PSY 2301, Chap 3
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Upasana Raja on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2301 at Temple University taught by Ronald D. Taylor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Chromosomes: Strings of genetic material in the nuclei of cells Gametes: Cells that unite at conception (ova in females; sperm in males) Zygote: Single cell created when sperm and ovum unite Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): Chemical material that makes up chromosomes and genes Genes: Pieces of genetic material that control or influence traits Gonads: Sex glands (ovaries in females; testes in male) Genotype: The unique genetic blueprint of each individual Phenotype: An individual's particular set of observed characteristics Dominant-Recessive Pattern: Pattern of inheritance in which a single dominant gene influences a person's phenotype but two recessive genes are necessary to produce an associated trait Polygenic Inheritance: Pattern of inheritance in which many genes influence a trait Multifactorial Inheritance: Inheritance affected by both genes and the environment Cephalocaudal Pattern: Growth that proceeds from the head downward Proximodistal Pattern: Growth that proceeds from the middle of the body outward Implication: Attachment of the blastocyst to the uterine wall Placenta: Specialized organ that allows substances to be transferred from mother to embryo and from embryo to mother, without their blood mixing Umbilical Cord: Organ that connects the embryo to the placenta Amnion: Fluid-filled sac in which the fetus floats until just before it is born Embryonic Stage: The second stage of prenatal development, from week 2 through week 8, during which the embryo's organ systems form Neurons: Specialized cells of the nervous system Organogensis: Process of organ development Fetal Stage: The third stage of prenatal development, from week 9 to birth, during which growth and organ refinement take place Viability: Ability to the fetus to survive outside the womb Cell body: The part of a neuron that contains the cell body and is the site of vital cell functions Synapses: Tiny space across which neural impulses flow one neuron to the next Axons: Taillike extensions of neurons Dendrites: Branchlike protrusions from the cell bodies of neurons Gilal Cells: The "glue" that holds neurons together to give from to the structure of the nervous system Teratogens: Substances, such as viruses and drugs that can cause birth defects Low Birth Weight (LBW): Newborn weight below 5.5 pounds Cesarean Section (C-Section): Delivery of an infant through incisions in the abdominal and uterine walls Germinal Stage: The first stage of development, beginning at conception and ending at implantation (week2)
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