Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide MAST200010
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Date Created: 02/12/16
MAST 200 Study Guide for Test 2 The exam will cover the lectures and book readings. Below is a list of topics that are intended to aid you in your studies. This guide IS NOT allinclusive. Book chapters that you are responsible for are the following: Chapter 9, 10, 12, 13. Ocean Environments (Lectures 9, 10; Chapter 12) What are the major parameters affecting the distribution of marine organisms? (i.e. salinity, light, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pressure, desiccation, pH, water movement) Understand how each in turn influences the distribution of marine organisms in the oceans. Recall how these parameters impact marine organisms: example cirri beats in barnacles and how this relates to temperature. Salinity: coastal environments vary in salinity more than the open ocean or at depth – many shallowwater coastal organisms are euryhaline (can withstand that wide range), while most open and deepwater organisms are stenohaline (can only withstand small changes in salinity) Light: Temperature: O2 content drops with increase in temperature Dissolved O2: Gills extract O2 from water; mammals must surface for air Pressure: Gas bladders in fish control buoyancy; body tissue filled with fluid Desiccation (water loss): organisms hide from exposure or “clam up” pH: What are and define the two major provinces of the marine environment (biozones)? How are they subdivided? (Pinet 91) 1 o Pelagic zone (neritic/oceanic) Neritic: overlies continental shelf Oceanic: deep water in open ocean beyond the shelf break o Epipelagic o Mesopelagic o Bathypelagic o Abyssopelagic o Hadalpelagic o Benthic zone – divided by depth – understand the major differences between the littoral (supralittoral, eulittoral, sublittoral) and deepsea environments. Intertidal (littoral) – between low and high tide Sublittoral – coincides with continental shelf Bathyl – coincides with continental slope and rise Abyssal – average depth of the ocean floor Hadal – includes trenches How does sediment type affect benthic communities? (Hint: think about filter feeders vs. deposit feeders). 2 Filter feeders: more bivalves and fewer polychaete worms and snails (high energy environments) Deposit feeders: fewer bivalves and more polychaete worms and snails (lower energy environments) As you change grain size from gravel —> sand —> mud the abundance of deposit feeders increases and the number of filter feeders decreases. What are some of the main adaptations of intermediate and deepwater fish? Why do they look so bizarre? What sort of patterns do we see in phytoplankton as you move offshore? Patchiness What is the relationship between species abundance and species diversity in the deep sea? What are diel (24hour period) vertical migrations? o Organisms generally undergo diel vertical migration in response to ecological gradients (resources, prey, predators) in the pelagic zone . Coastal Ocean Environments (Lecture 10; Chapter 12) What is a keystone species? Increases diversity within the intertidal; example: Starfish Pisaster keeps mussels 3 in check so other species can flourish What is the difference between interspecific competition and intraspecific competition? Interspecies – competition between two species for space and food; example: barnacle study – Balanus mussels outcompete Chthalamus for space; Balanus cannot survive in high intertidal due to dessication Intraspecies – Estuaries are coastal settings characterized by strong salinity gradients. Be able to identify and classify estuaries in schematic figures. (Classified on the basis of circulation, which depends on amount of freshwater and seawater mixing) o Know the four types of classification according to their formation: o bar built: o drowned river valley: o tectonic: 4 o fjord: o Three types according to stratification: well mixed, partially mixed, saltwedge. Ratio of river flow (R; salinity gradient) to tidal flow (T; energy) Salt Wedge: High river flow and tidal flow Partially mixed: High river flow and low tidal flow Well mixed: Low river flow and tidal flow What is the turbidity maximum and where do you find it? Created by suspended mud concentrated near the halocline, where currents are weak. What is the relationship between species diversity and species abundance in an estuary? There is low species diversity, but high species abundance – in other words, not many different species can survive in an estuary, but those that do are very good at it. Estuaries have a large carrying capacity. What is a eutrophic ecosystem and what are some of the problems with it? (hint: think about the Chesapeake Bay) Eutrophic ecosystems contain an excess richness in nutrients due to runoff from the land – results in abundance of plant life and death of animals because of lack of oxygen. The Chesapeake Bay suffers from hypoxia (very little O2) and anoxia 5 (no O2), causing massive killings of shellfish and leading other fish to migrate elsewhere. What is a lagoon and what is inverse flow? They’re semi enclosed coastal water bodies that receive essentially no inflow of river water, so they are as salty as or saltier than ocean water. Inverse flow refers to the process where salinity rises at the far end of lagoon and then sinks, flowing out to the ocean along the bottom. What’s so special about salt marshes? Why do the marshes have rich organic soil? Salt marshes are the most productive environments on the planet. They trap sediments and absorb excess nutrients. How do coral reefs grow? Understand the fundamental biological interaction of coral reefs that is, among other things, the basis for the high biodiversity in a coral reef. A coral reef is created by carbonatesecreting organisms, and the mutualistic relationship/trophic interaction between coral and zooxanthellae allows for distribution of resources. Coral growth forms include encrusting coral (looks like a caterpillar), branching coral, and brain coral. Hard corals = the reef builders: polyps build hard limestone cups around their bases, which cement together to make a coral colony What are the three types of classification of