Intro to Anthropology, Test 1 Study Guide
Intro to Anthropology, Test 1 Study Guide ANTH 1101 - 002
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Sanacore on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1101 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Gregory S. Starrett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 374 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Intro to Anthropology – Professor Starrett – Test 1 Study Guide Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term Highlight = Key Person Anthropology - Anthropology – the study of human nature, human society, and the human past - holism – a characteristic of the anthropological perspective that describes, at the highest and most inclusive level, how anthropology tries to integrate all that is known about human beings and their activities - comparison – a characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to consider similarities and differences in as wide a range of human societies as possible before generalizing about human nature, human society, or human past - evolution – a characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to place their observations about human nature, human society, or the human past in a temporary framework that takes into consideration change over time - Specialties of Anthropology - biological anthropology (physical anthropology) – the specialty of anthropology that looks at human beings as biological organisms and tries to discover what characteristics makes them different from other organisms and what characteristics they share - primatology – the study of nonhuman primates, the closest living relatives of human beings - paleoanthropology – the search for fossilized remains of humanity’s earliest ancestors - cultural anthropology – the specialty of anthropology that shows how variation in the beliefs and behaviors of members of different human groups is shaped by sets of learned behaviors and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society (or a culture) - cyborg anthropology – a form of anthropological analysis on the notion of animal-machine hybrids, or cyborgs, that offers a new model for challenging rigid social, political, or economic boundaries that have been used to separate people by gender, sexuality, class, and race, boundaries proclaimed by their defenders as “natural” - linguistic anthropology – the specialty of anthropology concerned with the study of human languages - archaeology – a cultural anthropology of the human past involving the analysis of material remains left behind by earlier societies - applied anthropology – subfield of anthropology in which anthropologists use information gathered from the other anthropological specialties to solve practical cross-cultural problems - medical anthropology – specialty of anthropology that concerns itself with human health, the factors that contribute to disease or illness and the ways that human populations deal with disease or illness - science studies – research that explores the interconnections among sociocultural, political, economic, and historic conditions that make scientific research both possible and successful - Gathering Anthropological Information - fieldwork – an extended period of close involvement with the people in whose language or way of life anthropologists are interested, during which time anthropologists ordinarily collect most of their data - informants – people in a particular culture who work with anthropologists and provide them with insights about their way of life - ethnography –an anthropologist’s written or filmed description of a particular culture - ethnology –the comparative study or two or more cultures Genes - gene – portion or portions of the DNA molecule that code for proteins that shape phenotypic traits - nucleotide bases - adenine - thymine - cytosine - guanine - amino acids – nucleotide bases make patterns (codons) indicating the formation of these - proteins – assembled from various amino acids - polygeny – the phenomenon whereby many genes are responsible for producing a phenotypic trait, such as skin color - pleiotropy – the phenomenon whereby a single gene may affect more than one phenotypic trait - genotype – the genetic information about particular biological traits encoded in an organism’s DNA - phenotype – the observable, measurable overt characteristics of an organism - alleles – all the different forms that a gene might take - dominant alleles are genetic traits that usually appear in an organism - recessive alleles are genetic traits that usually do not appear in an organism - gene & genotype frequency – the frequency of occurrence of the variants of particular genes (i.e., of alleles) within the gene pool - epigenetic influence on gene activity Evolution - evolution – a change in gene frequencies in a population - mutation - the creation of a new allele for a gene when the portion of the DNA molecule to which it corresponds is suddenly altered - Lamarck - wrote Le Systeme des Animaux (1801) - transformational evolution – Lamarckian theory of evolution; it assumes essentialist species and a uniform environment transforms itself to meet the challenges of a changed environment through the laws of use and disuse and the inheritance of acquired characteristics - William Paley - wrote Natural Theology - using observations of nature to make conclusions about what God had in mind - analogy of the watch (intelligence and mind) - migration (gene flow) – the exchange of