Chapter 21 Lymphatic System Study Guide
Chapter 21 Lymphatic System Study Guide BMSP 2146
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monica Ricci on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMSP 2146 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Gillian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 153 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology & Anatomy II in Animal Science and Zoology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Chapter 21 Explain the three functions of the lymphatic system 1 Fluid recovery uid continually lters from capillaries into tissue spaces capillaries absorb 85 and 15 enters lymphatic then returns to blood 2 lmmunity ltered uid picks up foreign cells from tissues passes through lymph nodes where immune cells are activate immune response 3 Lipid absorption lacteals in small intestine absorb dietary lipids that capillaries don t Immune system not organ system population of cells inhabiting organs concentrated in lymphatic organs Lymphatic system organs and veins that recover uid inspect disease activate immune responses returns uid to blood Describe lymph How is lymph different from blood plasma Lymph recovered uid clear colorless extracellular uid that has entered a lymphatic capillary Lymphatic vessels transports lymph valves goes to larger and larger vessels Tunica interna endothelium and valves Tunica media elastic bers smooth muscle Tunica externa thin outer layer Lymphatic tissue aggregates lymphocytes and macrophages that populate many organs in body Lymphatic organs defense cells concentrated in them separated from each other by connective tissue capsules What features of lymphatic capillaries differentiate them from blood capillaries Terminal lymphatics penetrate nearly every body tissue closed at one end Endothelial cells that overlap each other gaps allow bacteria to enter valvelike aps when interstitial uid pressure is high After lymph enters lymphatic capillaries what vessels does it ow through before it enters the bloodstream Lymphatic capillaries Collecting vessels course through many lymph nodes Six lymphatic trunks drain major portions of body Two collecting ducts right lymphatic thoracic tgglrgsgz Cardiovascular system PulmonaryF circuit Lymph nodes What is the function of valves in lymphatic vessels 7 7 Prevents ow lr unks 39 I Su lboleviah vein Copyright The McGrawHill Compames Inc Permission requlred for reproduction or display 39V 39 39 Superior II in Coeol g vena cava vessels V Lymph Lymph flows forward through open valves 7 Systemic circuil Lymphalllo 4quot 39 capillaries 3Fquot ELIJ quotV39 7 L f k n Closed valves prevent bacllelow b a Thle MoGraw llill Companies lncJDeInnis Strelle photographer Label the two lymphatic ducts and describe which portions of the body are drained by each Which begins at the cisterna chyli Right lymphatic receives from right armheadthorax empties into RIGHT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN Thoracic duct larger and longer begins at sac in abdomen CISTERNA CHYLI receives from below diaphragm left armheadneckthorax empties into LEFT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN Flight jugular uan f Drained Highl lymphatic taunt cm 7 Blamed by flight by lymphatic l thoracic duct duct 1139 l I 3 quotn ED 3 8 1 39l v 39 V 239 1 L 4 4l r 39Iquot g int n millIll illsi w l l j 39a g m l 39 quot1quotquot Arl 3 I m Diaphragm Cismrna clwli In testinal trunk Rig WU5 trunk Left lumbar lrunk A 43 3 139 Ir 39 39l c Describe the forces that aid in the ow of lymph Forces similar to venous ow but NO PUMP Lymph ows at low pressure Slower than venous blood Moved along by contractions of lymphatic vessels Skeletal muscle pump contracting muscles squeeze blood out of vein or lymphatic vessel Arterial pulsation squeezes lymphatic vessels Thoracic Dump aids flow from abdominal to thoracic cavity Valves prevent backward flow Subclavian veins with rapidly owing blood draws lymph in Exercise increases lymphatic return and why Name the major types of cells of the lymphatic system and state their functions Natural killer cells large lymphocytes attackdestroy bacteria transplanted tissue host cells with viruses cancerous cells T lymphocytes mature in thymus B lymphocytes mature in bone marrow activation causes proliferationdifferentiation into PLASMA CELLS that produce ANTIBODIES Macrophages develop from monocytes very large phagocytic in connective tissue phagocytize tissue debris dead neutrophils foreign matter antigen presenting display fragments to T cells alerting immune system Dendritic cells branched mobile antigen presenting cells in epidermismucous membranes lymphatic organs alert immune system to pathogens Reticular cells branched stationary cells stroma of lymphatic organs antigen presenting cells in thymus Name and describe the types of lymphatic tissue Lymphatic tissue aggregations of lymphocytes in connective tissues of mucous membranes and various organs Diffuse lymphatic tissue simplest form scattered lymphocytes body passages open to the exterior MALT mucosaassociated lymphatic tissue Lymphatic nodulesfollicles dense masses of lymphocytes and macrophages congregate in response to pathogens feature of lymph nodes tonsils