Media Culture Society Notes Up To Test One
Media Culture Society Notes Up To Test One SPCH 2050 016
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SPCH 2050 016
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Imari Notetaker on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPCH 2050 016 at Georgia State University taught by Bellon in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Media Culture And Soceity in Speech at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
1 Thinking Critically About Mass Media • Why Are We Studying This? o Ubiquity – on average, people spend more than 5 hours a day intentionally involved in media Ø Total media time 2/3 of our waking life o Information – virtually everything you know about the world is delivered to you by the media o Culture – modern media both influences culture and is deeply influenced by it Ø “Visual literacy” – the ability to decipher meaning from common images • What are we studying? o Mass Media – the vehicles through which messages are disseminated to mass audiences Ø Also a term of industry of mass media Ø Also sometimes used to refer to the news industry • Media Maturation Model o Most media technology (and most technology of any kind) goes through 3 predicable stages Ø 1. Innovation: the technology is just being explored (and not necessary for the same thing it ends up becoming) Ø 2. Entrepreneurial: a commercial use is discovered for the technology Ø 3. Stability: the commercial use becomes stable and widespread a true “mass” media • Media Convergence o A new stage of the model: Ø Older media are reconfigured in various forms are on newer media Ø Media becomes converged them to different ways ♦ 1. Products that were produced involve media become available in another medium o This includes bits and pieces of older produces ♦ 2. Multiple companies that produce different media got purchased by a single Corporation • High vs. Low Culture o One perspective on the media sees it as a cultural continuum Ø High culture: is associated with larger levels of taste, education, complexity, wealth, and cultural durability. Ø Low culture: is associated with mass popularity, throwaway culture, and simplistic appeals o Some sea high and low culture is being in competition Ø They see culture as a zero sum game Ø They are you that low culture makes us incapable of appreciating high culture o Others are using a low culture is increasingly coming to resemble high culture o Still others argue that the whole idea of high culture and low culture is wrong o Dr. Bellon says … “Communication is complicated” • Postman vs. Johnson o 1985 Neil postman wrote a book called amusing ourselves to death 1 2 o They argued that the move from books to television was creating an entertainment first culture o People were becoming more passive and less critical, losing the ability to learn because they expect to be entertaining o At the same time television was becoming less and less intelligent, focused only on style and packaging o 20 years later Steven Johnson wrote a book called everything bad is good for you o He argued that TV and other kinds media are becoming more complicated and more intelligent o As the demand for entertainment grows, so does the demand for more engaging in intellectual challenging contents and formats Ø He calls this is a sleeper curve o So the entertainment culture should be feared by critics • Postmodern Media Culture o Skepticism towards the Grand narratives of the modern age o How they appear Ø Stories and figure that question in traditional forms of Authority like government, Science, religion, and so on. Ø Media artifacts that blurred the boundaries of style and genre (including the boundary between fact and fiction) Ø In enthusiasm for mixing cultures, styles, and even time periods. Ø Retelling classic narratives (Fiction or nonfiction) to question their truth or to change our perspective on them Ø The recognition that the audience is increasingly diverse in global with access to a disparate media option • The linear model of mass communication o Sanders (authors producers and organizations) transmit messages (program text images sounds and ads) three mass media channel (newspapers books magazines radio television or the Internet) two large groups of receivers (readers viewers and consumers) o In the process, Gate keepers (new editors executive producers and other media managers) function as message filters Ø Media gate keepers make decisions about what message actually get produced for particular view o The process allows for feedback, in which citizens and consumers, if they choose, return messages to senders or gatekeepers through phone call, email, web postings, talk shows, or letters to the editor Print Culture • The oldest book o Different cultures in Rome started making a Codex, buy new sheets of parchment together, around 200 to 400 BC o Diamond sutra, Black printed on a 16 foot scroll in China in 868 is widely recognized as the first modern book • Block Printing o Carving blocks of wood with the rain surfaces and then applying sheets of paper 2 3 to those surfaces after covering them in a link o Invented in China and Korea nearly 250 years before it was adopted in Europe o Later, movable type, assuming a separate piece of wood or metal to each character or symbol • Gutenberg & the printing press o First European printing press was invented in the 1450s fifties by a German man named Johannes Gutenberg o Used to