genes that occurs when a given population experiences a sudden expansion caused by in-migration of outsiders from another population of the species - Charles Darwin - first proposed the theory of evolution formally through his work On the Origin of Species (1859) - variational evolution – the Darwinian theory of evolution which assumes that variant members of a species respond differently to environmental changes. Those variants that are more successful (“fitter”) survive and reproduce more offspring, who inherit the traits that made their parents fit - genetic drift – random changes in gene frequencies from one generation to the next caused by a sudden reduction in population size as a result of disaster, disease, or the out-migration of a small subgroup from a larger population - adaptation - the mutual shaping of organisms and their environments - the shaping of useful features of an organism by natural selection for the functions they now perform - Thomas Malthus - wrote On Population (1798) - population will always outgrow resources - essentially asked “if God is good, why do people starve, die, etc.?” - natural selection – a two-step mechanistic explanation of how descent with modification takes place 1. every generation, variant individuals are generated within a species because of genetic mutation 2. those variant individuals best suited to the current environment survive and produce more offspring than other variants - specialization – adaptation to a specific function - speciation – the birth of a variety of descendant species from a single ancestral species - niche – an organism’s place in the natural world (survival, relations, habitat, etc.) - niche construction – many living things have the ability to change their niches (place in the environment) Variation - polymorphism – any feature in a population/species that varies - sexual dimorphism – the observable phenotypic differences between males and females of the same species - race – social groupings that allegedly reflect biological differences - cline – patterns of gradually shifting frequency of a phenotype trait from population across geographic space - hypodescent rule – attempt to classify races as superior or inferior (racism, essentially) Anatomy - skull - cranium – bones of the head, excluding the jaw - mandible – the lower jaw - postorbital constriction – the bone behind the eye sockets becomes narrow; prominent in most primates - sagittal crest – ridge of bone on top of the skull caused by jaw muscles rubbing against the top of the skull; the more prominent it is, the more powerful the animal’s jaw is - femur and pelvic bones – the femur of quadruped primates attaches straight to the pelvic bones, while with bipeds (humans) the femur attaches on a slight angle to the pelvic bones - leg and knees - in quadrupeds – the part of the knee where the femur meets the tibia is more rounded - in bipeds – the part of the knee where the femur meets the tibia is flat due to the pressure of having the weight of the body on two legs rather than four - Types of Walking in Primates - digitigrade – using the hand to aid walking - knuckle-walking – dorsal digitigrade (back of the hand) - brachiation – hanging underneath and moving by pulling yourself with things above you - hominin – humans and their immediate ancestors - zygomatic arch – cheekbone; major chewing muscles connect to this bone, making it more prominent in certain primates than others (not in humans) - foramen magnum - hole found at the base of the skull where the spine is found - indicates how an animal walks - homology – maintenance of anatomical features; inheritance of a particular physical feature, anatomical features shared because of common descent - analogy – features of anatomy that are shared because of common adaptation, not common descent - superorbital torus (brow ridge) – more prominent in primates besides humans and human ancestors - 2123 dental formula (on each side of the mouth) – found in old world primates - 2 incisors - 1 canine - 2 premolars - 3 molars - tooth and jaw form – humans do not have diastema (space between incisors and canines); other primates have flatter molars, larger canines, and more square jaw arch Primates and Hominins - Australopithecus afarensis - cranial capacity of 380-500 - lived around 4 to 3 million years ago - first primate genus with bipedal members - Australopithecus africanus - cranial capacity of 435-530 - lived around 3 to 2 million years ago - Paranthropus robustus/bosei - cranial capacity of 506-530 - lived around 2 to 1 million years ago - also referred to as an Australopithecine - Homo habilis - cranial capacity of 600-752 - lived around 2.4 to 1.5 million years ago - used Oldewan tools (first human tools made of stone) - Homo erectus/ergaster - cranial capacity of 775-1225 - lived around 2 million to 300 thousand years ago - used Acheulian tools (stone tools characterized by stone bifaces or “hand axes”) - first hominins to migrate outside of African continent - first hominins to use fire - first hominins to live in different climates - first hominins to learn how to use different tools and to cook - Homo sapiens - cranial capacity of 1000-2000 - first appeared around 200 thousand years ago - modern humans - Neanderthal - archaic species of Homo that lived in Europe and western Asia around 130,000- 350,000 years ago - used Mousterian tools (stone tools associated with them) - Chimpanzee - cranial capacity of 282-500 - Gorilla - cranial capacity of 340-752 - