PSYS 100 Exam 1 Study Guide
PSYS 100 Exam 1 Study Guide Psys 100
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psys 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Paul Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Study Guide Exam 1 I. What is psychology? a. Science of behavior and mental processes b. Concerned with everything a person does, thinks and feels c. Including: i. Overt actions ii. Mental functions iii. Emotional functions iv. Physiological functions II. Fields of psychology a. Psychologist i. person who holds a BA, MA and Ph.D. 1. Has an additional year or 2 of training in a specialized area of research b. Psychiatrist i. Have a MD with a 2 year internship is psychiatry ii. Patients usually have both physical and mental problems iii. Can an often write prescriptions c. Psychoanalyst i. Specialized psychiatrists ii. Practice psychoanalysis (study of unconscious motives and dreams) iii. 4 years in college, 4 years in med school, 4 years studying psychoanalysis d. Licensed psychologist i. practitioner of choices should be a licensed psychologist e. Percentages of degrees i. 46% clinical ii. 17% counseling, community or school psychs iii. 10% developmental, personality & social psychs iv. 8% educational psychs v. 8% industrial/organizational psychs vi. 6% physiological, neurological and neuropsychs vii. 5% stats and methodological f. 2 major subareas: i. Human service fields 1. Clinical: Provide psychological services to the public a. Deal with patients with psychological disturbances usually in a private practice or hospital setting 2. Counseling: a. Less severe problems i. Marriage difficulty ii. Job-choice problems iii. Child rearing problems iv. Work primarily in industry, hospital, mental health & university settings 3. Community: Focus on community mental health a. Help community and its institutions adjust to problems Drug use and prevention HIV/STF testing Domestic violence sage houses and hotlines 4. Schools: Work exclusively within the education settings (Preschool – HS) a. Their duties vary: b. Administering IG and vocational tests c. Interpret test scores d. Plan interventions e. Aid teachers with classroom problems f. Medicate parent/student/teacher conflicts g. Consult on teaching/learning processes ii. Experimental 1. Teach and conduct research 2. These psychologists conduct the major bulk of the research in psychology and also teach a. Physiological: Includes biological and neuropsychologists Study how physiology affects our behavior brain functions brain chem and neurotransmitters hormonal output effects of narcotics b. Developmental: Study behavioral, mental, and psychological changes that occur over the span of the lifetime (concentrate largely on child development) c. Social: Study how individuals interact within their social environment d. Topics of study: i. Aggression ii. Helping behavior iii. Persuasion iv. Romantic Attraction e. Educational: i. Study processes of teaching and learning 1. E.g. studying effects of watching “Sesame Street” on kids intellectual growth ii. Note: School psychologists use the research provided by educational psychologists f. I/O: Study the psychology of work behavior i. Focus on topics: 1. Productivity 2. Job satisfaction 3. Employee motivation 4. Absenteeism g. General Experimentalists: i. Includes smaller subarea specialists 1. Sensation/perception 2. Social cognition 3. Engineering psychologists 4. Quantitative psychologists 5. Environmental psychologists 6. Forensic or legal psychologists III. History of Psych a. 130 years old i. Didn’t exist until 1880s b. fields broke off from medicine, theology and philosophy c. Structuralist Approach i. 1st ii. Wilhelm Wundt 1. Father of psych 2. Structure of mind/psyche iii. Introspection (self-examination) d. Functionalism i. How brain worked and functioned ii. William James e. Gestalt Psych i. Total experience of individual f. Sigmund Freud i. Medical doctor ii. Free association, dream interpretation, hysterical patients 1. Psychoanalysis g. Behaviorism i. John B. Watson 1. Study what we see/observe (behavior) IV. Theories a. Defined as a formal set of interrelated propositions concerning a phenomenon b. A theory is basically an explanation of why a relationship exists i. Key word: WHY c. Predict what will happen i. Ex: Dating example d. From these we deduce hypothesis i. Predictions e. What makes a good theory? i. Logical ii. Parsimonious (as simple as possible) iii. Stimulate new research iv. Easily lead to new hypotheses v. Be testable Start with Facts -> Theories -> Hypotheses -> Facts (data) f. Methods of research i. Controlled lab experiment 1. Independent Variable (IV) influences Dependent Variable (DV) a. Independent is changed in the experiment b. Dependent stays the same 2. Rat, Nicotine example a. Theory (idea you are wanting to research): nicotine affects our energy levels b. Hypothesis (supported or unsupported): more nicotine then the less energy ii. Field Experiment 1. You’re not controlling everything within the experiment, more relatable to the real world 2. Example from class: Staring increased anxiety levels a. Measured how fast the person in the car who was being started at by the biker on the sidewalk drove through the light once it turned green. iii. Quasi-Experiment: Here, the manipulation is not controlled by the scientist. iv. Correlation 1. Positive (variables move in same direction), negative (variables move in opposite directions) 2. Positive Example: More Coffee > More Energy 