria such as skull morphology (dolichocephalic vs. brachycephalic) 4. Races were biological entities, however are hard to define a. No valid evolutionary basis for dividing up human diversity into only three categories b. Some, but not all, human variation is continuous and graded across geographical space c. We tend to psychologically recognize differences among groups when comparing extremes 5. Genetic Diversity and Race a. Variation in human skin color: 22 populations b. Genetic differences among everyone expressed as percentage equals 100% c. Genetic differences between “races” equals about 8% of the total 100% d. Genetic differences among individuals within a “race” equals about 92% of the total 100% e. What is important is your immediate geographic ancestry, not your race 6. Race is difficult to biologically define a. Today social scientists tend to talk of ethnicity: ones cultural identity or biologists tend to use populations or ancestry b. Genetic differences DO exist among individuals and populations and regions. BUT… Broad geographic regions (Africa, Europe, Asia, North/South America) are NOT vastly genetically distinct from other regions c. Broad social categories (Africans, Europeans, Asians) are NOT vastly genetically different from other groups 7. Organization of Human Brain a. Brain stem- metabolic activities b. Cerebellum-balance, posture, movement c. Cerebrum (Neocortex)- higher brain functions divided in lobes i. PRIMARY CORTEX- regions involved directly with motor / sensory input ii. Association cortices: regions involved in processing signals from primary cortex iii. Organization of Cerebrum 1. Hemisphere- one half of the cerebrum divided down the midline 2. Sulci- grooves on the brain. The troughs 3. Gyri- ridges on the brain, the rounded up part 4. Neurons: basic cellular units of the brain and nervous system 8. Primate Social Behavior and Intelligence a. When compared to other mammals primates are more encephalized and humans are very encephalized within primates b. Encephalization- the degree to which brain size exceeds body size 9. The evolving hominid brain a. A. afarensis- 400-500cc b. Homo habilis- 600-775cc c. H. ergaster/erectus- 800-1250cc d. H. heidelbergensis- average ~1200cc e. H. neanderthalensis- 1245-1740cc f. H. sapiens- 1100-1550cc 10. Brain can be reorganized three ways: a. A region can become larger or smaller b. A functional region can change position c. A new region can emerge 11. Reorganization of the hominid brain a. Olfactory bulbs- became smaller b. Increase in the Frontal Lobe- associated with analytical reasoning, cognition, memory, and judgment c. Primary visual region shifts to interior, this is likely due to expansion of parietal lobes in humans—a major sensory processing center 12. How did a large brain evolve in genus Homo? a. EXPENSIVE TISSUE HYPOTHESIS i. Humans have very large brains for body size ii. Humans have smaller guts (stomach, spleen, intestines) than expected given their body size iii. Both brains and guts are metabolically expensive organs to maintain. If you spend time investing energy in one organ system, you can’t put that energy into another organ system iv. Humans switched to include more meat in their diet. Meat is a high quality resource that is “brain food” v. Exploiting a higher quality diet does 2 things: 1) often necessitates a novel foraging strategy (as in the case of hunting), and 2) high quality food is easier to digest and requires less gut-size. Human Biological Variation III 1. Brain Size and Intelligence a. How do we measure intelligence? i. Cranial capacity (not a strong predictor) ii. IQ score (widely used, but makes some assumptions about how the brain works) iii. Early IQ tests were culturally-biased toward the white middle class: b. GENERAL FACTORS OF INTELLIGENCE- analytical reasoning, spatial ability, verbal ability, memory, and quantitative ability c. Nutrition and learning environment can increase IQ scores and intelligence d. Most estimates of the genetic basis of intelligence suggest that 50% of variation in IQ scores is due to genetic variation e. This means there is about a 50% contribution from the environment (early nutrition, schooling, etc.) 2. Languages versus Communication a. Communication: any act even unintentional that conveys info between individuals i. Usually modifies behavior of recipient b. Language- system of communication used by humans i. Spoken- verbal expression and anatomical specializations for speech ii. Sematic- words linked to real world objects events actions, words have meaning iii. PHONEMIC- words assembled from small arbitrary sounds called phonemes iv. GRAMMATICAL- system of using word classes and system of word order (called syntax) v. FOXP2: a gene that is important in language and speech production. (Note: other genes are also involved in the production of human language) vi. FOXP2 is conserved: this means the basic sequence of nucleotides (and the amino acids they code for) is similar across chimps, gorillas, and humans vii. Others argue that the capacity for language was the direct target of natural selection. (More likely) 3. Why did language evolve? a. Social gossip: Language functions to exchange social information about group members when group sizes are large (assumes that ancestral human groups were large) b. Social contract: language functioned to establish contracts and social bonds among ancestral monogamous units c. Social flare: language evolved and functions as a means for males to attract females. d. 4. How can non-human primates