coral reefs according to their evolution in the geological scale? Three stages of development as recognized by Charles Darwin (as sea level rises and/or land subsides): Fringing reef – projects seaward directly from shore; form limestone shorelines around islands or along continents Barrier reef – separated from adjacent land (sometimes lagoon); form as land is progressively submerged and the coral grows upward. Shallow lagoon expands and eventually separates the fringing reef from the shoreline Atoll – submerged volcanic islands; formed when land vanishes below the sea and the reef forms a ring of islands surrounding a shallow lagoon 6 Understand the physical requirements for the formation of coral reefs. Hint: what sort of stable conditions? They need very specific conditions in order to survive: 7375 degrees F Less than 80 ft to 230 feet deep Normal salt levels (35ppt) Light/sun exposure needed for zooxanthellae to survive Not too much silt Not too much air exposure Lots of waves (fresh water means more food, waves remove silt and bring more oxygen) Corals do best in nutrient poor water (won’t be outcompeted) What are zooxanthellae and why are they so important to a coral reef? Zooxanthellae (unicellular algae) live within the tissue of a polyp, and give corals their color. Symbiosis: Zooxanthellae make oxygen, remove polyp’s waste, and make food for polyp. Coral polyps protect zooxanthellae, release and provide CO2, water, and necessary nutrients from their own waste for zooxanthellae to use in photosynthesis. Know the threats posed by humans to coral reefs. Coastal development and pollution (tourism) Dynamite and cyanide fishing (global aquarium trade) Overfishing Coral bleaching What is coral bleaching? Coral are intolerant to rising sea surface temperatures during the last few decades and respond by ejecting phytoplankton (zooxanthellae), which are responsible for the polyps’ colors. Without its symbiotic partner, the coral dies shortly thereafter. What is ocean acidification and why may it be bad for coral reefs? Ocean acidification – the carbonate system is becoming overwhelmed, and organisms that need a certain pH to survive are subsequently suffering. In what latitudes are mangroves located? What characterizes mangrove trees? They’re found in low latitudes, and mangrove trees are characterized by: Dense, complex roots that grow downward from the branches Specialized root systems 7 How do mangrove trees handle salt stress? Mangrove trees deal with salinity through specialized root systems: Pneumatophores (black mangrove in anoxic soils): partially exposed roots of a wetland plant that function in the uptake of oxygen from the atmosphere Salt tolerance glands (white/red mangrove): some exclude the salt from entering tissues while others take in the salt and then excrete it from leaves, branches, and roots How are mangrove forests threatened? Some consider mangroves to be a wasteland with little economic value for humans, leading to deforestation for aquaculture and shrimp farming Life in the Ocean 1 and 2 (Lectures 12, 13; Chapter 9) Be familiar with the classification of organisms developed by Linnaeus for use in zoology. How does molecular data impact this older classification system? Linnaeus came up with taxonomic classification, based on an organism’s structure (shape, size, color), or morphology From largest to smallest: Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species New molecular findings led to the study of phylogenetics (diagrams show relationships between species based on shared common ancestors). Know the five major kingdoms of organisms in the ocean, and major marine phyla (phylums) (examples mentioned in class). Kingdom: Monera Protista Chromista Fungi Metazoa Major marine phyla: Porifera: sponges Cnidarians: jellyfish, sea anemones, coralss Annelidia: worms Mollusca: snails, octopi, squid, clams, oysters Arthropoda: shrimp, crab, lobster, copepod, amphipod Enchinodermata: sea star, sea urchin, sea cucumber Chordata: fish and charismatic megafauna 8 How are marine organisms classified by lifestyle? Plankton, nekton, benthic 4.What is the basis for classifying organisms as in plankton, benthos and nekton? These are classifications by lifestyle – plankton are floaters, nekton are swimmers, benthos live on bottom or within bottom sediments. What is the difference between a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell? Prokaryotes have no nucleus; eukaryotes are organized in a nucleus. Understand the basic ecology and environmental factors that influence marine organisms. Hint: think of competition and physical stress in the intertidal example. Intertidal zonation: Barnacles form bands because 1.) Chthamalus is excluded from lower intertidal by competition and 2.) Balanus is excluded from upper intertidal by desiccation. Starfish Pisaster serves as keystone predator that increases diversity in the intertidal – keeps space competitors in check (mussels), clearing space for other species. Know the different types of plankton (e.g., phytoplankton vs. zooplankton) and their habitat. Phytoplankton = plants Zooplankton = animals Why are viruses so important in the ocean? Viruses help regulate microbial communities, so they’re very important to biogeochemical cycling. What microorganisms make up the most biomass in the ocean? Phytoplankton What is the single most important characteristic affecting the ecology of phytoplankton? Why is maximizing the surface area to volume (s:v) ratio critical for plankton? Hint: does a larger s:v ratio mean that plankton are more likely to find it easier to float? The surface area: volume ratio helps keep the phytoplankton in the right place within the water column. What is one of the most important factors for determining distribution and activity of an organism in the ocean? Temperature (controls rates of chemical reactions) Are marine organisms more sensitive to temperature or to salinity? Temperature What is osmosis? 