3. Negative Example: More Nicotine > Less Energy 4. The closer correlations are to + and – 1 the stronger they are V. Statistics a. Descriptive: describe and reduce data i. Central tendency: Mean (average), median(score at which 50% of scores fall below or above), mode (most frequently occurring score) b. Inferential: tests we perform on descriptive stats (learn more in higher level classes) i. Measures of variability: Measures of dispersion or spread 1. Standard Deviation (S) = The average score deviation from the mean ii. Variance (S2) = Standard deviation squared 1. Used for many inferential stats VI. Neuropsychology: Research on the brain is usually conducted in 1 of 8 ways a. Ivan Pavlov b. Structures of brain i. How we study the brain? c. Neuron i. Synapse: space between each neuron ii. Parts of neuron 1. Cell body 2. Dendrites 3. Axon 4. Myelin sheath 5. Axon terminal iii. What is a neuron charge compared to? a. a gun because it either fires or it doesn’t 2. What do we say when neuron charges electrically? a. It fires (action potential) 3. Action potential a. Neurotransmitters: chemicals are body uses to communicate d. Human Nervous System i. CNS: Brain and Spinal Cord 1. Sensory neurons: what’s on the surface of your body a. Ex: touching a hot stove and pull your hand band “it’s hot” 2. Motor neurons: your brain relaying signals to your body to move a. Ex: Brain > move hand ii. PNS: Everything other than brain and spinal cord iii. Human Brain 1. Hemispheres: Left and Right 2. Corpus callosum: bundle of neurons that connect the hemispheres 3. Cortex: responsible for our human higher level thinking and intelligence 4. Hindbrain a. Medulla b. Reticular formation c. Pons d. Cerebellum 5. Forebrain a. Diencephalon i. Thalamus: relay center ii. Hypothalamus: motivation, emotion, eating and pleasure b. Telencephalon i. Basal ganglia ii. Corpus callosum iii. Cortex 6. Limbic system a. 4 structures inside brain i. hippocampus: aids in storage of new memories through out the brain ii. pituitary gland iii. hypothalamus iv. amygdala: controls our emotions b. olds and Milner 7. Left and Right Brain Differences a. Evidence for left/right brain differences comes primarily from studying the behavior of people who have experienced trauma/disease to either the left or right side of their brains. b. Left Hemispheric damage is associated with what? i. Aphasia – disorder in the production of spoken or written language ii. Apraxia – inability to carry out skilled movement in the absence of spinal cord damage. iii. Agnosia – inability to recognize familiar objects by sight, touch, or sound. iv. Left/Right Body Confusion v. Verbal Memory Deficits vi. Mood Disorders (depression) vii. Right-side weakness or paralysis viii. Dyslexia – impairment of reading ability (might see dog as god) c. Right Hemispheric damage is associated with what? i. Left neglect syndrome ii. Eye-hand coordination problems iii. Difficulty dressing iv. Impaired sense of direction v. Altered humor vi. Left-side weakness/paralysis VII. Developmental Psychology (Ch. 5) a. What is developmental concerned with? i. Physical, mental, social changes throughout lifetime b. Where is most research centered on the development of children c. What are the 3 major focuses of this research? i. Physical Development ii. Mental Development iii. Social Development d. Emotional development i. Harry Harlow’s research with Rhesus Monkeys 1. Touch and the affects on emotional development 2. Know the experiment 3. Know what happened to the monkeys 4. Know what this tells us a. You connect more with parents who nurture you versus parents who only provide a resource such as food ii. Kangaroo effect: premature babies that are touched, held and massaged are bound to grow 40% more and faster than babies who are not. e. Cognitive/Intellectual Development i. Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development 1. Sensorimotor (birth to 2)- object permanence, stranger anxiety 2. Preoperational (2-6)- pretend play, egocentrism, language dev. 3. Concrete Operational (7-11) – conservation, math transformations 4. Formal Operational (12- adulthood) – abstract logic, potential for mature moral reasoning f. Social Development i. Family interaction very important ii. When does social interaction begins at birth when we bond with parents 1. First social event a. Egocentrism: when child thinks the world revolves around them. They want stuff NOW. 2. 1 year a. Stranger anxiety 3. 2 years a. Parallel play: play alone or side-by-side 4. 3-5 years a. Children are gradually forced to interact with others to satisfy their needs 5. By age 5… a. Social maturity involves breakdown of egocentrism i. Sharing with others is essential ii. Type of toys kids play w/ can enhance breakdown of egocentrism 1. Isolate toys: Gameboys - individualistic 2. Social toys: board games – group activities a. Allows the child to be social and able to communicate with others 6. The process of achieving social maturity involves the breakdown of egocentrism 7. The child has to ultimately understand that he or she lives in a “social” world and that SHARING with others is essential g. Day Care Centers i. How many children in daycare centers in 2011 1. 