BI102 Exam 2 - Study Guide
BI102 Exam 2 - Study Guide BI 102
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Markhame on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BI 102 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Lesley Blair and Mark Lavery in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see General Biology - Genetics in Biology at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
B IOLOGY 102 S TUDY G UIDE : M IDTERM 2 Weeks covered: 4, 5, and 6 D EFINITIONS Evolution → A change in alleles over time Speciation → The process by which one species splits into two or more Species → consists of organisms that can successfully interbreed Mutations → Change in DNA (source of new alleles) Biotechnolo→y Manipulating living things to develop products Genetic Engineer→ng altering an organism’s genetic makeup Gene flow → Individuals move, interbreed, and share alleles – tends to reduce differences between populations over time and alters allele frequencies more directly than mutation. Allopatric speci→tion species developting in different areas Sympatric Specia→ion species arising within another species (in the same areas) Genetic Dri→t Random events impacting evolution (Variation is the beginning of evolution) Behavioral Isola→ion Different mating rituals that attract mates of the same species (Fireflies light patterns) Mechanical Isola→ion two species whose gametes do not fit together (Sperm cannot fertilize egg) Temporal Isolati→n Mating seasons are at different times of year (Think about frogs) Progression→ One species becomes another over time (horeshoe crab) Adaptive Radiati→n One species becomes many (Finches) over time Vestigal Structu→e Structure changed over time, but no longer serves the same purpose Convergen Struct→re Parts of an organism that share similarities but have different ancestry Natural Selectio→ An individual is more fit than other members of its species, and survives to reproduce Artificial Selection→ Modifying and breeding individuals with desiredtraits(humanintervention) Genetic Variation → Change in alleles of organisms with a population by mutations and sexual reproduction Reproductive Isolati→n The existence of biological factors (barriers) that prevent two species from producing viable, fertile offspring (leads to speciation) Hybrid → The offspring of crosses between different species Polyploidy → presence of extra sets of chromosomes due to accidents during cell division Undifferentiated → Stem cells; cells are not bookmarked to form different parts of the body Gel Electrophoresis → Separating chromosomes by size; tells about your genetic makeup Pluripotent → Cells that can become any different kind of cell in the body Multipotent → Cells that can become some kinds of cells in the body Gene Therapy → Using genes to prevent or treat diseases (This is the original idea) Eugenics → the science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable characteristics Free Radicals→ Highly reactive atoms/molecules Pseudogenes → Genes that we have but are no longer functional, though they were at one point Blending Theory → Sperm and eggs came together and just blended, making the child a mix of the parents The Origin of Specie→ Clarified laws of evolution Polyploidy → organisms containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes C ONCEPTS What are the 5 techniques used in genetic engineering? 1. Cut → Using restriction enzymes to cut DNA (in order to obtain a piece of the chromosome) 2. Amplify → Making many copies of that piece using polymerase enzymes, and assemble more nucleotides. (polymerase chain reaction) 3. Insert → inserting the DNA fragments into bacteria (it’s best to add to plasmids because they easily accept new DNA) 4. Grow → grow that bacteria, this is now new bacteria; This is now transgenic bacteria (doesn’t occur in nature) 5. Identify → Make sure the gene works How do corn borers realte to the development of GMOs? → Corn borers are pests that eat mass amounts of corn when in larva form. → The solution proposed to get rid of them was to use pesticides, but these are harmful to pollinators and other plants around the corn. → There was an ingredient in the pesticides that was related to a soil bacteria toxin (bacillus thuringiensis) that killed the corn borers. → Researchers proposed the idea of modifying the corn itself to produce bacillus thuringiensis → They did this and it worked, so they cloned the successful corn and named it after the bacteria (BT Corn) → This was one of the first Genetically Modified Organisms (and now Monsato owns the patent) What is the first GMO animal that’s been approved for human consumption? → The North Atlantic Salmon What use do we have for GMO Mosquitos? → They’re made to kill off other mosquitos that are becoming increasingly dangerous to humans, like those that carry the Zika Virus. The offspring of these GMO Mosquitos die in the larva stage What are the 3 types of Cloning? Which one has been the most controversial; most important? 