communicate? a. The presence and/or location of individuals The “state” of sender: i. Sexual receptivity ii. Emotional excitement iii. Confidence (lost calls) b. The state of the environment i. Predators ii. Food c. Modes of communication- Tactile, visual, vocal, olfactory 5. Contemporary Human Genetic Variation a. A lot of human genetic variation can be explained by two patterns: i. Founders effects and colonization of new areas- Founder effects can create sharp divisions in genetic variation across space 1. Single migrations by small groups with little additional migrations into the area can result in founder effects… this creates sharp divisions in allele frequencies in geographically close areas ii. Local migration and gene flow- While migration and localized mating can create more continuous variation across space b. CLINE – gradual changes in frequency of a genotype or allele over geographic space c. ABO blood type system i. Three alleles: A, B, O ii. Six genotypes: AB, AO, BO, OO, BB, AA iii. Four phenotypes: Type A, Type B, Type AB, Type O iv. A and B are dominant to O and co dominant to one another 6. Distribution of the B allele in the ABO blood group a. Cline: likely reflects gene flow and localized mating b. Found effect: abrupt change in frequency Human Health and Development I 1. Infectious Disease a. Refers to diseases that are caused by- bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites b. Sickle Cell Anemia and Malaria i. Three genotypes: AA, AS, SS (SS = deadly) ii. Therefore two phenotypes: healthy, sickle celled iii. BALANCED POLYMORPHISM: maintenance of two or more alleles in a population due to selection for the heterozygote iv. Malaria: 1. An infectious disease, kills many, many children 2. Malaria is caused by Plasmodium and transferred to humans by a bite from a mosquito 3. In seasonal and/or dry environments, mosquitoes don’t breed year-round, so malaria is not present 4. Humans moved into tropical forests (non-seasonal, humid environments) and practiced slash-and-burn agriculture = BREEDS mosquitoes v. Sickle Cell Anemia 1. It turns out that having sickle cell is advantageous in malaria- present environments 2. The Plasmodium parasite cannot complete its lifecycle in individuals with sickle cell 3. Sickle cell individuals are more resistant to malaria vi. Bio-cultural evolution- cultural practices can influence patterns of genetic variation c. Lactose Intolerance i. Milk contains lactose, a sugar which must be broken down with lactase to ensure digestion by infants ii. Contemporary populations are polymorphic with respect to lactose intolerance iii. It is possible that this variation reflects the action of selection iv. Pastoralist populations with high dependency on milk products are tolerant of lactose in adulthood…likely due to selection, via cultural production of milk, for lactose tolerance since milk- drinking is part of the adult diet 2. Epidemiological transitions a. Agricultural- i. Hunting and gathering ancestral mode of life / Small groups of individuals ii. Loosely connected, low population density iii. A bacterial or viral infection could wipe out the group but it wouldn’t affect other groups iv. Groups can move out of “infectious areas” v. Switch to agriculture led to new uses of land vi. Clearing of forests: increased contact with new diseases vii. High population density, diseases could rapidly spread viii. Increased technology also helped spread diseases: boats brought smallpox to new world ix. Domestic animals: new VECTORS (agents that carry a disease) such as fleas b. Industrial: i. Characteristics 1. Use of technology to fight diseases: antibiotics, public- awareness, mass-immunizations 2. Mortality: switch from infectious agents to “old age” diseases 3. Lots of optimism about “eradicating” or “controlling” diseases. 4. Over application of antibiotics imposes strong selection on bacterial populations, by killing off non-resistant variants more quickly--rapid evolution of resistance occurs 5. Antibiotics must be used judiciously, not capriciously ii. Antibiotic Revolution 1. 1928 - Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin 2. 1952 - Joshua & Esther Lederberg discover that some bacteria are genetically resistant to penicillin 3. 1965 - Over 25,000 antibiotics developed iii. Optimism and arrogance: 1. Staphylococcus went from “extremely dangerous” to “easily managed minor infection”. 2. 1948: U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall indicated that the conquest of all infectious disease was imminent. iv. Bacterial population- natural variation due to high mutation rate v. Antibiotic Application- usually kills 100% of bacteria vi. 1800 to 1970 1. Increased reliance on technology 2. Lots of population growth 3. Use of antibiotics 4. Better transportation 5. More urbanization and pollution 6. Expansion of land-use c. Post- industrial (present)- took factors to a new level i. New Viral Agents 1. 1983- HIV/ Acquired Immunodefiency Syndrome 2. 1989- Hepatitis C / Transfusion Related 3. 1991- Guanarito Virus / Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever ii. New Bacterial Agents 1. 1975- Borrelia Burgdorfen / Lyme Disease 2. 1976- Legionella Pneumophilia / Legionnaires Disease 3. 1978- Staphylococcus aureus / Toxic Shock Syndrome 4. 1992- Vibrio Cohlerae 0139 / New Variant of cholera iii. Old Diseases, New Location 1. 1993: Yellow Fever = Kenya 2. 