Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 17 Study Guide Endocrine System
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 17 Study Guide Endocrine System BMSP 2146
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monica Ricci on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMSP 2146 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Gillian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 155 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology & Anatomy II in Animal Science and Zoology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Chapter 17 Review Sheet Cell-to-cell communication: gap junctions, neurotransmitters, paracrines, hormones Gap junctions- connects cytoplasm of adjacent cells Neurotransmitters- chemical signals over synapse out the end of an axon, binds to nearby cell Paracrines- signal induces change in nearby cells, alters behavior or differentiation Hormones- signaling molecules secreted by organs into blood stream to target cells Endocrine vs. exocrine glands Endocrine- ductless, product secreted into blood, intracellular effects, changes to cell metabolism Exocrine- ducts, secreted onto surface, stomach lining, extracellular effects, digestion of food Nervous system vs. Endocrine system Effects- specific and general Speed- nervous is faster Duration- endocrine lasts longer Adaptation- nervous adapts faster BUT chemicals act as both neurotransmitters and hormones and some neurons release hormones into blood Systems regulate each other Tropin – a hormone that induces the secretion of other hormones Endocrine disorders Hypersecretion- too much hormone Hyposecretion- too little hormone Hormone receptors- too few or faulty *defects in 2dmessenger system Dwarfism- GH hyposecretion Gigantism- GH hypersecretion in childhood Acromegaly- GH hypersecretion in adulthood For the endocrine organs listed below, know the basic anatomy. For the hormones numbered below, know the name, abbreviation, source, target, principal effects Hypothalamus hormones- control anterior pituitary, releasing or inhibiting, “portal system” connects hypothalamus and anterior (hypothalamus is flattened funnel, third ventricle of brain, homeostatic, memory and emotion) Portal system- blood passes through 2 capillary beds before returning to heart Hypophyseal portal system- hormones released in hypothalamus through the portal venules to anterior pituitary Thyrotropin-releasing hormone Corticotropin-releasing hormone Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Growth hormone-releasing hormone Prolactin-inhibiting hormone Somatostatin (Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone) Control of Pituitary Secretion- rates not constant (hypothalamus, brain center, negative feedback regulates) Hypothalamic- releasing/inhibiting hormones from hypothalamus to anterior lobe Neuroendocrine reflexes- release in response to nervous system signal (suckling infant) Hormone release in response to higher brain centers (baby’s cry, milk ejection) Negative and positive feedback Pituitary gland – kidney bean, attached by a stalk/infundibulum to hypothalamus Adenohypophysis- anterior lobe Neurohypophysis- posterior lobe know anatomy, hypophysis, hypophyseal portal system, hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract, anterior lobe, posterior lobe, , infundibulum, diabetes insipidus Anterior pituitary hormones- controlled by hypothalamus Follicle-stimulating hormone- gonadotropin, targets ovaries and testes, growth of ovarian follicle, sperm production Luteinizing hormone- gonadotropin, targets ovaries and testes, testosterone secretion, ovulation, maintains CL Thyroid-stimulating hormone- target the thyroid, growth of thyroid, secretion of thyroid hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone- targets adrenal gland, growth of adrenal cortex, secretion of hormones/glucocorticoids from cortex Prolactin- targets the mammary gland, milk synthesis Growth hormone *effects discussed more in-depth- targets liver, bone, cartilage, muscle and fat, widespread tissue growth (GH levels decrease with age….bone growth thickening and remodeling) -Insulin-like growth factors- IGF-I prolongs the action -Protein synthesis increases -lipid metabolism increased- fat catabolized by adipocytes, provides energy for growing tissue -carbohydrate metabolism- glucose sparing, mobilizes fatty acids, glucose available for glycogen storage Posterior pituitary hormones- produced in hypothalamus, down axons (hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract), to posterior Antidiuretic hormone- targets kidneys, water retention Oxytocin- targets uterus, contractions, targets mammary glands, milk ejection Pineal Gland – “involution” or a decrease in size of the organ over life, largest in children Melatonin- targets brain, 24-hr circadian rhythm, melatonin from serotonin, timing of puberty, mood Thymus- ENDOCRINE, LYMPHATIC, AND IMMUNE Bilobed gland in mediastinum superior to heart, “involution” after puberty Hormones (thymosins) lead to development of T cells – important for immune system Thyroid gland – LARGEST ENDOCRINE GLAND, two lobes, isthmus, below larynx, dark red/brown, follicles make up most of thyroid, follicular cells- simple cuboidal lines follicles, colloid- protein found in follicles, C cells (parafollicular), endemic goiter Thyroid hormone – iodine required, thyroxine T4 more active form & triiodothyronine T3 (secreted by follicular cells), targets most tissues, increases metabolic rate, responds to TSH Calcitonin- secreted by C/parafollicular cells, target bone, decreases blood calcium, response to rising blood calcium, osteoblast activity and bone formation Parathyroid glands- four glands partially embedded in posterior thyroid Parathyroid hormone- increases blood calcium, promotes synthesis of calcitriol, decreases excretion of calcium, increases excretion of phosphate, bone resorption, targets bone, kidney, small intestine Adrenal (Suprarenal) glands – Cushing syndrome- excess cortisol secretion, hyperglycemia, hypertension, weakness, edema, muscle/bone loss b/c protein catabolism, abnormal fat deposition (moon face/buffalo hump) Adrenogenital syndrome- hypersecretion of adrenal androgens, enlargement of penis or clitoris, premature puberty, misidentification of sex in child Adrenal medulla – modified sympathetic ganglion secrete the hormones