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Study Guide for Exam 1

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by: Asia Caldwell

Study Guide for Exam 1 32763

Marketplace > East Carolina University > History > 32763 > Study Guide for Exam 1
Asia Caldwell
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This is a study guide from all lecture classes with notes that may appear on the exam Monday. The study guide is very long and detailed. This study guide is here to help. Everything on this stud...
History 1051
Dr. Prokopowicz
Study Guide
History 1051, Study Guide, ECU, history
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"The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Asia for help in class!"
Madisen Buckridge

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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Asia Caldwell on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 32763 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Prokopowicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 283 views. For similar materials see History 1051 in History at East Carolina University.


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The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Asia for help in class!

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Date Created: 02/12/16
Study Guide Before 1877  10,000­50,000 years ago American history began  Thomas Jefferson: o Yeoman farmers (who owned their own land, family produced clothing, they  bartered), considered independent, believed in political virtue, thinks about what  is best for the country, and is against corruption.  Alexander Hamilton: o Commercial Republic (communist), believed in a thriving economy, and favored  national debt (the total amount of money that a country's government has  borrowed)  Market Revolution o Louisiana Purchase (a treaty signed with France in 1803 by which the U.S.  purchased the land extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains) o In 1820­1830 three inventions were made that affected America greatly  Canals  Railroads (made it possible to move goods)  Steamboats (made it possible to move goods) o Cotton becomes huge with the demand for slavery  Cotton is to the 1800s as Oil is to today The Old West  Americans on the east thought that the west was empty and this land is known as Great  American Desert  Settlers begin to move western  Indians made their living from bison and depended on them greatly  Indians also became cowboys and were very successful  Indians were not great soldiers; they would rather get close enough to the enemy to touch  but not kill o Americans wanted to shoot and kill instead  Results of Indian War: o Red Sticks War ended with a treaty  Battle of Little Bighorn o This was the last major victory for Indians  Three things that caused migration to the west were: o Gold: cause of the Indian Wars o Cattle: cowboys marched cattle on trails to railroads to ship them o Land: Settlers tripled every ten years  They also grew wheat o Those who lived in the west had more independence than those who lived in the  east. Study Guide Read Tindall and Shi: 612­627 o The Indian War­ o Indian Policy­ The New South  In Post­Civil War southern politics held old habits of social deference  o Social deference­ respectful submission or yielding to the judgment, opinion, will, etc., of another.  The supporters of these postwar Democratic leaders referred to them as “redeemers”  because they saved the South o Included: a rising class of lawyers, merchants, and entrepreneurs who were eager  to promote a more diversified economy  o The white supremacy tolerated a lingering black voice in politics and showed no  hurry to raise the barriers of racial segregation in public places  The opponents of the redeemers were “Bourbons”, which depicted them as reactionaries  (opposing liberal or social liberalization to reform.  The achievement of the New South was the promotion of the growth of industry. o The Bourbons led the South into a new economic era   The South still lagged economically because of 3 reasons: 1. Education  Bourbon governments wanted to cut state schools drastically by cutting  taxes  Female teacher also only made about $159 yearly  They had little to no training and were not well paid  The illiteracy rate was between 30% and 45% 2.  Agriculture  The South produced inefficient agriculture  Cotton was the most profitable crop Study Guide  The rate of owning land went from 2/3 to 1/3  Interest rates were high, causing debt, leaving the sharecroppers to pay  collateral   Farmers were only to plant what could sale, which was mainly cotton   Crop­lien systems: not efficient and kept you in debt 3.  