1. Gene Cloning 2. Theraputic Cloning 3. Reproductive Cloning → 3 parents – 2 doners and 1 surroget What were Darwin’s 4 observations? 1. Members of a population vary greatly with their traits 2. Traits are inhereted from parent to offspring 3. All species are capable of producing more offspring than will survive 4. The offspring do not survive due to lack of food or other resources What were Darwin’s Inferences? 1. Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than others 2.Theunequalabilityofindividualstosurviveandreproducewillleadtothe accumulationoffavorable traits in the population over generations What are the 3 Mechanisms that alter allele frequency directly and cause the most evolutionary change? → Natural Selection → Genetic Drift → Gene Flow What are the factors of Genetic Diversity? → Rapid reproduction → Mutation → Genetic recombination Where can stem cells be found? → Embryos → Newborns (umbilical cord blood) → Adults (wisdom teeth) What are the 4 stages of life in which you can conduct Genetic screening? 1. Prentatal (amniocentesis – using needle to extract samples from the fetus) 2. Newborn (commonly used to screen for diseases and genetic disorders) 3. Adulthood (People do this more for fun than for necessity) 4. Embryo (this is the most controversial) What was the idea behind Gene Therapy? → Take over viruses and remove the deadly genetic information, then insert an allele that is actually needed and functional. What is Somatic Cell gene therapy? → Fixing cells within the body during childhood or adulthood. What is Germline Gene Therapy and why is it controversial? → It’s gene therapy preformed on Embryos → It’s currently illegal in the U.S. and most of the world because no one has decided who has the rights to make decisions about what goes in and what comes out. What was the beginning of the Eugenics movement? → People have started to make pedigrees and are generally interesed in genetics. Suddenly, people bring eugenics to state fairs (where someone tells you if you have genetically desireable traits by looking at your phenotype) → This was extremely racist and anti-immigrant, “scientists” were saying traits of the non-white immigrants were undesireable - such as “Not speaking english”, and claimed that immigrants should not be breeding. → in 1927, sterilizations upheld in the supreme court for disorders and diseases → Hitler then takes up this as a rationalization for his purifying of the world. → Sterilization was eventually stopped by the civil rights movement What’s the biggest worry about using Free Radicals to slow aging? → Damaging the mitochondria, which does contain DNA What happened to Passenger Pigeons in the past, and what’s happening now? → Past: they went extinct from massive over-hunting in only a few decades → Now: We posess their chromosomes and are close to cloning them back to life What does it mean to say that Darwin was a person of his time? → His research was accepted during his time and massively well-received while he was alive Note: Mendel was ahead of his time What was Darwin’s attempt to expand on Blending Theory? → Pangenisis Theory What animal is Darwin famous for writing about in the Galapagos Islands the first time around? → Tortoises He asked “Why are there different tortoises on different islands?” While considering extinct species relative to what he was seeing, he tried to build a Tree of relation. What was it about the finches in the Galapagos Islands that intrigued Darwin? → The finches on every island had different phenotypes Their beaks and sizes varied greatly depending on the seasons (dry vs wet) What is The Origin of Species about? → Laws of evolution including: o Aspects of species can change over time o Species descend from a common ancestor o Theory of natural selection Evolution is not always ________, often it ________ based on the _________. Directional Fluctuates Environment The ongoing speciation experiment involving fruit flies: 1. One species of fruit flies undegoes reproductive isolation ( splitting it into two groups) 2. The two groups are fed two different foods (one based in maltose, the other based in starch) 3. Over 8 or more generations, the two groups produce more and more offspring that are different colors (one brown, one gold) 4. Mutations occur frequently during mitosis in this reproduction 5. The two groups eventually become two entirely separate species with no interbreeding What are the 2 ways speciation occurs? 1. Allopatric (in separate locations) 2. Sympatric (In the same location) Within sympatric speciation, what 3 types of reproductive isolation can ocurr? 1. Temporal 2. Behavioral 3. Mechanical Thank you for choosing my Study Guide! Be sure to check back for more notes and study guides with me for this class, and future ones!
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