Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 32763
Popular in History 1051
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Asia Caldwell on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 32763 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Prokopowicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 283 views. For similar materials see History 1051 in History at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Study Guide Before 1877 10,00050,000 years ago American history began Thomas Jefferson: o Yeoman farmers (who owned their own land, family produced clothing, they bartered), considered independent, believed in political virtue, thinks about what is best for the country, and is against corruption. Alexander Hamilton: o Commercial Republic (communist), believed in a thriving economy, and favored national debt (the total amount of money that a country's government has borrowed) Market Revolution o Louisiana Purchase (a treaty signed with France in 1803 by which the U.S. purchased the land extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains) o In 18201830 three inventions were made that affected America greatly Canals Railroads (made it possible to move goods) Steamboats (made it possible to move goods) o Cotton becomes huge with the demand for slavery Cotton is to the 1800s as Oil is to today The Old West Americans on the east thought that the west was empty and this land is known as Great American Desert Settlers begin to move western Indians made their living from bison and depended on them greatly Indians also became cowboys and were very successful Indians were not great soldiers; they would rather get close enough to the enemy to touch but not kill o Americans wanted to shoot and kill instead Results of Indian War: o Red Sticks War ended with a treaty Battle of Little Bighorn o This was the last major victory for Indians Three things that caused migration to the west were: o Gold: cause of the Indian Wars o Cattle: cowboys marched cattle on trails to railroads to ship them o Land: Settlers tripled every ten years They also grew wheat o Those who lived in the west had more independence than those who lived in the east. Study Guide Read Tindall and Shi: 612627 o The Indian War o Indian Policy The New South In PostCivil War southern politics held old habits of social deference o Social deference respectful submission or yielding to the judgment, opinion, will, etc., of another. The supporters of these postwar Democratic leaders referred to them as “redeemers” because they saved the South o Included: a rising class of lawyers, merchants, and entrepreneurs who were eager to promote a more diversified economy o The white supremacy tolerated a lingering black voice in politics and showed no hurry to raise the barriers of racial segregation in public places The opponents of the redeemers were “Bourbons”, which depicted them as reactionaries (opposing liberal or social liberalization to reform. The achievement of the New South was the promotion of the growth of industry. o The Bourbons led the South into a new economic era The South still lagged economically because of 3 reasons: 1. Education Bourbon governments wanted to cut state schools drastically by cutting taxes Female teacher also only made about $159 yearly They had little to no training and were not well paid The illiteracy rate was between 30% and 45% 2. Agriculture The South produced inefficient agriculture Cotton was the most profitable crop Study Guide The rate of owning land went from 2/3 to 1/3 Interest rates were high, causing debt, leaving the sharecroppers to pay collateral Farmers were only to plant what could sale, which was mainly cotton Croplien systems: not efficient and kept you in debt 3. Race Not a great deal of racial segregation Former slaves held office because of the 14 and 15 Amendments Bourbons tolerated (They were probusiness and favored storeowners) There were no barriers to keep former slaves from overpowering the poorer white farmers and formed temporary alliances 18901910 Black voting disappeared, many races could not do things together due to (Jim Crow Laws) Whites wanted social deference from blacks o If not received, they would lynch The Rise of Big Business/City Life Public Ownership Private Ownership Planned Allocation Communism the Command Capitalism government decides people still own, but the everything government tells them what they are going to do Market Allocation Market Socialism Market Capitalism prices compromise between socialist for goods and services are set planning and free enterprise, freely in which enterprises are Ex) USA publicly owned but production and consumption are guided by market forces How did this happen? 1. Growth in size: The country gets bigger, manufacturing gets bigger, population is tripled, transportation growth (railroads develop and require new forms of organization) The railroad system also developed time zones 2. New Technology: Study Guide Late 19 Century (1882) Electric power was supplied o Thomas Edison Creates direct current Light bulb Motion Picture o Nicolai Tesla Develops the alternating current o Both men competed and alternating current (AC) was more efficient Edison even encouraged the electric chair using AC instead of traditional hanging Oil is discovered in 1859 John D. Rockefeller Horizontal Integration a strategy where a company creates production units for outputs which are alike either complementary or competitive Ex. McDonalds buying out Burger King Vertical Integration When each member of the supply chain produces a different product or service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need 3. Revolution in management: The Post Office was the biggest branch known now The owner of stores use to know everyone, and did everything for the smaller business With a new form of organization, the owner didn’t know the people who worked for him How do they respond? 