and appendix Peyer patches dense clusters in the ileumdistal portion of the small intestine Name the primary and secondary organs of the lymphatic system Primary red bone marrow and thymus where T and B cells become immunocompetentable to recognize antigen Secondary lymph nodes tonsils spleen immunocompetent cells populate tissues Describe the location structure and function of the red bone marrow Red bone marrow is involved in hemopoietinblood formation and immunity Soft organ highly vascular material separated from osseous tissue by endosteum ofbone Blood cells push their way through the reticular and endothelial cells to enter sinus and flow away in blood stream Describe the location structure and function of the thymus Member of the endocrine lymphatic and immune system Houses developing lymphocytes Fibrous capsule gives of trabeculae that divide into several lobes cortex and medulla Describe the structure and function of a lymph node Most numerous lymphatic organ 450 in young adults Cleanse lymph Act as site of T and B cell activation Bean shaped with hilum Afferent lymphatic vessels lead into node Lymph leaves through 3 efferent vessels that leave hilum Fibrous capsule with trabeculae Stroma of reticular bers and reticular cells framework Parenchyma divided into cortex and medulla Stroma Capsule Heticular tissue Traibecula Cortex Suiboapsullar sinus Lymphatic nodule Glerminal center Artery and vein Cortical sinuses Medulla Medullary sinus MBdLllllaW cord Eilferent i lymphatic vessel Afferent lymphatic vessels la germinal centers B cells multiply and differentiate into plasma cell How many lymph nodes are found in a typical adult 450 Diseases Lymphadenopathy collective term Lymphadenitis swollen painful node responds to foreign antigen Lymph nodes common sites for metastatic cancer swollen rm and painless Lymphangitis bacterial infection of lymphatic vessels erythematous streaks septicemia is blood poisoning when bacteria spreads to blood Metastatic cancer cancer cells break free from original tumor enter lymphatic vessels destroy node spreads downstream Lymphedema elephantitis in arms follows breast cancer surgery Describe the locations structure and functions of tonsils Patches of lymphatic tissue at entrance to pharynx Guard against ingestedinhaled pathogens Covered with epithelium Deep pits tonsillar crypts lined with lymphatic nodules tonsillitis and tonsillectomy Three main sets Palatine pair of posterior margin of oral cavity Lingual pair at root of tongue Pharyngeal single on wall of nasopharynx Describe the location structure and function of the spleen Body s largest lymphatic organ Highly vascularvulnerable to traumainfection Splenectomy ruptured spleen Parenchyma 2 tissues Red pulp sinus lled with erythrocytes White pulp lymphocytes macrophages surrounding small branches of splenic artery Blood production in fetus Blood reservoir Erythrocyte graveyard RBC disposal White pulp monitors blood for foreign antigens Identify and describe the body39s three lines of defense against pathogens infectious toxic radiation lst line skin mucous membranes 2ncl line nonspeci c leukocytes macrophages antimicrobial proteins immune surveillance in ammation and fever 3rel line the immune system defeats pathogen memory of it fast response cellular and humoral immunity Contrast nonspeci c resistance with adaptive immunity nonspeci c guards equally against a broad range of pathogens 1st and 2nOI lines adaptive immunity prior exposure provides future protection 3rOI line Describe the defensive functions of each kind of leukocyte Neutrophils phagocytosis creates killing zone Eosinophils parasites allergens Basophils produces histamine and heparin Monocytes become macrophages Lymphocytes T cells B cells NK cells Describe the action of interferon Antimicrobial short term nonspeci c released by an infected cell to help protect neighboring cells from viruses Describe the role of the complement system in resistance and immunity Antimicrobial short term nonspeci c group of 30 proteins that aid in nonspeci c resistance and immunity De ne fever What is a pyrogen Where do pyrogens act An abnormal elevation of body temperature interferon activity elevates metabolic rate inhibits repro of bacteria Pyrogens fever producing agents raising hypothalamic set point for body temperature Describe the process of in ammation and explain what accounts for its cardinal signs Local defensive response to tissue injury trauma and infection Redness hyperemia RBCs in tissue Swellingedema increased uid ltration Heat hyperemia Pain direct injury to nerves pressure on nerves from edema pain receptors by prostaglandin bacterial toxins bradykinin Limits spread of pathogen removes debris initiates tissue repair Hyperemia bc vasodilation caused by histamine and cytokines Increased capillary permeability What suf x is used to indicate in ammation of a speci c tissue or organ quotitisquot means in ammation What occurs when histamine is released Vasodilation De ne adaptive immunity speci c immunity Speci city immunity directed at speci c pathogen Memory reexposed to same pathogen body reacts quickly with no noticeable illness Contrast cellular and humoral immunity Cellular T Cells Ridding pathogens inside