move will type two accelerated the process of printing, making reproduction faster and more accurate o Movable type has been used in Asia for 600 years o Metal type had been used to print books in Korea 75 years prior o It also included new inks and press to sign that modify existing agricultural models • Books invented individuals o • Printing in the U.S. o The arrival of the printing press ushered in the first age of mass communication o The first book in the US colonies was printed in 1640 Ø Only 20 years after pilgrims arrived in Massachusetts • The book industry o Books are being sold and printed than ever before total revenue of industries around 28 billion (2014) Ø Largest area of growth recently has been in children in young adult fiction o Book publishers used to be very diverse… o Recently a lot of consolidation has occurred in publishing houses o Amazon is now the largest bookseller in the US, and the only one who sales are growing • E-books o E-book sales are projected to surpass print sales next year (2017) Ø However both hard back in paperback books are still growing in sales Ø Amazon accounts for about 60% of e-book sales ♦ 2011 that figure was 90% Ø Apple in Barnes& Noble each have one half of the remaining sales Ø 2003 the Department of Justice ruled that Apple has been conspiring with major book publishers to ‘fix’ the e-book prices ♦ Apple made deals with publishers that not only required of them to raise e-book prices across the board ♦ It also required publishers to stop giving Amazon a standard price ♦ This let Apple get a cut of higher book prices and preventing Amazon from selling at a discount • Newspaper History o The first newspaper like thing was published in the Rome 59 BC by Julius Caesar o American newspapers were published by early 1690 in Boston o Early American newspapers we’re not widely read because the literacy o In the 1800s several important things happen Ø America became more urban 3 4 Ø William Randolph Hearst started the first chain of city papers Ø A new wave of European immigrants used newspapers to help learn English • The history of American news o The colonial and Protestant periods 1690 to 1830 Ø Before the Revolutionary war newspapers were determining what they could say about the government ♦ British system required trial by jury injuries were often critical of the colonial government Ø Key victories for journalists against the government emboldened the press Ø Newspapers became openly affiliated with political parties (the Protestant press) ♦ The Protestant press: political papers that push the views of the groups they represented Ø Eventually the new US government crackdown on their antigovernment tendencies o The penny press. 1830 to 1890 Ø Increase in literacy and rising industrialization which lower production prices Ø Characterized by the arrival of cheap popular papers that were distributed on the streets Ø Penny pressed papers gained popularity by giving the public what they wanted ♦ Human interest stories crime reporting and local news ♦ These stories replace reporting on politics and businesses Ø This fueled paid advertisement o Yellow press. 1890 to the depression Ø Emphasize profitable papers characterized by two things ♦ 1. Overly dramatic stories about crimes celebrities in scandals o Make up documentary stories and exaggerate ♦ 2. Investigative journalism represented as Crusade for the common people buy the watch day press Ø Early tabloids Ø Name for the battle over the comic strip character between two New York papers ♦ Eventually the extremes of these papers caused a public backlash ♦ Created opportunity for more sexual papers like the New York Times • The history of magazines o It was organized in France in the 1600’s o It got popular in England Ø First political magazine was published in London in 1704 Ø First publication to call itself a magazine started in 1731 o The first American magazine began in 1741 Ø Not successful Ø Reprinted news articles or copies of European magazine articles 4 5 o Regular magazines weren’t really a feature of American life until 1820 Ø This Saturday evening post was the largest living magazine 148 years Ø First general interest magazine aimed at national audience Ø It was also forced for national unity Ø First to feature a column written for women • Manuscript Culture o During the middle ages 400 to 1500 CE the Christian clergy strongly influenced what is known as an manuscript culture Ø A period in which books were painstakingly Léonard decorated and bonded by hand Ø This period also marks the entrepreneurial stage in the evolution of books • Where the textbook money goes o 1 cent of the dollar goes to freight expense Ø The cost of getting books from the publishers warehouse or bindery to college store o 7.4 cents goes to college store operations Ø Insurance utilities building and equipment rent and maintenance accounting and data processing charges and other overhead paid by college stores o 2.7 cents pretax goes to college store income o $.11 goes to college store personnel Ø Store employee salaries and benefits to handle ordering receiving pricing shelving cashiers customer service refund desk and sending extra books back to the publisher o 77.9 cents go to textbook wholesale cost Ø Publishers paper pricing editorial general and administrative costs marketing cost in publishers income also includes authors • Book challenge o Hey book challenge is A formal request to have a book written from