1. Enjoy Why not? American Tobacco Company allowed cigarettes to become cheaper for smokers Catalogs became popular for advertising 2. Deny Pretend it’s not happening Some people thought that it would be satisfying to see the system didn’t change much 3. Rationalize Applied “Survival of the fittest” Made the argument that, “this is what meant to happen” Your happiness depended upon you Social Darwinism who were successful believed in it and were fans They also thought the government shouldn’t interfere Critics believed it reduced human progress Study Guide They thought intelligent use of the government could help others in better ways 4. Fight You don’t have to accept the situation The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 Railroad companies agreed to cut the worker’s wages so workers couldn’t quit (10%), they would also pay regular dividend to bond holders State militia were called to put the workers back to work o Instead of hurting the workers, they were family and began to help and strike too The strike was a warning sign of a war that could happen (it didn’t though) The International Harvest in Chicago Police were called in Bomb killed police, assumed they were placed by anarchist (radicals) They were convicted, 4 executed The violence turned people against the police Homestead Strike Pullman Strike The Socialist Party Eugene V. Debs Substantial political movement The Pullman labor strike (May 11,1894) tied up rail lines from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean In the town of Pullman, the 1894 depression caused layoffs, wage cuts, and increased resentment over the company’s housing policies One side General Managers’ Association (GMA), which represented the twentyfour railroads with terminals in Chicago (George Pullman) Other side ARU, a brandnew, national, “industrial” union in which skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled railroad workers joined together in one industrywide association o Railroad owners feared the potential power of the ARU o Led by Eugene V. Debs The chaos resulting from the boycott lasted from June 26 to July 10, but those two weeks brought a bloody end to the ARU’s national effort and to the local Pullman strike. o Eugene V. Debs was arrested. He was charged with violating the court injunction, and was eventually sentenced to six months in prison The U.S. Strike Commission’s recommendations were that unions be legitimized by government policy and the government set up a system for labor in order to avoid strikes in the future Study Guide The Pullman strike and the report that emanated from it marked a significant shift in public support for government as a strike mediator, not a strike breaker. 90% of people lived in apartment buildings in Manhattan o Buildings were 4 to 5 stories high due to lack of elevators o Things change when electric elevators and new steelframe construction allows architects to extend buildings upward o These crowded tenements held disease and crime Sanitation was a problem, which led to deaths Electricity becomes important in the cities o San Francisco famous cable cart o Arkansas Cityoverhead cables Cities began to create urban parks o New York’s Central Park It was a place for all citizens to stroll, ride bicycles, and play games o People believed that fresh air was needed Clothing o People not only bought through the mail, but they bought from stores Shopping was now an exciting experience Five and Dime Stores were next down for cheaper options These were similar to present day Dollar Stores o Fashion changes Women began to wear corsets Petticoats People believed women clothing restricted them from doing anything Bustle used to exaggerate the back of women’s dresses The Narrow look narrow waist and puffed shoulders Gibson look – Shirt waist corset type, with a hat, Gibson Girl is a woman who knows what to do, rides a bicycle, swims, works, and could dominate the male species. Men Fashion Frock coats were popular but soon replaced by the suit Men were to become more masculine, worried that they were feminine o Theodore Roosevelt born rich never had to do work Gives speech about the strenuous life Make life harder for yourself, find something to do Ex. Baseball becomes popular Ex. Football is ideal for strenuous life The Farmer is the Man Study Guide Farmer’s Alliances o Grew significantly in size o The alliance had means of addressing the hardships created by chronic indebtedness, declining crop prices, and devastating droughts o They also publish journals. People’s party (Populist party) o They argue for inflation o Addressed the needs of small farmers, wage laborers, blacks and poor whites. o Fought against greedy banks and railroads, corporate monopolies, and corrupt politics o Called for more government intervention in the economy, if only government was capable of expanding the money supply, counterbalancing the power of big business, and providing efficient national transportations networks to support the needs of agribusiness. o In 1892, a gathering of Alliance leaders in St. Louis called for a national convention of the People’s Party It was held to adopt a platform and choose candidates. Delegates drafted a platform with a plan of unlimited coinage of silver, an income tax which would rise with personal income levels, and federal control of railroads James B. Weaver is candidate o Populists wanted: 8hour workday, rather 1012 hours Restrictions on immigration forbid land ownership by immigrants who weren’t citizens Secret ballad Depression (Panic) of 1893 o No one knew what caused it and no one knew what to do o Railroads collapsed, workers lost jobs, banks closed, businesses failed, and farm mortgages were foreclosed (farmers were tenants) o It was worse than before, Worst one until 1929 o By 1894, the nation’s economy had reached bottom o Unemployment hovered at 20 percent and hunger stalked the streets of many cities Strange Fruit By 1910 the South is racist o Segregation was a social norm Schools, housing, and public locations are segregated by race Study Guide o Blacks were also squeezed out of political positions and kept from their right to vote To restore power, The Democratic Party made The Mississippi Plan o It would eliminate black voting all together o Poll tax o Grandfather clause you didn’t have to be literate if your grandfather could vote back then (only for 8 years) o Literacy test There is a boom in education allowing more blacks and whites to be literate o Residency clause you have to live in a certain place for a specific amount of time o Property qualification