World Geography Exam 1 Study Guide
World Geography Exam 1 Study Guide IREL 100
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Layne Franklin on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IREL 100 at University of Indianapolis taught by Brian Platt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see World Regional Geography in History at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
IREL 100 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Terms to know Cultural landscape- distinctive attributes of a society imprinted on a natural landscape; buildings, cities, agriculture, religious and political structures Natural landscapes- physical features that make up the Earth’s surface Transition zone- where two geographic realms meet Monocentric realm- realm dominated by a single major political entity Polycentric realm- power in a realm dispersed among a number of more or less equally influential countries. core region- place of dominance whose inhabitants exerted their power over their surroundings near and far. Periphery region- power in a realm dispersed among a number of more or less equally influential countries Sovereignty- idea that a government of a state rules supreme within its borders Devolution- regions or people demand and gain political strength Supranationalism- regions or people demand and gain political strength Functional Region- an interdependent realm that is held together through highly developed spatial economic and political networks. Russification- moving minority people and replacing them with Russians Command Economy- state planners assigned the production of particular manufactures to particular places, often disregarding the rules of economic geography. Unitary state system- its centralized government and administration Federal system- In a federal system, the national government usually is responsible for matters such as defense, foreign policy, and foreign trade. Europe How did Europe’s physical natural environment support its development? Europe’s resource space is rich and diverse. Europe’s peoples have benefited from a large and varied store of raw materials. What political revolutions have emerged from the realm over the course of history? The Industrial Revolution, French Revolution What languages and religions are dominant in the realm? English is the unofficial language. Christianity, Catholicism, and Protestants are dominant religions. What percentage of Europeans live in cities? 75% of Europeans live in cities What problems relating to population size are impacting the realm? Unification, shrinking population, multicultural challenges Understand how Supranationalism and devolution erode the power of the state. Diminished State Power and New Regionalism Russia What is Russia’s Near Abroad and why is it significant? Newly formed countries that surround Russia today. Russia seeks to influence former Soviet republics to achieve its foreign policy objectives. What is a rus? Slav settlements in the area of Ukraine. What ethnic groups are predominant in the realm? Armenians, Azeris, and Georgians What is the historical significance of Peter the Great? Founder of Modern Russia, and built St. Petersburg. When was Soviet Union founded and why? When did it dissolve? Founded December 30, 1922, Dissolved December 26, 1991 What were the objectives of the Soviet economy? Accelerate industrialization and collectivize agriculture What problems relating to population size are impacting the realm? Population implosion, male life expectancy drops, out-migration Why are natural resources so important to Russia, both economically and politically? Resources both encourage expansion and make it possible. What happened to the Russian economy after fall of Soviet Union? • Transition from communism involves selling off state-owned operations, Many end up in hands of a small, wealthy, powerful elite (Oligarchy) • Much of Russia’s economic rise based exclusively on exports of oil and gas What is the significance of Chechnya? Chechnya refused to sign the Russian Federation Treaty. It wanted to be independent from Russia. Russian military intervention followed and triggered a prolonged and violent conflict. North America What percentage of North Americans live in cities? 80% of North Americans live in cities. How are populations distributed across the realm? Where do people tend to live within each country? Robust urbanization, substantial immigration, and cultural pluralism are defining properties of the human geography of the North American realm. People tend to live in the West/East Coast, continental US, and cities. Who are the First Nations people? Early Native-Americans How is Quebec unique within Canada? What is the significance? It is mainly French-cultured. A substantial number of Quebec’s French-speaking citizens support a movement that seeks independence for this Canadian province. How have natural resources impacted development in North America? Agricultural resources, access to bodies of waters, highest in demand for fossil fuel resources Is the US a still a melting pot, or is it moving towards a “mosaic culture”? The US creates an increasingly complex ethnic and cultural mosaic that tests melting pot 12 assertions at every geographic scale. The United States is now becoming a mosaic culture, an increasingly heterogeneous complex of separate, more or less uniform “tiles” whose residents spend less time than ever interacting and “melting.”
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