Race  Not a great deal of racial segregation  Former slaves held office because of the 14  and 15  Amendments  Bourbons tolerated (They were pro­business and favored storeowners)  There were no barriers to keep former slaves from overpowering the  poorer white farmers and formed temporary alliances  1890­1910­ Black voting disappeared, many races could not do things  together due to (Jim Crow Laws)  Whites wanted social deference from blacks o If not received, they would lynch The Rise of Big Business/City Life Public Ownership Private Ownership Planned Allocation Communism­ the  Command Capitalism­  government decides  people still own, but the  everything government tells them what  they are going to do Market Allocation Market Socialism­  Market Capitalism­ prices  compromise between socialist for goods and services are set  planning and free enterprise,  freely in which enterprises are  Ex) USA publicly owned but  production and consumption  are guided by market forces   How did this happen? 1. Growth in size:  The country gets bigger, manufacturing gets bigger, population is tripled,  transportation growth (railroads develop and require new forms of  organization)  The railroad system also developed time zones 2. New Technology: Study Guide  Late 19  Century (1882) Electric power was supplied  o Thomas Edison­ Creates direct current  Light bulb   Motion Picture o Nicolai Tesla­ Develops the alternating current o Both men competed and alternating current (AC) was more efficient  Edison even encouraged the electric chair using AC  instead of traditional hanging  Oil is discovered in 1859   John D. Rockefeller  Horizontal Integration­ a strategy where a company creates production  units for outputs which are alike ­ either complementary or competitive  Ex. McDonalds buying out Burger King  Vertical Integration­ When each member of the supply chain produces a  different product or service, and the products combine to satisfy a  common need 3. Revolution in management:  The Post Office was the biggest branch known now  The owner of stores use to know everyone, and did everything for the  smaller business  With a new form of organization, the owner didn’t know the  people who worked for him  How do they respond? 1. Enjoy  Why not? American Tobacco Company allowed cigarettes to become  cheaper for smokers  Catalogs became popular for advertising 2. Deny  Pretend it’s not happening  Some people thought that it would be satisfying to see the system  didn’t change much 3. Rationalize  Applied “Survival of the fittest”  Made the argument that, “this is what meant to happen”  Your happiness depended upon you  Social Darwinism who were successful believed in it and were fans  They also thought the government shouldn’t interfere  Critics believed it reduced human progress Study Guide  They thought intelligent use of the government could help others in better ways 4. Fight  You don’t have to accept the situation  The Great Railroad Strike of 1877  Railroad companies agreed to cut the worker’s wages so workers  couldn’t quit (10%), they would also pay regular dividend to bond  holders  State militia were called to put the workers back to work o Instead of hurting the workers, they were family and began  to help and strike too  The strike was a warning sign of a war that could happen (it didn’t  though)  The International Harvest in Chicago  Police were called in  Bomb killed police, assumed they were placed by anarchist  (radicals)  They were convicted, 4 executed  The violence turned people against the police  Homestead Strike  Pullman Strike  The Socialist Party  Eugene V. Debs  Substantial political movement   The Pullman labor strike (May 11,1894) tied up rail lines from Lake Michigan to the  Pacific Ocean   In the town of Pullman, the 1894 depression caused layoffs, wage cuts, and increased  resentment over the company’s housing policies  One side­ General Managers’ Association (GMA), which represented the twenty­four  railroads with terminals in Chicago (George Pullman)  Other side­ ARU, a brand­new, national, “industrial” union in which skilled, semiskilled,  and unskilled railroad workers joined together in one industry­wide association o Railroad owners feared the potential power of the ARU o Led by Eugene V. Debs  The chaos resulting from the boycott lasted from June 26 to July 10, but those two weeks  brought a bloody end to the ARU’s national effort and to the local Pullman strike. o Eugene V. Debs was arrested. He was charged with violating the court injunction, and was eventually sentenced to six months in prison  The U.S. Strike Commission’s recommendations were that unions be legitimized by  government policy and the government set up a system for labor in order to avoid strikes  in the future Study Guide  The Pullman strike and the report that emanated from it marked a significant shift in  public support for government as a strike mediator, not a strike breaker.  