2/3s of all preschool children were in day care centers (23 million kids) ii. What 3 questions regarding day care has research focused on? 1. Does non-parental day care affect a child’s: a. Attachment to parents? b. Intellectual development? c. Social development? iii. What is a high quality center? (possible essay question) 1. Staff should be both educated and experienced a. Ask for resumes 2. There should be a low child to staff ratio a. No more that 6:1 is good b. 3:1 for kids under 2 3. There should be a low turnover rate among the staff 4. Schedule for the kids 5. Is there a lot of stimuli? (music, art, etc.) 6. Lots of children around the same age iv. Why is research on day care difficult to conduct? 1. Hard to research children – parent’s not in favor v. All of these research conclusions assume that home-raised children are compared to children raised in high quality day care centers. h. Single Parent Upbringing i. 2013-30% of all households were single-parent households. ii. Baruth’s 10 Research-Based Steps of Advice for the Single Parent 1. Be honest about the situation 2. Assure children that they are not responsible for breakup 3. Be honest about your own feelings 4. Maintain same routine and surroundings 5. Don’t try to be both mom and dad 6. With divorce, don’t encourage children to hope for reconciliation 7. Reassure child that they will continue to be loved and cared for 8. Don’t use the child for bargaining power w/ ex- spouse 9. Make use of grandparents/relatives to maintain a sense of family VIII. Sensation and Perception a. Before 1950 i. Sensation and perceptions viewed as independent processes 1. What were sensations viewed as only the stimuli (sounds, tastes, colors, smells, etc.) 2. What were perceptions referred to interpreting the combined stimuli so that it acquired meaning for the person b. In 1950 i. James Gibson 1. He said that sensations and perception really should be viewed as different parts of the same process ii. What are perceptual systems? 1. Structure, function, and operations by which people perceive their world. 2. To fully develop our perceptual systems need to learn and to work with one another iii. Held and Bauer study 1. Hand-eye coordination of monkeys 2. Know the experiment 3. Know the results a. First stared at their bodies for extended periods b. Showed very poor coordination in visually guided reaching i. This points to the fact that early experience is critical to the ultimate development of interacting perceptual systems later in life. iv. Human Studies 1. Cataract removal patients a. While these people have multiple deficiencies, one of the primary ones is in visually guided reaching. v. Kitten studies 1. Sensory deprived kittens a. Retinas or lenses never developed while they were completed deprived of light b. When deprived of sound the kittens never develop eardrums c. When deprived of all sensory experience, the kitten’s physiological structures do not fully developed vi. Sensory deprivation in humans? 1. 1960 Heron Studies a. Know the study i. college students ii. dull room with air conditioning iii. plastic visor (on eyes) iv. arms and legs covered with tubes b. Know the results i. After 3-6hrs ii. Complex tasks could not be performed iii. Subjects become irritable and restless (twitching) iv. After24hrs v. Reported seeing cartoon like images (not under personal control) vi. Became eager for stimulation (would sing, tap, whistle, and talk) vii. Display random movement viii. Keeping subjects for longer than 48hrs became impossible ix. Conclusion: absence of regular sensory stimulation changes the behavior patterns of humans c. Human Visual system i. Receives most attention ii. What does the process start with? 1. Stimulus 2. System that responds to stimulus iii. Visual systems stimulus 1. Light response system a. Human eye i. Parts of the eye ii. 3 layers of retina 1. Rods/cones 2. Info leaves eye 3. Occipital lobe 2. Transduction a. Process by which visual system analyzes stimuli and converts to electrical signals in the retina i. Photoreceptors 1. The retinal cells (neurons) that begin the process of transduction are called photoreceptors (light receivers) 2. 2 types of photoreceptors a. cones (6million per eye) i. responsible for color vision ii. day vision only iii. aid with fine discrimination b. Rods (120 million per eye) i. Responsible primarily for night vision ii. Used for black/white (contrast) form perception ii. Duplicity theory: theory that vision is controlled by two and only two classes of photo receptors (rods and cones) 3. Color vision a. Properties of color i. Hue 1. is the color of an object. It is determined by the wavelengths of light that an object reflects Brightness ii. Brightness 1. refers to how light or dark a color is. It is determined by the intensity (strength) of the light. iii. Saturation 1. refers to the pureness of a color. It is determined by the complexity of the reflected light. 4. Color coding a. 3 types of cones in retinas i. short waves ii. medium waves iii. long waves 1. This is known as Young-Helmholtz theory a. Trichromatic b. Hering’s alternative theory i. Opponent-process theory 1. Hering also argues that we have three different types of cones but, 2. Red/green, blue/yellow and black/white cones 3. After decades of research it was finally concluded that the Young- Helmholtz theory best explains color coding at the retinal level c. Which theory best explains color-coding at the retinal level? i. Young-Helmholtz theory best explains color coding at the retinal level In addition to the lecture material review the following pages in the text book: 24-25, 29-38, 49-53, 59-62, 64-69, 169-170, 175-179, 183, 188-190, 218- 219, 222-223, 229, 234, 237-242, 250-251, 259-261 Goodluck!
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