HIST 2003 Exam 1 Study Guide
HIST 2003 Exam 1 Study Guide HIST 2003
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Wade Carter on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2003 at University of Arkansas taught by David Schieffler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see HIST 2003: History of the American People to 1877 in History at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
HIST 2003 American History to 1877 Exam 1 Study Guide PreColumbian Indians; European Exploration & Contact; and Spanish, French, & Early English Colonization B.C.= Before Crist, A.D.= Anno Domini (In the year of our Lord) Current world population = 7 billion o Most populous countries China 1.3 billion India 1.25 billion USA 320 million Indonesia Lucy one of the earliest hominids found with opposable thumbs (~3.5 million years ago) Humans most likely traveled to America around 15,000 years ago across the land bridge that once covered the Bering Strait. Ice Age ended approximately 10,00 years ago. First American civilizations arose in Mexico (between 300 and 900 A.D.) Early Native Groups: Mayans o Used astronomy and math to develop a calendar Aztecs o Tenochtitlanlargest Aztec city (about 200,000 people) Incas o Incan empire stretched about 1,000 miles across Andes Mountains Mississippian people o Largest political & ceremonial center, Cahokia, was located along the Mississippi River, east of St. Louis o Developed between 900 and 600 A.D. o Circle of posts, called “Woodhenge”, was used to determine equinoxes and solstices. Iroquois o Included at least “Five Nations” that later formed The Great League of Peace and Power. Similarities between Native American groups: 1. Did not believe land was a commodity. 2. Animism belief that objects in the natural world are filled with supernatural power. 3. Trade, sometimes over long distances. Discovery of America Norsemen (Vikings) were most likely to first discover the Americas. o Leif Ericson led a voyage to Vinland (Newfoundland) around 1000 A.D. Reasons Europeans were exploring 1. God spread Christianity 2. Glory promote homeland 3. Gold wealth Portugal was early leader in overseas exploration o Located on the ocean o Government Support Prince Henry the Navigator’s navigation school. Christopher Columbus’ voyages were rejected by the Portuguese, French and English. o Thought that sailing west to Asia was too far and risky, not because they thought the Earth was flat! o Spain funded his voyage in 1492, with 3 ships and 90 men. o He landed in the Bahamas, sailed to the Caribbean islands and believed to have landed in the East Indes. o Columbian Exchange transfer of diseases, goods, plants, crops, animals, ect. Between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Important exchanges include tobacco, maize, potatoes, beans, livestock, rice wheat and small pox. Spain explored and controlled much of the Americas for about 100 years following Columbus. o 1519Hernan Cortes landed in Veracruz, Mexico with 600 men. Cortes was given gold by the Aztec leader, Montezuma, and then forced the Aztecs to mine for precious metals. o 1520 Aztecs rebel, stone Montezuma, and run off the Spanish o 1521 Cortes laid siege on Tenochtitlan for 85 days. o 1531 Francisco Pizarro brutally conquers the Inca empire with about 180 men. Spanish were able to defeat the native tribes using: 1. Guns 2. Germs 3. Steel swords and armor 4. Domesticated animals horses and attack dogs. 1565Spanish established St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest enduring European founded town in the U.S. 1670’s New Mexico plagued by droughts and raids by frontier Indians The Pueblo Revolt was “the greatest setback that natives ever inflicted on European expansion in North America” European religion Religion was very important to Europeans of the time o Believed in heaven, hell, devils, witches, demons, angels and astrology o Most didn’t question the collaboration of church and state. o Most were Roman Catholic. 1517 Martin Luther posted his NinetyFive Theses on the door of his church in Wittenberg o Beginning of the Protestant Reformation. King Henry VIII formed the Church of England (Anglican Church) so he could annul his marriage. Power in the Americas 1. Portuguese settled in Brazil 2. Dutch ships plundered Spanish ships 3. French privateers plundered Spanish ships and settlements as well a. French more interested in fishing and acquiring furs (especially beavers) than establishing permanent colonies. 4. English were about 5 years behind Spanish in exploration. English Colonies in America England became Spain’s biggest rival in the Americas o Religious differences protestant vs. catholic o 1588 The Spanish Armada, a big naval fleet, went to England. o The English won with their smaller, faster ships and the aid of the “Protestant Wind”. Reasons English decided to colonize: 1. Religious conflict at home. 2. Scarcity of land due to population growth. 3. Mercantilism sell as much as you can, buy as little as you can. Export more, import less. st 1 English colony= Virginia (1607) o Roanoke=First English attempt at settlement Known as the Lost Colony. 1 enduring English settlement was Jamestown in 1607. o Struggled to survive for many years. “Our drinke [was] cold water taken out of the River, which at floud [tide] verie salt[y], at a low tide full of slime and filth, which was the destruction of many of our men”. o John Smith was credited with aiding in helping Jamestown survive. o Jamestown ultimately survived because many people traveled there. 