human cells inaccessible to antibodies kills cells that harbor pathogens lymphocytes directly attach and destroy foreign cells Humoral B cells Mediated by antibodies that do not directly destroy a pathogen Indirect attack Only work against extracellular stage of infectious microorganisms De ne antigen epitope and hapten Antigen any molecule that triggers and immune response complex molecules with structures F hae flmsis d Lysosorme Epitopes unique to the individual proteins ofa m i39ge a x polysaccharides glycoproteins glycolipids can l39 g Mth protein distinguish self Lysosome Epitopes certain regions of an antigen molecule 595 W39m Phagesome plhegosome that stimulate Immune responses antigenic determinants Processed Haptens too small to be antigenic in themselves Antigen all antigen enzyme ITIIXII39I g I a merits combines wnth host macromolecule detergents ha 0 505mg 9 I I I I0 Q epitopes p0son Ivy dander V displayed on Antigen is m mphage Describe antigen processing and the role of degraded 3 6 99 antigen presenting cells in immunity Processing APC encounters antigen In39ternalllzes by endocytOSIs Amman DIgests It Into fragments residueis Displays epitopes in grooves of MHC VQ39UEFIW BXOCWOSIS proteIn APC Wandering T cells inspect APCs for displayed antigens self gets ignored quotnonself immune attack Key to successful defense quickly mobilizing immune cells Required to help T cells recognize antigens Dendritic cells macrophages reticular cells B cells MHC major histocompatibility complex self ID tag different except for twins Process of B Cells Born in red bone marrow undiffentiated Mature in thymus Thymosins stimulate T cells to develop antigen receptors Immunocompetent capable of recognizing antigens T cells colonize lympatic organs and tissues Describe the roles of lymphocytes involved in cellular immunity Cytotoxic T cells Killer T effectors of cellular immunity carry out attack Helper T cells Help promote TC cell and B cell action nonspeci c resistance Release of cytokines humoral and cellular immunity Memory T cells Descend from Tc cells Responsible for memory in cellular immunity Describe the role of the following structures involved in humoral immunity more indirect method of defense B lymphocytes Differentiate into PLASMA CELLS Plasma cells make ANTIBODIES Copyright The MoGraw Hill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display TABLE 213 The Five Classes of Antibodies Class Structure Location and Function lgA Mommer Dimer Found as a monomer in blood plasma and mainly as a dimer in mucus tears milk saliva and intestinal secretions Sometimes also forms trimers and NK H tetramers Prevents pathogens from adhering to epithelia and penetrating underlying tissues Provides passive immunity to the newborn llgD Mlonomer A transmembrane protein of B cells thought to function in activation of B cellls by antigens lgE Monomer A transmembrane protein of basophils and mast cells Stimulates them to release histamine and other chemical mediators of inflammation and allergy important in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and in attracting eosinophils to sites of parasitic infection lllgG Nlonorner Constitutes about 80 of circulating antibodies in plasma The predominant antibody secreted in the secondary immune response IgG and lgM are the onlly antibodies with significant complementfixation activity Crosses placenta and confers temporary immunity on the fetus Includes the antiD antibodies of the Rh blood group lllgM Monomer Pentame Constitutes about 10 of circulating antibodies in plasma Monomer is a transmembrane protein of B cells where it functions as part of the antigen receptor Pentamer occurs in blood plasma and lymph The predominant K antibody secreted in the primary immune response very strong 2 Q l 39 agglutinating and complementfixation abilities includes the antiA and I I 39 antiB agglutinins of the ABO blood group How do B lymphocytes become activated What is the role of helper T cells in the activation process Plasma cells Mitochondria rough ER Immunoglobulinsantibodies Defensive gamma globulin found in blood plasma tissue uid body secretions 1 trillion different antibodies List four ways antibodies assist the immune system 1 neutralization binds pathogenic portions of antigens s Antigen Receptor inin Ii 5 MLymphocyte Antlgien recognition 2 complement xation L i i Bg ii39 in 3 agglutination binds to multiple cells sticking EL iliZEl ili39aE i Z39ii them together to immobilize them 7 4 precipitation binds to multiple antigens makes gnl i lngrejematiotnV ri FE Sllifgfce large Ag Ab complexes epitepe Helper T cell binds 1 merleukm to B cell and secretes interleukin Memory B cells Accelerated response effectors of long 7 lived responses i39iZ39rlZLi li39il 39laes B cell to divide reiiieriltedlyi and form a clone Describe Severe Combined Immunode ciency Syndrome Immune system fails to react vigorously enough Hereditary lack of T and cells I gg g ecg lgigme V y Vulnerability to opportunistic infection and must g gg m i live in protective enclosures materiel Attack Plasma cells synthesize and secrete antibody Antibody employs various means to render antigen h armless I v Tia Antibody
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