9 Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane. Is the fluid inside a marine fish saltier or less salty than the seawater? How does it deal with this difference? Most marine fishes’ body fluids are less salty than seawater, so they drink large quantities of water, secrete salt through special cells, and urinate small volumes of highly concentrated urine What are the basic characteristics of diatoms, and dinoflagellates (both phytoplankton)? Diatoms: Singlecelled plants enclosed in a rigid frustule (shell) with holes through which nutrients flow and waste can be excreted Reproduce through cell division Dinoflagellates: Singlecelled plants with whiplike tails (flagella) Some have a cell wall (theca) composed of cellulose; some are naked Be familiar with the functional morphology of fishes (overcoming three types of drag). What is the aspect ratio? What does it mean for a fish to have a high or low aspect ratio? Three types of drag: Surface drag (friction between surface of fish and water) reduced by decreasing surface area – sphere Form drag (volume of water that must be displaced to move) increased by large cross sectional area – ideal shape is pencil Turbulent drag (turbulence around body as it moves through water) reduced with blunt end and tapering end – torpedo Aspect ratio = ratio of the square of the caudal (tail) fin height to caudal fin area – low aspect ratio means fast acceleration and maneuverability, high ratio means fast swimming. Production 1 and 2 (Lectures 14, 15; Chapter 10) What is the definition of ecosystem? It’s the total environment including biota (all living organisms) and nonliving physical and chemical aspects. General idea of ocean food chain, differences between the food chain and food web concepts. Food chain = linear succession of organisms within an ecosystem; based on 10 trophic dynamics Food web = interconnected and interdependent food chains Energy transfer and trophic dynamics (e.g. animals as consumers, bacteria as decomposers or primary producers, energy pyramid) Why are bacteria important in the marine environment? Understand energy loss as you move up a food chain. More energy required to sustain organisms as you move up the food chain How does body size and total organism number change as you move up a food chain? Body size increases, while total organism number decreases What does it mean to be an autotroph, heterotroph, or omnivore? Plants are autotrophs and the primary producers in most ecosystems; all other organisms are heterotrophs – the consumers and decomposers. Omnivores eat both plants and animals Understand photosynthesis vs. respiration and how the two processes are intimately connected (be familiar with the concepts conveyed in the chemical equations). What are the two major food chains in the oceans? How is the food chain in an estuary or salt marsh different from that in the open ocean? They are composed of different organisms, so the food chain of the estuary will be composed of the organisms that live in the estuary (lower species diversity), and the food chain will reflect that. What is the microbial loop? It’s the cycling of elements such as C, O, S, and N by microbes. Understand the processes that can limit primary productivity (i.e. light attenuation, nutrient upwelling and mixing). What is the compensation depth? What causes upwelling? Upwelling, the slow persistent rising of nutrientrich water toward the ocean surface, is usually driven by wind, currents, and turbulence and mixing. What is the compensation depth? It’s the depth below which there is no net productivity. 11 What are macronutrients? These are required in large doses – P, N, Si – and are scarce on a regional scale. What macronutrient is limiting in most of the worlds oceans? Nitrogen is usually the limiting nutrient in the ocean. What are micronutrients? Micronutrients are essential, but in small doses – Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, B, Co – and are scarce on a local scale. What is the Redfield ratio? This refers to the ratio of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus that phytoplankton require – 116:16:1. How does primary productivity differ between the tropics, a temperate region like the North Atlantic Ocean, and a polar region? Primary productivity, the total amount of C converted by plants into organic material per square meter of sea surface per year (gm C/m squared/yr), is usually highest in coastal upwelling zones and lowest at mid latitude open oceans. What is ocean fertilization, how do some think it could help the climate change problem? Ocean fertilization is adding some sort of limiting nutrient into a marine system to spark increased growth of something 22. What is the biological pump? It’s all of the biological processes that control the distribution of carbon in the ocean. What is downwelling and where do you find it in the ocean? Downwelling, where large ocean circulation gyres of water converge and sink, occurs in places like the Sargasso Sea. When are high levels of primary production a bad thing (hint: think about the eutrophic ecosystem)? What is the thermohaline conveyor belt and how could global climate change affect the way it works? Invasive Species and Extreme Environments (Lecture 16; Chapter 14) Where are regions of extreme life conditions located in the oceans? 12 Why are hydrothermal vent communities called oases of life, and what is the base of the food web there? What is the reaction for chemosynthesis and what is it similar to in other parts of the ocean? They support biological communities completely independent of the Sun’s energy on the ocean floor. Chemosynthetic bacteria make glucose with chemical energy, a process analogous to photosynthesis in that Carbon is fixed. What are the different kinds of deepsea vent communities? Black smokers and white smokers exist based on which material is being expelled from the crust. What is an invasive species? How can they be introduced in the marine environment? An invasive species is a reproducing population which is established in a new region and displaces native species. What is ballast water and how is it related to invasive species? Why is it so difficult to come up with a solution for this type of problem? Ballast water is held in a ship as it moves from one area to another, and organisms often stow away in this environment and invade the new ones they are dropped off in. 13
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