a public or school library collection o Common reasons for challenges include sexual explicit passages offensive language violence homosexual themes promotion of a religious viewpoint nudity and racism • Reasons for challenging against American liberties o Sexual explicit material o Offensive language o Unsuited to age group o Violence o Homosexuality o Religious viewpoints o Anti-family News Journalism • What Is News? o The process of gathering info in make narrative reports Ø And by individuals for news organizations 5 6 Ø Offer selected frames of reference Ø Within those frames news helps the public makes sense of the world • What Is Newsworthy? o Information most worthy of transformation into the news stories Ø Timeliness: it is happening right now Ø Proximity: happening near us physically and metaphorically Ø Conflict Ø Prominence: famous people Ø Human interest: ordinary people Ø Consequence/utility: affects us the people Ø Uniqueness/deviance • How do reporters get stories? o Reporters 10 to use specific strategies that the textbook described as “rituals of reporting” Ø Helps explain why American journalism functions the way it does • Rituals of Reporting o 1. Focus on the present Ø Provides reporters with an endless supply of material and makes sure they report important developments Ø Also means focus on reaction and deemphasize stories that provides Analysis or historical context o 2. Get a good story Ø Gen. is have to tell a story to compare the public’s imagination and put fax into a larger context Ø This forces report is reported to be persistent in pursuing stories, which can be important when those in power don’t want certain stories to be told. Ø Also result in journalists ignoring things like ethical standards for the safety and interest of the people they are reporting on o 3. Get the story first Ø Emphasize publishing a story before the competition also known as the scoop Ø The rush to publish first often causes the herd mentality where many news organizations are pursuing the same story Regardless of its news worthiness o 4. Rely on experts Ø Give journalist in consumers access to credible knowledge about a subject Ø Allows journalists to see incredible wow acting neutral separating themselves from whatever the experts say Ø Totally why I’m small number of experts for everything ♦ Gives people a false sense that they are only a few knowledgeable people in the world ♦ TV news expert chosen are overwhelmingly white man o 5. Balance story conflict Ø Journalist like to tell both sides of the story involving conflict Ø Creates false equivalents: making two arguments seeing equal legitimate when they are not 6 7 Ø Often more than two sides of the story o 6. Act as adversaries Ø Journalist are trained to ask tough questions which can be beneficial when they are confronting powerful people who are trying to hide the truth Ø But it also tends to make journalists cynical even when it’s not appropriate and can cause journalists to miss the opportunity to ask broader questions • Journalistic values: the claim o Objectivity Ø Arguably impossible and probably never true of any journalist o Neutrality Ø Being journalistically professional Limited descriptions Ø Makes journalists Seymour politically moderate was also a deliberate sales tactic • Journalistic values: the truth o Open partisanship is now replacing neutrality Ø The TV audio’s is no longer a single large moderate group Ø Many of the practices of neutrality like journalistic professionalism are also being lost o Some RU that neutral journalism was also politically partisan so nothing has really changed o Research demonstrates that claims of news bias by politicians can have an impact on public perception o Herbert Gans’ 20 year study of journalistic values Ø Ethnocentrism: taking American viewpoints aren’t even in judging other countries by how they measure up to the US Ø Responsible capitalism: aiming for competition and not gaming for profit Ø Small-town Pastoralism: romanticizing rural life. Preferring to a small to large and rural to urban Ø Individualism is tempered by moderated: journalist like stories about virtue individuals who overcome adversity. This often causes them to ignore structural in organizational causes and issues. • The four main principles of the Society of professional journalist code of ethics o 1. Seek the truth and reported Ø Send a list should be I missed fair and courageous in the gathering reporting and investigating information o 2. Minimize harm Ø Ethical journaling street sources subjects and collages as human beings deserving of respect o 3. Act independently Ø Journal should be free of obligation to any interest other than public right to know o 4. Be accountable Ø Journalists are accountable to their reader listen everywhere in each other • Public journalism 7 8 o A type of journalism driven by citizen forms in goes beyond telling the news to embrace a broader mission of improving the quality of public life also known a civic journalism • Nellie Bly o Nellie Bly was an American journalist known for her investigative and undercover reporting. o She earned acclaim in 1887 for her exposé on the conditions of asylum patients at Blackwell's Island in New York City, and achieved further fame after the New York World sent her on a trip around the world in 1889. o She thinks insanity to get inside of an asylum in the 1880’s just to get a story 8
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