Exam #1 Study Guide
Exam #1 Study Guide Geog 1250
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bridget Goble on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geog 1250 at Bowling Green State University taught by Marius Paulikas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 250 views. For similar materials see Weather and Climate in Geography at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
EXAM # 1 STUDY GUIDE TOPIC #1 Vocabulary Terms Climate – Long term weather patterns (about 30 years) o Example – Rising temperatures across the globe Weather – Short term patterns o Example : Many hurricanes occurred in the year of hurricane Katrina, but then the amount of hurricanes died back down Temperature – Measure of the internal energy content of the atmosphere o Air temperature – How fast molecules move (energy content) Day time: Energy input occurs from sun’s radiation Night time: Energy output (warmth escapes into space, causing temperatures to cool at night) Precipitation – Water vapor condenses in atmosphere, forming droplets that fall to Earth o Freezing rain, sleet, snow, rain, hail Dew point – Measure of atmospheric moisture o Higher dew point means there is more moisture present in the air Pressure – Exertion of force upon surface by a fluid in the atmosphere in contact with it o Atmospheric pressure decreases with height, as fewer molecules exist the higher one goes because there is less gravity Isotherm – Line connecting equal temperature points across a particular area (area being places like a county, state, or nation) Isotachs – Line connecting equal wind speeds of a particular area Isobars – Lin connecting equal pressure points Disparities – Differences in temperatures between the poles and the equator, casing weather/climate conditions like rain or wind Concepts A. Overview of weather and climate a. Why study it? i. Improve/understand health ii. Economy iii. Transportation iv. Agriculture v. Politics (bad decisions on weather conditions) b. Importance of the sun i. Gives Earth energy B. Finding pressure and pressure change a. Pressure is the upper right hand number in an area on a weather map b. Pressure change is the lower right number c. If the number begins with a 8 or a 9, the pressure is in the upper 900’s d. If the number begins with a 0, 1, or 2, the number is in the lower 1,000’s e. Finding pressure i. Example original number: 896 move the decimal one place to the left and put a 9 in front of it. The 9 is placed there because it is in the upper 900’s. Therefore, the answer would become 989.8 mb f. Finding pressure change i. Example original number: 3 move the decimal one place to the left. Therefore, the answer becomes .3 mb SYMBOLS TO KNOW are in the picture below (picture is also in week 1 notes) TOPIC #2 Vocabulary Terms Atmosphere – Cloud of gas and suspended solids extending from Earth’s surface thousands of miles, The atmosphere gets thinner with distance, but is always held by gravity Conduction – Flow of heat in response to a temperature gradient within r between objects that come into physical contact Convection – Transporting heat and moisture by the movement of a fluid Radiation – Energy that’s transported through electromagnetic waves o Shortwave radiation – Radiant energy emitted by the sun in UV wavelengths o Longwave radiation – Infrared energy emitted by Earth and it’s atmosphere at wavelengths between 525 micrometers Advection – When wind transports atmospheric property from place to place Insolation Greenhouse gases – Gases that allow direct sunlight to reach Earth’s surface unimpended. These gases absorb longwave heated energy and trap them in the lower atmosphere. Some of these gases are natural to Earth. o CO2, Methane, water vapor, and Nitrous Oxide Concepts A. Formation of our current atmosphere a. Every 5.5 km you rise in the atmosphere, the amount of gases are cut 50% in half b. Early Earth’s atmosphere consisted of mostly Hydrogen and Helium (these were forced out of Earth because comets struck Earth and forced these light weight gases into space) c. Volcanic eruptions released a large amount of Nitrogen, some water vapor, and CO2 i. Plants took this amount of CO2 produced in and produced Oxygen d. Permanent gases – Nitrogen and Oxygen i. Percentage of these stays relatively the same wherever you travel on Earth e. Variable gases – Water vapor, CO2, and Methane i. Percentage of these vary depending on where you at on Earth B. Four atmospheric layers a. Troposphere i. Where most weather occurs – lowest layer ii. Earth’s surface and 620 km above it (height varies from location to location. It is higher at the equator, shorter at the poles iii. Temperature decreases with height b. Stratosphere i. Difficult to get rid of gases in this layer ii. Temperature increases with height iii. From end of troposphere to 50 km above it c. Mesosphere i. End of stratosphere to 85 km above it ii. Gas density and temperature decreases with height iii. Meteors burn up in this layer d. Thermosphere – Highest layer of atmosphere i. Temperature increases ii. Very thin C. Pressure and density a. Pressure and density are directly proportional (higher density = higher pressure, lower density = lower pressure) b. Density – Mass per unit volume of Earth’s surface c. Pressure – Force exerted on something d. Pressure and density both decrease with altitude D. Greenhouse gases a. CO2, Methane, water vapor, and Nitrous Oxide b. These gases allow direct sunlight to reach Earth’s surface unimpended TOPIC #3 Vocabulary Terms Conduction – Flow of heat in response to a temperature gradient within or between objects that come into physical contact with one another Convection – Transporting heat and moisture by the movement of a fluid (sometimes convection and thunderstorm will be used interchangeably) Radiation – Energy that is transported through electromagnetic waves Albedo – Percent of radiation returning from a surface compared to that which strikes it. It holds reflectivity properties Transmission – Light passes through a substance and direction/intensity stays the same Insolation – Solar radiation emitted to Earth Atmospheric Window Rayliegh Scattering – Scattering of light by particles in a medium without