Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide SOC101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophia Mattera on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Richard Fey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
SOC 101 Exam 1 Study Guide Mead’s theory of the Social Self The self is developed over time through social interaction Developed through: o Language o Play o Games (following rules) The self has two parts: 1. “Me” Learned self, in the past, developed through society 2. “I” The individual’s identity based on “me”, it s the present and future self Charles Cooley: Looking Glass Self “Looking glass self” o The process by which our self develops through internalizing others’ reactions to us Develops over time Made up of: 1. Imagining –we imagine how we appear to those around us 2. Interpreting –we interpret and draw conclusions from others’ reactions 3. Developing Self Concept Self o The unique human capacity of being able to see ourselves “from the outside” ‘Taking on the role of the other’ o Understanding how someone else feels and thinks, so you anticipate how that person will act o How? Through imitation, play, and team games Socialization Social Environment o The entire human environment, including interactions with others Socialization o The process by which we learn the ways of society Agents of socialization o Family o Peers o School o Mass media Statuses o Two categories: Achieved Statuses (worked for) Result of some individual action (i.e. being a nurse) Ascribed Status Placed upon the individual (i.e. gender, race, etc.) Master Status o The one status that affects us the most o The one status that the world knows the individual as Roles o Rules of behavior associated with a particular status Role strain o When a single status contains conflicting roles Role conflict o When two or more statuses contain conflicting roles Types of Organizations: Normative o People join these to peruse goals that they consider worthwhile Coercive o Organizations are characterized by membership that is involuntary Utilitarian o Where we work Ritualism o A ridged adherence to the rules, even if the following of rules can cause danger to self or others Alienation o When employees have little control over what they do, or more like they are treated like machines Piaget- children’s’ development of reasoning 1. Sensorimotor Stage (0-2yr) Understanding through direct contact (sucking, toughing, listening, looking) Don’t “think” Don’t yet know self is separate from the environment 2. Preoperational Stage (2-7yr) We develop the ability to use symbols Learning to count, but don’t really know what numbers mean yet Doesn’t understand size, speed, causation, etc. 3. Concrete Operational Stage (7-12yr) Reasoning develops more, but remains ‘concrete’ Can now understand numbers, size, causation, and speed Can play team games Unable to talk about concepts of truth, justice, honesty, etc. 4. Formal Operational Stage (12+ yr) Capable of abstract thinking We can talk about concepts, come to conclusions based on general principles, and use rules to solve abstract problems Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Each child is born with a first element (ID)- inborn drives that cause us to see self-gratification It demands fulfillment of basic needs for: food, safety, attention, sex, etc. When the ID gets out of hand, we follow our desires for pleasure and break society’s norms Sociologists object to his theory because it denies the central principle of sociology (that factors such as social class and peoples roles in groups underlie their behavior) Psychoanalysis o A technique for treating emotional problems through long term exploration of the subconscious mind ID o Freud’s term for our inborn basic drives Ego o Freud’s term for a balancing force between the ID and demands of society Superego o Freud’s term for the conscience; the internalized norms and values for our social group Kohlberg’s Theory- Stages of Morality 1. Amoral Stage (0-6yr) No right or wrong 2. Preconventional Stage (7-10yr) Have learned rules and follow them to stay out of trouble View right and wrong as what pleases/ displeases people Concerned with gaining rewards and avoiding punishment 3. Conventional Stage (Age 10) Morality means following the norms and values they have learned 4. Post Conventional Stage Individuals reflect on abstract principles of right and wrong, and judge people’s behavior based on these principles Criticisms: Only studied boys o Women are more likely to evaluate morality in terms of personal relationships Preconventional and conventional are universal, but post conventional is not Gender Gender o The behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females Gender socialization o Learning society’s “gender map”, the paths in life set out for us because we are either male or female Peer group o A group of individuals, often roughly the same age, who are linked by common interests and orientations Agents of socialization o People or groups that affect our self concepts, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life Manifest Functions o The intended beneficial consequences of people’s actions Latent functions o Unintended consequences of people’s actions Ideal Culture o The way things should be o Social patterns mandated by values and norms Real culture o The way things actually are o Social patterns that only approximate cultural expectations High culture o Cultural patterns found within a society’s elite Subcultures o Different, but not against the norm culture o Groups whose culture patterns set them apart from wider society Counter culture o Seeks to change a society o Groups whose cultural patterns are a odds with wider society Culture Shock o Disorientation due to the inability to make sense out of one’s surroundings Ethnocentrism o “My culture is better than yours” Cultural Relativism o “My culture is different than yours” Culture Integration o Change in one part of culture may lead to changes in other parts of culture Culture lag o Nonmaterial culture normally “lags” behind material culture which often speeds ahead at alarming rates Acculturation o When there is a lot of contact and one culture becomes “used to” the other Accommodation o When the larger culture allows the smaller culture to retain its own identity Assimilation o When the smaller culture is absorbed into the larger culture, losing its own identity Cultural universals o Traits common to every culture known Culture o The language, beliefs, values, norms, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next Material culture o Material objects that distinguish a group of people Nonmaterial culture o A group’s way of thinking; its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world Resocialization o Changing/learning how to be a different version of self Social Control Obedience o Compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure Conformity o Going along with peers who have no special right to direct our behavior Informal sanction o The rules that define your behavior, but nobody tells you what to do or how to behave. A type of social conformity. o I.e. if you push all the buttons on an elevator, people will get really annoyed with you but they will not call security to kick us out of the building Formal sanction o A ticket or sanction by a formal authority The Milgram Experiment o The purpose is to see if people would obey an authority figure, even if they really have no formal authority o Would shock people when they got questions wrong o The experiment was actually testing the “teachers” to see how long they would keep shocking the person o Never studied women originally o In the replicated study, 80% of men obeyed, over 90% of women went all the way to the end Deviance o Violation of widely accepted social norms o Exists in every society o Different in each society: culturally related o Within a society Changes over time Changes with actor Changes with the situations Changes with the audience Different types of Deviance Folkways o Refers to simple everyday norms based on customs, traditions, or etiquette Mores o Norms based on broad social morals whose infraction would generate more serious social condemnation Laws o The strongest social norms supported by codified social sanctions Why is important to study deviance? Durkheim: deviance is functional for society Clarifies moral boundaries Reaffirms norms Promotes social unity Promote social change Deviance Theory of differential association o When relationships a person forms are very important. When they form relationships with people who have deviant behavior, they learn to be deviant. When they form relationships with people who follow norms, they are less likely to be deviant. Labeling theory o The behstior 1 deviance The deviance doesn’t affect their nd behavior 2 deviance Labeled as deviant and stigmatized Strain Theory o If a person is blocked from a culturally accepted goal, and they are not able to achieve it, they turn to deviance
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