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Study Guide for Midterm Feb 19

by: Andy Lin

Study Guide for Midterm Feb 19 Chin 197S

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Andy Lin

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Sage Kings, Kings of Zhou, and the Hegemons
China in World Affairs
David Schnieder
Study Guide
Chinese World Affairs
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andy Lin on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chin 197S at University of Massachusetts taught by David Schnieder in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see China in World Affairs in Chinese at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
King Yao- chosen by Heaven because he was reverent, intelligent, sincere, and kind King Shun- appointed by Yao because he has the same qualities as Yao; Yao gives Shun his two daughters to see if he can manage a family and he did King Yu- appointed by Shun to solve the problems of the flooding; Man conquering nature Yu passed kingship to his son to begin Xia dynasty (2100-1800BC) Xia dynasty is the new Stone Age Shang Dynasty overthrows Xia dynasty (1700-1027BC) They made silk Had agriculture an cities which means they had laborers Had temples to make sacrifices Had astronomers Ancestor worships Bronze Age which they used to make weapons and had a military KingSurrounded by clan families with their own small armies Zhou dynasty rebelled against Shang to overthrow them (1050BC) King Wen-father of King Wu started the rebellion King Wu-finished the rebellion Wu means military Had 50,000men Zhou Feudal System KingVessel state which also had titles like Duke, Earl, Viscount, Baron Politics has a moral purpose Poems by Shao are one the earliest of the poems there is Zhou ruling powers is the mandate of heaven Zhou acquired Mandate of Heaven because Shang lost it Yin=Shang Moral example of a king makes law visible HeavenKingPeopleEarth King represents god on earth or heaven on earth Zhou political order passed through china through conquest and conquer. Fiefs with trade with non Chinese tribes Great feudal Zhou state is called the western Zhou Zhou dynasty is divided between western Zhou dynasty and eastern Zhou dynasty Western dynasty is the fiefs with trading 771BC marks the beginning of Eastern Zhou which was when one of the fief allied with a tribe and succeeded in killing the Zhou king which make the Eastern Zhou 1050BC-771BC Time of Western Zhou 771BC-221BC Time of Eastern Zhou 771BC-403BC Spring and Autumn period which follows the sacking of the capital It was the period where vessels and states are becoming more and more independent Multipolar political system where there was many states that was competing for more power The King would corporate with the powerful states to create a hegemon system. Hegemon was institution that made other states corporate One of the greatest of these hegemon was Qi Another was Jiang One of the greatest achievement was to convince the state of Qu into Chinese culture Hegemon introduces diplomacy and use of military force Hegemons began to rule their states differently from old feudal system and ruled them through direct bureaucracy Hegemon started to rule by direct bureaucratic rule They would send out their own agents to collect taxes Rule by means of law and punish and not so much by ritual Not a constitution state, the king is above the law Spring and Autumn Annuls is a chronicles of the state of Lu They kept files of their court Confucius came from the state of Lu and he kept the files Spring and Autumn is the sacred book for Chinese traditions They were very short and simple People made commentaries about it One that came from it was the Zuo Commentary Read history to learn how to act in the world Zuo Commentary was written by a guy named Zuo Qiuming but we don’t know anything about him Zuo Commentary=Zuozhuan People have the right to throw the rulers out. The ruler and the people have an obligation to each other They have the right to rebellion Ruler’s obligation is to nourish his people Zhou 1000-221BC Western Zhou 1000-771BC Eastern Zhou 771-221BC Eastern Zhou is divided into Spring and Autumn period 771-403BC Warring States 403-221 BC Confucius is born in the state of Lu He sees the world that radically different He sees the world falling apart He begins to think of a way to fix the problem He wasn’t successful in his lifetime 4 great matters of state How to run internal political How to run economics system Diplomacy How to win wars Analects of Confucius is a small book but influential Confucius- 551-479BC real name is Kongzi Lived during Spring and Autumn period Needed advisors to advise them on internal politics, economic systems, diplomacy, and warfare Confucius said he was transmitting the wisdom of the past Confucius books: Book of History, Book of Songs, Book of Spring and Autumn, Zuo Commentary, Confucian Analects, Meuciles(Mengzi), Xunzi Confucius tells us to practice three things which are filial piety, learning(studying) of his books, rituals (he wanted to reborn the rituals how rulers show who is the higher ruler) You get two virtues from this three practices: humanity or ren(being unselfish, caring about others, what you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others) and virtue(moral force) Once you get the two virtues, you become a jungzi which is gentlemen A jungzi can act in the political world Confucius says the ruler should be the best jungzi or at least the advisors Bai Juyi(772-846AD) Mengzi(385-312BC)-lived during Warring States Feb 3 Confucian thought names and language was getting out of control An Earl was being confused