epinephrine, norepinephrine, mimics sympathetic nervous system, targets most tissues Adrenal cortex – produces 5 major corticosteroids from 3 layers (three layers produce different types of corticosteroids) 1. zona glomerulosa- mineralcorticoids, ex. aldosterone regulates body’s electrolyte balance (Na retention, K excretion) Rounded clusters, thin outer layer 2. zona fasiculata- glucocorticoids in response to ACTH, ex. cortisol stimulates fat and protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, release of fatty acids and glucose into blood, body adapt to stress and repair Arranged in fascicles separated by capillaries 3. zona reticularis- sex steroids, androgens, which are masculinizing hormones ex. DHEA, and also some estrogens, which are feminizing hormones that sustain bone mass after menopause Dehydroepiandrosterone- prenatal male development, libido throughout life Branching network Go Find Rex, Make Good Sex: glomerulosa, mineralcorticoids, fasiculata, glucocorticoids, reticularis, sex hormones Pancreas – retroperitoneal, inferior and posterior to stomach, pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) produce hormones, 98% produces digestive enzymes “pancreatic acini”, exocrine digestive gland in clusters Diabetes mellitus – most prevalent metabolic disease in world, disruption of metabolism b/c hypo secretion or inactivation of insulin, transport maximum (limit to how fast glucose transporters can work to reabsorb, excess glucose enters urine and water follows) Polyuria- excess urine output Polydipsia- intense thirst Polyphagia- hunger Elevated blood glucose in urine, ketones in urine type 1- 5-10% cases in US, autoantibodies attack and destroy Beta cells, hereditary insulin treated, IDDM, injections, pump, inhaler, controlled diet type 2- 90-95% of diabetics, NIDDM, insulin resistance, heredity, obesity, ethnicity (native American, Hispanic, Asian), treated with weight loss, muscle causes difficult regulation of glycemia, adipose takes up most glucose, oral meds target cell sensitivity pathology of diabetes- if glucose does not get into cells, person is “starving” despite eating, cells rely on fat and protein for energy b/c cells cannot absorb glucose, fat catabolism increases fat and ketones in blood (ketoacidosis when ketones decrease blood pH/ deep, gasping breaths, coma) chronic pathology- hyperglycemia, neuropathy and cardiovascular damage from atherosclerosis and microvascular disease artery damage in retina and kidneys (type 1) atherosclerosis, heart failure (common in type 2) diabetic neuropathy- nerve damage from impoverished blood flow, erectile dysfunction, poor healing Alpha cells secrete glucagon (hyperglycemic)- released between meals, stimulates release of glucose in liver, stimulates fat catabolism, amino acid absorption (raw material for gluconeogenesis) *glucagon, growth hormone, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol all raise blood glucose Beta cells secrete insulin (hypoglycemic)- during/after meal, stimulates cells to absorb nutrients, lowers blood glucose (brain, liver, kidneys, and RBCs absorb glucose w/o insulin) Delta cells secrete somatostatin – which acts as a paracrine, inhibiting insulin and glucagon release and also acts as a hormone modulating digestion and nutrient absorption The gonads – ovaries and testes- both endocrine and exocrine Exocrine- whole cell egg and sperm, endocrine- steroid hormones Ovaries Estradiol and Progesterone- regulate female repro, maintain pregnancy, prep mammary glands, secondary sex characteristics Inhibin- suppresses FSH secretion from anterior pituitary Testes – androgen insensitivity syndrome- loss of function in testosterone receptors, XY individuals look female, lack penis Testosterone- male repro system in fetus and adolescent, sex drive, sustains sperm production Inhibin- inhibits FSH secretion in order regulate sperm production Skin – produces a vitamin-D (calcitriol) precursor Liver – involved in production of 5 hormones Converts cholecalciferol to calcidiol Secretes angiotensin 2 that regulates BP Erythropoietin- stimulates red blood cell production Hepcidin – promotes iron absorption Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) – prolongs and mediates action of GH Kidneys- role in producing 2 hormones Calcitriol – vitamin D, promotes intestinal absorption of calcium ions, inhibits loss in urine Erythropoietin- stimulates bone marrow to produce RBCs Heart Atrial natriuretic peptide- atrial natriuretic peptide, decreases blood volume and pressure when high Stomach- ten enteric hormones, digestive motility and glandular secretion Adipose tissue- leptin slows appetite Placenta Estrogen and progesterone – aid in maintenance of pregnancy Hydrophobic-Steroid and thyroid hormones – derived from cholesterol, secreted by gonads/adrenal, penetrates membrane, several hours to show effect b/c lag of protein synthesis, act directly on genes, transport proteins hydrophobic, include aldosterone, androgens, estrogens, progesterone, and cortisol, protein carriers, receptor location Hydrophilic- cannot penetrate cell, second-messenger system Peptide hormones – produced as preprohormone, converted to prohormone, then active hormone Monoamines/Catecholamines - hydrophilic, ex. dopamine, epinephrine, receptor location, 2nd messenger system (CAMP) Hormone Synthesis: Insulin Begins as preproinsulin, proinsulin, two polypeptide chains formed= insulin Receptor hormones-exhibit specificity and saturation Enzyme amplification- one hormone molecule triggers synthesis of many enzymes, circulating concentrations very low Up-regulation, down-regulation- target cell sensitivity adjusted by changing receptors Up-regulation- number of receptors is increased, sensitivity increased Down-regulation- long term exposure to high hormone concentrations, receptors decreased Synergistic, permissive, and antagonistic effects Synergistic- FSH and testosterone on sperm production Permissive- estrogen preps uterus for action of progesterone Antagonistic- one hormone opposes action of another Hormone clearance- signals must be turned off after serving their purpose, hormones taken up by liver and kidney, excreted as bile or urine Metabolic clearance rate- rate of hormone removal from blood, half-life is time required to clear 50% of hormone from blood
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