you had to own property If things couldn’t stop voting amongst blacks, others killed and seized their land back Jim Crow Laws o Segregation spreads everywhere now more than before Plessy vs Ferguson Segregation is allowed long as it is equal Lynching became common o From 1890 to 1899, lynching in the USA averages 188 per year o Usually involved a black man being accused of a crime, often rape o It became a recreation and crowds of people would watch Booker T. Washington argued that the way to survive this way of life is to deal with it and focus on education and economic improvement W.E.B. Dubois argued that African Americans should engage in political resistance and fight for education and voting rights Empire or Republic? Imperialism a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force. Should the USA have colonies? o Manifest Destiny The USA should control from sea to sea (God expected them to control this piece of the world) Maybe it is there manifest to spread across the world o Christian Duty The spreading the benefits of democratic capitalism and Christianity to “backward peoples” o Rudyard Kipling’s White Man’s Burden the duty of the white man to spread power over others Study Guide o Economy you can grow economy and spread it across, bring the crops to home country to sell and make profit o Strategic steampowered navy needed bases where its ships could replenish their supplies of coal and water; they would want new coaling stations across the nation o If Everyone else has colonies, then The USA should have colonies as well Sandwich islands (Hawaii) 1875 USA had a sugar treaty we could import sugar, sugar growing was at no extra cost o American plants moved to Hawaii o Island became under military control of the USA o 1898 Hawaii becomes part of the USA The War of 1898 o America wanted Cuba to gain their independence from Spain Feb 15,1898 Destruction of the warship Maine No one knew what happened The best guess is that it was an accident, but since no one took blame American newspapers said who had done it o This is the era of yellow journalism (newspapers’ sensationalism as well as their intentional efforts to manipulate public opinion) Newspapers were cheap Printed on yellow paper o McKinley was not convinced that we needed a war He was a civil war veteran He was not a killer He modeled of selfsacrificing Christian gentleman o Theodor Roosevelt Said McKinley had no back bone Did not think highly of Spain He wanted war o Now the USA has won a war What happened? Brought north and south together Way of reconciling farmers with business Both sides saw themselves as in it together Nothing connects a community like having a common enemy on the outside This was a Splendid little war We kept Guantanamo Bay for the navy Theodor Roosevelt o Youngest to become president o Had no interest in Philippines Study Guide o As president, Theodore Roosevelt actively pursued an imperialist foreign policy, confirming the United States’ new role as a world power Open Door Policythe policy of admitting people of all nationalities or ethnic groups to a country upon equal terms, as for immigration. Theodore Roosevelt articulated an extension of the Monroe Doctrine (the United States might intervene in disputes between North and South America and other world powers) Roosevelt helps with what becomes the Progressive era The Progressive Era Growth in population by immigration o Nativism a return to or emphasis on traditional or local customs, in opposition to outside influences. Ex) A sign saying no Irish allowed People leave their land because: Economic opportunity (USA offers more opportunity) Political opportunity Religious opportunity War or conflict (maybe depression) The Progressive Movement is one solution to uniting societies o 2 Solution: Regulation (government monitors if we can’t, trusting in the government) o 1892 Ellis Island opens up for immigration At its peak it absorbed 5 thousand people a day Immigrants become strangers; having no money, not speaking the language, having no friends Took whatever jobs were available Found themselves alienated by the experience Immigrants invent themselves, which allowed them to become new people Ex) name changes that Americans can pronounce Chinese Exclusion Act It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in US history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. Ways around it was if you were family members o One response don’t do anything about it Laissefaire: let it be, leave it as it is Anything government does will make it worst Let survival of the fittest take place o Religion YMCA Study Guide Settlement homes an institution providing educational, recreational, and other social services to the community Jane Addams Idea of helping others Women’s Suffrage for the most part, women could not vote Elizabeth king Stantonargued for women voting Wyoming The first state to allow women to vote Would vote to help women and/or be against war Muckrakers were investigative journalists who thrived on exposing social ills and corporate and political corruption Triangle shirt waste On March 25, 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Company factory in New York City burned, killing 145 workers. o the deaths were largely preventable–most of the victims died as a result of neglected safety features and locked doors within the factory building. o The tragedy brought widespread attention to the dangerous sweatshop conditions of factories, and led to the development of a series of laws and regulations that better protected the safety of workers. Jacob Riis exposed people to the conditions in his book, How The Other Half Lives o Meat packaging conditions Theodore Roosevelt read the book and took action o Meat Inspection Act of 1906 required inspection of meats destined for interstate commerce and imposed sanitations standards in processing plants Dark side to progressive era o Supported political reform o Theodor Roosevelt King of Progressive era Great king plight Titanic Trusts or monopolies made illegal Companies continued to monopolized Read Tindall and Shi: 718755 Early Efforts at Urban Reform Roosevelt’s Second Term Study Guide Limits of Progressivism
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