1610’sVA Company created a “headright system”. This meant any man who paid for his own passage to Virginia received 50 acres of land. Also, for every servant brought over, a man received an additional 50 acres. o Tobacco also helped Jamestown survive. Rule: There is no destiny in history o Contingency every given detail matters and can change the course of history. Maryland was supposed to be a refuge for English Catholics. 1619 slavery originated in the Chesapeake. o However, slavery didn’t become the American labor system until the end of the 1600’s. o Most colonists used indentured servants. Bacon’s Rebellion is an event usually associated with the growth of slavery in the Chesapeake. o Class divisions of Virginia in 1670’s: 1. Elite landowners 2. Free white poor farmers a. Let their hogs roam freely, which angered the natives, who attacked the colonists. o Angry commoners rallied around Nathaniel Bacon an Aristocrat and member of the governor’s council. o 1676 Bacon attacked natives even though William Berkeley ordered against it. o Bacon then turned his army against Jamestown after being proclaimed guilty of treason. Consequences: 1. Showed struggle to define native and white land 2. Showed trouble that could arise from having a lot of poor landless men in the colonies. 3. Number of Chesapeake slaves increased dramatically after the rebellion. Back in England Religious conflicts o Puritans wanted to purify the church of its lingering Catholic elements o Separatists who wanted to separate from the Anglican Church completely. Established the Plymouth colony (1620’s) (Plymouth= part of modern day Massachusetts) Puritans 1630700 Puritans left England for “New England” o On one ship, John Winthrop delivered a sermon entitled “A Model of Christian Charity.” Said Puritans should be a “city upon a hill” o 1636Harvard College (1 college in the Americas) founded to train ministers Puritan dissenters 1. Roger Williams a. Puritan preacher in Salem who ruffled feathers by saying the Puritans hadn’t separated themselves enough from the Anglican Church. 2. Anne Huchinson a. Held religious meetings in her home, criticized Puritan ministers, claimed to have received divine revelations. b. 1637 tried in Massachusetts General Court c. Banished from Massachusetts, went to Rhode Island, and later to New York City, where she was killed in a native attack. 16421646 English Civil War o Between those who thought power resided in the king (cavaliers) and those who thought it rested with Parliament (roundheads) Cromwell died, and King Charles II was restored to throne in 1660. o Colonization: 1. Connecticutgot its first royal charter in 1662 2. Rhode Islandgot its first royal charter in 1663. 3. New Hampshire became a royal colony in 1679 4. Carolina 5. New Yorkoriginally a Dutch colony called New Netherland a. Trade center, especially for furs. 6. New Jerseychunk of the Duke of York’s land given to two men. 7. Pennsylvaniafounded by William Penn a. William Pennantislavery 8. Deleware1704 9. Georgia Last English colony to be established. a. Refuge for poor debtors b. Military buffer zone between Spanish Florida and the Carolinas. Colonial Society and French & Indian War North American Colonies: South GA, SC, NC, VA, MD o ReligionMostly Anglican o EconomyMostly Agricultural Grew tobacco, rice, indigo o SocietyIn all English colonies, you were born with a social status that determined your position in life. Born into wealth=political power New EnglandCT, RI, NH, MA o Religionmostly churchgoers o Economymostly fishing and smallscale farming. North had more industry than the south Shipbuilding Shipping Middle Colonies PA, NY, DE, NJ o Geographically and culturally between New England and South o Religionmany different nationalities and religions o Economy More favorable soil and climate than in New England Smallscale farming and shipping Urban Life Society o Merchants at top o Middle class artisanscarpenters, coopers, blacksmiths, weavers, ect. o Sailors and unskilled workers Taverns extremely important. o Place to relax, drink, read, socialize, conduct business, ect. Urban slaves o Often worked for wealthy people as domestic servants, dockworkers, or laundresses. Slavery and Trade Slaves were brought to the Americas by the TransAtlantic slave trade, or triangular trade. European slave traders bought most slaves from Africans. Around 6 million slaves were transported from Africa to the Americas. Around 2 million Africans died in the slaveraiding wars in Africa. Slavery in the Americas In Caribbean o Worked large sugar plantations. o Gang labor o Slaves outnumbered Europeans 3 to 1 o Harsh slave codes In deep South o Worked indigo and rice fields o Outnumbered Europeans 2 to 1. o Masters implemented the task system after a slave’s daily task was finished, they were allowed to do other things, such as tend a garden, earn money, ect. In the Chesapeake o Slaves in North American colonies o Usually worked tobacco fields o Slave population grew due to natural reproduction Slaves had a variety of jobs Slavery was a brutal institution that could break even the toughest of people o Methods of resistance 1. Breaking tools 2. Singing to slow work 3. Faking sickness 4. Stealing food 5. Running away 6. Open revolt Stono Rebellion o Sept, 9 20 slaves stole guns, killed many white homes in St. Augustine and shouted “Liberty!” as they marched. Colonial Thought Influenced the intellectual movement called the Enlightenment o Most famous American Enlightenment figure was Benjamin Franklin. o Enlightenment also included political thinkers like John Locke. Growth of evangelicalism sparked religious revivals The Great Awakening o Most famous itinerant was Anglican preacher George Whitefield.
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