90% of people lived in apartment buildings in Manhattan  o Buildings were 4 to 5 stories high due to lack of elevators o Things change when electric elevators and new steel­frame construction allows  architects to extend buildings upward o These crowded tenements held disease and crime  Sanitation was a problem, which led to deaths  Electricity becomes important in the cities o San Francisco­ famous cable cart o Arkansas City­overhead cables  Cities began to create urban parks o New York’s Central Park  It was a place for all citizens to stroll, ride bicycles, and play games o People believed that fresh air was needed   Clothing o People not only bought through the mail, but they bought from stores   Shopping was now an exciting experience  Five and Dime Stores were next down for cheaper options  These were similar to present day Dollar Stores o Fashion changes­   Women began to wear corsets  Petticoats  People believed women clothing restricted them from doing anything  Bustle­ used to exaggerate the back of women’s dresses  The Narrow look­ narrow waist and puffed shoulders  Gibson look – Shirt waist corset type, with a hat,   Gibson Girl is a woman who knows what to do, rides a bicycle,  swims, works, and could dominate the male species.  Men Fashion­  Frock coats were popular but soon replaced by the suit  Men were to become more masculine, worried that they were  feminine o Theodore Roosevelt­ born rich never had to do work  Gives speech about the strenuous life  Make life harder for yourself, find  something to do  Ex. Baseball becomes popular  Ex. Football is ideal for strenuous life The Farmer is the Man Study Guide  Farmer’s Alliances o Grew significantly in size o The alliance had means of addressing the hardships created by chronic  indebtedness, declining crop prices, and devastating droughts o They also publish journals.  People’s party (Populist party) o They argue for inflation o Addressed the needs of small farmers, wage laborers, blacks and poor whites.  o Fought against greedy banks and railroads, corporate monopolies, and corrupt  politics o Called for more government intervention in the economy, if only government was capable of expanding the money supply, counterbalancing the power of big  business, and providing efficient national transportations networks to support the  needs of agribusiness. o In 1892, a gathering of Alliance leaders in St. Louis called for a national  convention of the People’s Party  It was held to adopt a platform and choose candidates.  Delegates drafted a platform with a plan of unlimited coinage of silver, an  income tax which would rise with personal income levels, and federal  control of railroads  James B. Weaver is candidate o Populists wanted:   8­hour workday, rather 10­12 hours  Restrictions on immigration­ forbid land ownership by immigrants who  weren’t citizens  Secret ballad  Depression (Panic) of 1893­  o No one knew what caused it and no one knew what to do o Railroads collapsed, workers lost jobs, banks closed, businesses failed, and farm  mortgages were foreclosed (farmers were tenants) o It was worse than before, Worst one until 1929 o By 1894, the nation’s economy had reached bottom o Unemployment hovered at 20 percent and hunger stalked the streets of many  cities Strange Fruit  By 1910 the South is racist o Segregation was a social norm  Schools, housing, and public locations are segregated by race Study Guide o Blacks were also squeezed out of political positions and kept from their right  to vote  To restore power, The Democratic Party made The Mississippi Plan o It would eliminate black voting all together o Poll tax o Grandfather clause­ you didn’t have to be literate if  your grandfather could vote back then (only for 8 years) o Literacy test  There is a boom in education allowing more  blacks and whites to be literate o Residency clause­ you have to live in a certain place for a specific amount of time o Property qualification­ you had to own property  If things couldn’t stop voting amongst blacks, others killed and seized  their land back  Jim Crow Laws  o Segregation spreads everywhere now more than before  Plessy vs Ferguson­ Segregation is allowed long as it is equal  Lynching became common o From 1890 to 1899, lynching in the USA averages 188 per year o Usually involved a black man being accused of a crime, often rape o It became a recreation and crowds of people would watch  Booker T. Washington­ argued that the way to survive this way of life is to deal with  it and focus on education and economic improvement  W.E.B. Dubois­ argued that African Americans should engage in political resistance  and fight for education and voting rights Empire or Republic?  Imperialism­ a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.  