a change in wavelength (reason why the sky is blue) Solar Constant – 1367 W/m 2 StefanBoltzman Law – E= σT 4 8 o The symbol σ is a constant (5.67 X 10 ) o T is in Kelvin o This equation states that as temperature raises, more energy is emitted Wien’s Law – λmax = (2897 υm K) ÷ T o λmax = maximum wavelength in micrometers o T = temperature in Kelvin o This equation states that as an object gets hotter, wavelengths get shorter Concepts A. Energy transfer a. Conduction – Objects must be touching for energy to transfer through b. Convection – Energy can transfer through without objects touching. i. Think of a convection oven. The heat in the oven is transferred to the food even though it is not directly touching it. c. Radiation – Energy travels through space i. Shortwave radiation – Radiation from the sun (shorter the wavelength, the more energy it possesses) 1. This radiation passes through the atmosphere (greenhouse effect) ii. Longwave radiation – Energy from the Earth that is emitted in attempt to cool the Earth as it absorbs sunlight and shortwave radiation B. Earth a. Axial tilt – 23.5 degrees b. Beam spreading – Light is largely concentrated in one area, but spreads out around that area. i. Think of pointing a flashlight at a wall – most of the light is concentrated brightly in one spot, and it gets darker as you spread out from that center spot c. Atmospheric Depletion – Absorption rate changes as wavelength changes d. Seasons information is in the chart below Solar Latitu Calenda Seasonal date a. HS Daylig Daylig declinati de in r date emispher hemisph ht ht ant on degre e. Season ere Arc. arc. es season Circle circle Tropic 23.5 June 21 Summer/June Summer Winter 24 0 cancer solstice hours hours Equator 0 Septem September Fall Spring 12 12 ber 21 equinox hours hours Tropic 23.5 Decemb Winter/Decem Winter Summer 0 24 Capricor er 21 ber solstice hours hours n Equator 0 March March Spring Fall 12 12 21 equinox hours hours TOPIC #4 Vocabulary Terms Anvil – Flat top of cumulonimbus (thunderstorm) cloud Mammatus – Saturated clouds mixing with dry air Hydrolic Cycle – Condensation, evaporation, precipitation, transpiration Relative humidity – Ratio of how much water vapor an air sample holds relative to the maximum amount of water vapor it can hold o Tells us how moist the air is, but it does NOT tell the water vapor count o Calculating it : Mixing ratio ÷ saturation mixing ratio Then, multiply this number by 100% Mixing ratio – Water vapor content of air saturation mixing ratio o Tells us how much water vapor the air can possibly hold at a given temperature Vapor pressure – Pressure of vapor in contact with its liquid or solid form Saturated vapor pressure – Vapor pressure of a system at a given temperature where the vapor/substance is in equilibrium with a plane surface Unsaturated air – This air needs more water vapor. The water vapor is less than 100% o Evaporation > Condensation Saturated air – To gain more water vapor, some water vapor needs to leave to make room. It 100% saturated o Evaporation = Condensation Supersaturated air – Over 100% saturated o Condensation > Evaporation Dew point – 100% saturated air at a given temperature Frost point – When are becomes saturated below freezing point Sublimation – Solid changes directly to a gas Deposition – Gas changes directly to a solid Sensible heat – Energy responsible for temperature going up Latent heat – Energy responsible for phase change Supercooled water – When water’s cooled to its freezing point and ice crystals form in water Condensation nuclei – Small airborne aerosols that serve as nuclei for cloud condensation to form around o Heterogeneous nucleation : These aerosols used would consist of ice crystals, volcanic ash, pollen, dust o Homogenous nucleation: These aerosols would only consist of water. Concepts A. Cloud Classification a. 2 cloud types i. Layered clouds ii. Convective clouds b. Classified by height and form i. Prefix determines height 1. Strato – Low 2. Cirro – High 3. Alto – Mid height 4. Cumulo – Convective cloud that can vary in height ii. Suffix determines form 1. Nimbus – Precipating cloud 2. Stratus – Layered 3. Cumulous Puffy 4. Cirrus – Wispy/thin/hair like 5. Examples: a. Altostratus = mid altitude layered cloud b. Cirrostratus –= high altitude layered cloud c. Clouds to know i. Nimbostratus = Precipitating layered cloud ii. Cumulus Humilis = Warm weather, humid iii. Cumulous congestus = Not yet precipitating, but is about to B. Dew Point Depression a. Definition – Difference between the current temperature and the dew point b. Calculating it i. Current temperature – dew point temperature = Dew point depression 1. Example: Current temperature = 70 degrees Dew point = 55 degrees 70 degrees – 55 degrees = 25 TOPIC #5 Vocabulary Diurnal – Daily temperature patterns (warm day, colder night) o Diurnal temperature range: Maximum temperature – minimum temperature = diurnal temperature range Normal temperature – Climate average for a given day Wind chill – Wind making cold temperatures feel colder Heat index – Humidity making warm temperatures feel warmer Concepts A. Varying temperatures a. Warmest days for Northern Hemisphere are in July b. Closer to the equator, warmer your year is overall c. Landscapes contributing to temperature variation i. Cities – Generally warmer because they have high amounts of buildings, asphalt, and concrete, that absorb and trap heat ii. Desert – Warmer because there is little vegetation to absorb heat iii. Forest – Cooler temperatures as a result of high vegetation absorbing the energy for photosynthesis iv. Clouds 1. No clouds during day = warm day 2. Clouds during day = cooler day 3. Clouds at night = warmer night , as the heat is trapped in the lower layer of atmosphere by the clouds 4. No clouds at night = cooler night, as the energy is able to escape into space easier v. Mountains 1. Aspect – North/South facing a. South facing slopes generally have more sun exposure and resultantly have dryer, warmer conditions b. North facing slopes generally have more vegetation and more moist conditions because they receive less sunlight vi. Diurnal day 1. Warmest temperatures are usually from
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