1993: Hantavirus = Southwestern U.S. iv. New Diseases from new environments 1. Machupo- Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever 2. Ebola 3. Lassa Fever 4. Marburg Virus v. Some Causes 1. Population Growth- more use of natural resources and more by-products such as pollution (global warming) a. Release of CO2 into atmosphere causes earth’s annual temperatures to rise by trapping heat b. This small change (about 2-10 degrees over next 100 years) can have major impacts: c. It can extend range of the malarial mosquito 2. Deforestation and consumerism- moving into new habitats increases risk of zoonoses a. Increased global demand leads to coltan mining b. Political instability, miners subject to bad conditions and hunger. Increased hunting of bushmeat (SIV to HIV) (higher risk of zoonotic events) c. ZOONOTIC- a diseases that is transmitted to humans through contact with a non human animal d. Aswan Dam construction led to large pools of standing water. Led to more mosquitoes who transferred a fever from cattle to humans e. More American homes built in wooded areas. High deer population (no predators) leads to more deer carrying Lyme disease 3. Globalization and Urbanization- more densely packed people easier to move around the globe a. High population densities and many people living in cities b. Increased rates of transmission due to rapid movement of people using air travel c. New diseases that can thrive in cities: Legionnaires Disease d. Overuse of antibiotics in agriculture (as additives to diet of dairy and beef cattle) e. Over-prescription of antibiotics for non-bacterial ailments, such as flu viruses f. Bacteria strains exist today that are able to resist all the antibiotics we currently possess Human Health and Development II 1. The Human Life Cycle a. Life Cycle- the relevant stages of development / most stages in the life cycle are marked by some physiological transition b. Compared to other primates, humans are unique in that they have a post-reproductive period 2. The Human Life Cycle and Life History Theory a. Prenatal Stage i. Offspring viewpoint- I have a greater interest in my own survivorship than I do in the survival of any future siblings ii. Moms viewpoint- I have an equal interest in the survival of all my offspring iii. Maternal Offspring conflict- 1. Offspring will want more investment than parent is often willing to give 2. Offspring related to itself by 1.0 3. Mom is only related to offspring by 0.5 and has lifetime RS to consider…a tradeoff iv. 30-75% of pregnancies spontaneously aborted within 2 weeks v. Could reflect selective (unconscious) elimination by mother vi. Embryo must produce a hormone to sustain pregnancy vii. Amount of embryonic hormone produced may signal embryo quality… low quality, better for mom to abort pregnancy b. Infant Stage – 0-3 years i. The infant stage ends at weaning… and another conflict emerges ii. As infant grows larger, energetic cost of mom’s nursing increases c. Juvenile period- 3-12 years i. Childhood 3-7 years 1. After weaning, but still dependent on parent for food/ protection. 2. Brain growth during infancy and childhood is unique to humans ii. Juvenile 7-12 years 1. Socially dependent on parent 2. Major time of learning social skills to be used during adulthood 3. Onset of Adrenarchy: The release of a hormone from adrenal glands that helps shape the brain…very pronounced in humans- finishing touches on the brain d. Sub Adult Period 12-18 years i. Onset of sexual maturity (secondary sexual characteristics and sexual interest) ii. Lower rates of skeletal growth up to sexual maturity followed by a growth spurt after puberty. iii. No other primate has an adolescent (i.e., sub adult) growth spurt in height, though some show a gain in weight e. ADULT PERIOD 18 onward i. Increased adult brain size ii. Prolonged brain growth after birth and during childhood… iii. Increased importance of culturally transmitted information… iv. Thus selection for an extended life cycle, with slower development and more time for learning f. Adult period 18 years to low fertility i. Fully sexually mature, cessation of skeletal growth, major period of reproduction, major period of parental investment g. Post Reproductive period i. SENESCENCE- the deterioration of body function as we grow older ii. As we age = fertility declines and physiological functions deteriorate iii. Female post reproductive period 1. Menopause: the gradual cessation of the menstrual cycle subsequent to the loss of ovarian function = after age of 45 a. This is UNIQUE to humans 2. The Grandmother Hypothesis: Evidence a. A large-scale study in The Gambia showed that offspring with a maternal grandmother were healthier and had higher survivorship than offspring without a maternal grandmother h. Relatedness: the proportion of alleles shared between kin i. Genetic self interest- do things that increase your own fitness j. Genetic Altruism- do things that increase your kin’s fitness 3. Why do we age and then die? a. ANTAGONISTIC PLEIOTROPHY- genes that are beneficial early in life can have an adverse affect later in life b. Allele that increases testosterone i. For young males: testosterone increase sex-drive and ability to compete for mates. ii. For old males: testosterone can cause prostate cancer, which is lethal (in a pre-treatment world) c. We are products of evolution i. We can apply evolutionary concepts to modern human problems 1. Issues of “race” and diversity 2. Bacterial resistance and disease 3. Aging and lifespan 4. Cooperation and getting along ii. This requires that we strive to 1. Understand our evolutionary legacy 2. Respect our place in the environment
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