Should the USA have colonies? o Manifest Destiny­ The USA should control from sea to sea (God expected them to control this piece of the world)  Maybe it is there manifest to spread across the world o Christian Duty­ The spreading the benefits of democratic capitalism and  Christianity to “backward peoples” o  Rudyard Kipling’s White Man’s Burden­ the duty of the white man to spread  power over others Study Guide o Economy­ you can grow economy and spread it across, bring the crops to home  country to sell and make profit o Strategic­ steam­powered navy needed bases where its ships could replenish their  supplies of coal and water; they would want new coaling stations across the  nation o If Everyone else has colonies, then The USA should have colonies as well  Sandwich islands (Hawaii) 1875 USA had a sugar treaty­ we could import sugar, sugar  growing was at no extra cost o American plants moved to Hawaii o Island became under military control of the USA o 1898­ Hawaii becomes part of the USA  The War of 1898 o America wanted Cuba to gain their independence from Spain  Feb 15,1898­ Destruction of the warship Maine   No one knew what happened  The best guess is that it was an accident, but since no one took  blame American newspapers said who had done it o This is the era of yellow journalism (newspapers’  sensationalism as well as their intentional efforts to  manipulate public opinion)  Newspapers were cheap  Printed on yellow paper o McKinley was not convinced that we needed a war  He was a civil war veteran  He was not a killer  He modeled of self­sacrificing Christian gentleman o Theodor Roosevelt  Said McKinley had no back bone  Did not think highly of Spain  He wanted war o Now the USA has won a war  What happened?  Brought north and south together  Way of reconciling farmers with business  Both sides saw themselves as in it together  Nothing connects a community like having a common enemy on  the outside  This was a Splendid little war  We kept Guantanamo Bay­ for the navy  Theodor Roosevelt o Youngest to become president o Had no interest in Philippines Study Guide o As president, Theodore Roosevelt actively pursued an imperialist foreign policy,  confirming the United States’ new role as a world power  Open Door Policy­the policy of admitting people of all nationalities or ethnic groups to a  country upon equal terms, as for immigration.  Theodore Roosevelt articulated an extension of the Monroe Doctrine (the United States  might intervene in disputes between North and South America and other world powers)  Roosevelt helps with what becomes the Progressive era The Progressive Era  Growth in population by immigration o Nativism­ a return to or emphasis on traditional or local customs, in opposition to  outside influences.  Ex) A sign saying no Irish allowed  People leave their land because:  Economic opportunity (USA offers more opportunity)  Political opportunity  Religious opportunity  War or conflict (maybe depression)  The Progressive Movement is one solution to uniting societies o 2  Solution: Regulation (government monitors if we can’t, trusting in the  government) o 1892­ Ellis Island opens up for immigration   At its peak it absorbed 5 thousand people a day  Immigrants become strangers; having no money, not speaking the language, having  no friends  Took whatever jobs were available  Found themselves alienated by the experience  Immigrants invent themselves, which allowed them to become new people  Ex) name changes that Americans can pronounce  Chinese Exclusion Act­ It was one of the most significant restrictions on free  immigration in US history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.   Ways around it was if you were family members o One response­ don’t do anything about it   Laisse­faire: let it be, leave it as it is  Anything government does will make it worst  Let survival of the fittest take place o Religion  YMCA Study Guide  Settlement homes­ an institution providing educational, recreational, and other social services to the community  Jane Addams  Idea of helping others  Women’s Suffrage­ for the most part, women could not vote  Elizabeth king Stanton­argued for women voting  Wyoming­ The first state to allow women to vote  Would vote to help women and/or be against war  Muckrakers­ were investigative journalists who thrived on exposing social ills and corporate  and political corruption  Triangle shirt waste­ On March 25, 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Company factory in New  York City burned, killing 145 workers.  o the deaths were largely preventable–most of the victims died as a result of neglected  safety features and locked doors within the factory building.  o The tragedy brought widespread attention to the dangerous sweatshop conditions of  factories, and led to the development of a series of laws and regulations that better  protected the safety of workers.  Jacob Riis­ exposed people to the conditions in his book, How The Other Half Lives o Meat packaging conditions  Theodore Roosevelt read the book and took action o Meat Inspection Act of 1906­ required inspection of meats destined for interstate  commerce and imposed sanitations standards in processing plants  Dark side to progressive era o Supported political reform o Theodor Roosevelt­ King of Progressive era  Great king plight  Titanic  Trusts or monopolies­ made illegal  Companies continued to monopolized Read Tindall and Shi: 718­755  Early Efforts at Urban Reform­  Roosevelt’s Second Term­ Study Guide  Limits of Progressivism­


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