Zoology exam 1 study guide
Zoology exam 1 study guide BIOL 1114, 001
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 127 views.
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If Hannah isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Exam 1 study guide Acids and Bases: Acidity: concentration of H+ (0acidic; 7neutral; 14basic) High concentration (10^0) of H+ = acidic Low concentration (10^14) of H+ = basic Acids increase H+ when added to water Bases decrease H+ when added to water Atoms make up all matter: element (atom): proton + neutron + electron (protons/neutron inside the core) charges: electrons=negative; protons=positive Isotopes: same element with different number of neutrons Periodic table: grouping of all elements organized by mass and characteristics Relationships: covalent bonds: strongest; share electrons Extent of sharing: equal sharing nonpolar; unequal sharing polar Polarity: partial positive and partial negative ends Hydrogen bonds: polarity gives rise to H bonds partial pos attract to partial neg Ionic bonds: bond between metal and nonmetal Ion: atom that has gained or lost electrons Cations lost electron, positive charge Anion gain electron, negative charge Electronegativity (EN) a measure of the atoms ability to attract electrons EN increases up and to the right of table Difference in EN determines what type of bond: Ionic: <1.7 Nonpolar: <.4 Polar >.4 to <1.7 Why is water essential to life? Water is cohesive molecules to molecules; creates surface tension Water is adhesive molecules to other surfaces/materials Acids and Bases: Acidity: concentration of H+ (0acidic; 7neutral; 14basic) High concentration of H+ = acidic (10^0); increase H+ when added to water Low concentration of H+ = basic (10^14); decrease H+ when added to water Molecules of life: Four main OM: Carbohydrates (sugars) exmonosaccharide Monosaccharides= monomers of carbohydrates Disaccharides= 2 monomers Polysaccharides= chain of monomers▯ stored energy Amino Acids (proteins) Dydration synthesis (lose water to join; mono to poly) vs. hydrolysis (add water to cut; poly to mono) 4 levels of structure • Primary structure: amino aicd sequence of polypeptide • Secondary structure: localized areas of coils, sheets, and loops within a polypeptide • Tertiary structure: overall shape of one polypeptide • Quaternary structure: overall protein shape, arising from interaction between the multiple polypeptides Hydrogen bonds▯add heat (denatured)▯ solid(covalent bonds)▯more heat (denatured)▯ combust Nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) nucleotides DNA (A, C, G) DNA (T) RNA (U) Lipids (fats) Fat stored glycerin molecule (no monomers or polymers Mono (single), poly (multi) ▯ chain link or train cars Monomer single unit of carbohydrate, protein, or nucleic acid; join to form polymers Sterols= lipid molecules; hydrophobic Membranes: Membrane is composed of organic molecules phospholipid bilayer has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions Membrane acts as a barrier Hydrophobic molecules can pass: lipids, nonpolar small molecules Hydrophilic can’t pass: ions, large polar or charged molecules Energy, Enzymes, Homeostasis Energy: Enzymes Lower activation energy Potential vs kinetic: Chemical energy stored vs energy of movement Energy transformations are inefficient energy is always lost as heat Endergonic (IN) Exergonic (OUT) Electron donor molecule(e transferred from donor to acceptor) electron acceptor molecule donor is now oxidized molecule acceptor is now reduced molecule O.I.L. R.I.G. = oxidation is lost, reduction is gained Mitochondria energy transferred through oxidation and reduction with goal to make ATP Electron transport chain series of membrane proteins that are used to transfer electrons from donor to acceptor Has one major job ADP(bonds with)P ATP concentration gradient Energy stored in PP bonds ATP is a nucleotide that temporarily stores energy Potential energy is in the P, when you break the PP bond, you release energy (hydrolysis) ADP + energy (producing)ATP formation coupled with other exergonic reactions (spending)ATP breakdown is coupled with other endergonic reactions How does our body control the rate of chem reactions? ENZYMES Lower activation energy (energy required to start a reaction) Enzymes are proteins (reusable protein that speeds up chemical reactions) Active sites can change shape or be blocked (noncompetitive inhibition) Homeostasis: Temp, blood pressure, pH, fluid composition Homeostasis is state of internal constancy of the above^^^ Interstitial fluid bathes all body cells—passageway between organ systems Negative feedback—selfcorrecting system Positive feedback—an initial signal leads to an action that perpetuates more action, thus causing amplification Thermoregulation: Regulation of temp and water Heat transfer convection, conduction, radiation, etc. Ratio of surface area to volume To increase surface area, make folds and creases Endotherm regulate body temperature internally; heat generated in metabolism counters heat loss (warm blooded) Hypothalamus controls body temperature and initiates responses (sweating, shivering, raising fur, dilating/constricting blood vessels, etc) Ectotherm thermoregulates by moving to areas where it can gain or lose heat (energetically favorable) (cold blooded) Problem with sending warm blood to extremities; warm blood leaves core, gets cooled, and returns cold blood to core Vasoconstriction reduces heat loss body stops sending blood to extremities Vasodilation sends more blood to extremities, heat dissipates (can be alcohol induced) Osmoregulation: Body fluid homeostasis urine regulates salt and water balance water follows solutes Cell membrane structure Cellular respiration Endomembrane system= nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondrial membranes, cell membrane, cytoplasm Outer membrane, intermembrane space Concentration Gradient = potential energy Molecules diffuse from high to low concentrations (concentration gradient high to low) until equilibrium is reached (equal distribution = no concentration gradient; move randomly throughout, so to remain equal) Membrane transport Passive transport: simple diffusion (solute) does not require ATP; substance moves across without help of proteins facilitated diffusion (solute) requires the help of transmembrane proteins; movement of impermeable solutes down their concentration gradients, does not require ATP osmosis (water) diffusion of H20 molecules, does not require ATP Iso= same healthy cell Hypo=lower expanding cell Hyper=higher shrinking cell Active transport: Net movement against concentration gradient, requires transport protein and energy input often from ATP Vesicular transport: Endocytosis: inward cell action; particles gathers outside, make way through membrane and is enclosed in its own vesicle membrane inside the cell; requires ATP; OUTIN Exocytosis: outward cell action; vesicle surrounds particles to be exported, vesicle moves to membrane, is pushed outward by membranes being fused and particles flow freely outside of cell; INOUT Cellular Respiration: Occurs in mitochondria Most energy transfer happens in oxidationreduction reactions (redox) Cellular respiration in a nutshell: 1. Breathe in oxygen 2. Break down polymers into glucose 3. Feed sugar and O2 to cells 4. Split glucose into 2 molecules and “strip” energy (glycolysis oxidizing) Requires oxygen= aerobic respiration 5. Pass on products to mitochondria 6. Strip more energy (Krebs cycle) 7. NADH/FADH2 energize transmembrane proteins (active transport) 8. Increases concentration of H+ in the intermembrane space 9. ATPsynthase harnesses concentration gradient to make ATP Glycolysis: ANAEROBIC (does not require oxygen) 1. Split one glucose into 2 separate molecules 2. Strip electrons (energy) via redox reactions 3. Make a little ATP in the process 4. In presence of oxygen, pass on final products to mitochondria (2 pyruvate, 2 NADH) Krebs cycle: ANAEROBIC 1. Strip electrons (energy) via redox reactions 2. Make a little ATP in the process 3. Pass on final products to the electron transport chain (8 NADH, 2 FADH2) Chemiosmotic phosphorylation: harnessing power of chemical gradient to produce ATP Outputs of photosynthesis are inputs to cellular respiration and vice versa.
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