with being a duke A duke was being a king Mencius (385BC) during Warring States He taught of how to be a real king Kingship is based on a couple of ideas: human nature is good. Human nature is always tends towards the good just like the river goes down You can make the river go up just as you can make people do bad things The purpose of kingship is to create the condition in which the natural of human good can strive and will naturally make a good society The true king follows a set of political economic ideas that allows one to achieve objective two. Don’t interfere with the agricultural season Don’t let people fish too much To get more wealthy, you have to get more food, more people, more land Steal stuff, conquest other lands Mencius’s idea that there is a political economy that could grow on its own It is called Humane Government It will have soft power Legalists also called Realists Confucius and Mencius are idealists Legalist start with the way the world is The purpose of the government is the survival of the regime and the survival of the king The second purpose is to enhance the power of the state The king and the state are one thing The government is to control the population There are three sources of legalist thought th 1. Shang Yang (mid 4 century BC)- had a book called the Book of Lord Shang 2. Han Fei (Feizi) – had a book called Han Feizi, died in 233BC 3. Book called Guanzi is a tribute to Guanzhong The main state where Legalism was strongly implemented was in Qing Main ideas of Legalism 1. Rejection of antiquity, the real of humane government, the legalist say that each stage has its own problems a. Don’t follow the path of rulers who are trying to solve the problem of floods 2. Shifts from family to the state, that you should save the king before you save your father a. Feudalism is destroyed, bureaucracy is set in place b. This makes loyalty to the state 3. Put forth a new series of human nature a. The state reformed the people b. They don’t care about human nature as it was, they know they can mold it c. Made two goals in society d. Agriculture and war e. Two ways to shape humans; rewards and punishment 4. Scholars that has different thoughts should be eliminated a. Speechmakers should also be removed 5. Law; Rule by Laws a. The law rules and regulates people b. The king is the law in Legalism 6. Vast reporting system; system of collective punishment a. Neighbors would report to elder, elder to higher up, higher up to majesty for punishment b. If one person commits a crime, the entire clan could be eliminated Adding on to Legalism The 5 Vermin 1. Scholars 2. Speechmakers 3. Swordsmen 4. Pay to get out of military obligation 5. Merchants and artisans Sunzi (450BC)-wrote the book “The Art of War” He grows out of legalism Qin Dynasty (221-206BC) very short period Qin adopted legalism They only wanted farming and war Imposed taxes on the population They got economic growth and military power King Zheng of the state of Qin Starts a campaign of military conquest that goes from 230-221BC Defeats Han then Zhao then Chu then Yan then Qi Changes from feudalism to total bureaucracy China is now an empire and kings are called emperors The warlords are suppressed for the time being Qin Shihuangdi- is King Sheng but renamed Head of a centralized bureaucratic empire Sometimes powerful sometimes not Set the pattern that all future emperors have to deal with Implements legalism through the entire empire LiSi (died in 208BC) Helps implement legalism Colleague of Han Feizi He assassinated Han Feizi LiSi himself was also assassinated in 208BC Abolished feudalism so he had to disarmed their clans Qin dynasty Was headed towards totalitarianism Qin Shihuang Built a road system to connect all the previous states Unified the Chinese script Unified weights and measures Unified coinage Built an immense military force Began to connect walls together from the different states which eventually became the Great Wall Burned books- book of history and book of songs was most targeted Moves populations around The Fault of Qin­ written in Han dynasty     Part 1 Review of Qin Conquest           Picture of the ambition of Qin Shihuangdi           Statecraft­ the use of the power of the state to achieve its objectives               Uses the conflicts of other states to make them go against each other     Part 2 Internal Politics of the Qin Empire           Legalists     Qin Shihuang dies and his son couldn't hold on Chen She who was nobody, raised an army to raise against the Qin     He would cut down trees and make his own weapons     Part 3 Rebellion           Needs mass support and mass leadership           Critics the Qin from a Confucian point of view The ruler lacked humanness and righteousness Jia Yi links power with moral purpose      Part 4 Jia Yi's Solution      Combining of Confucian and Legalism      When someone commits a crime, you don't kill off the entire family The Qin dynasty falls because....      opposition from the old heads of the other states      peasant uprising      officials of the court went to war with each other The Art of War      Shi: dynamic configuration of circumstances      Think about war based on 5 factors           1. the way               live with the superior, fight with the superior, and willing to died for him           2. heaven               the weather, the conditions that you fight in           3. earth                 do you have the high ground?                who has to cross the river?           4. General               Educated, loyal, and capable           5. Method               Management of your army


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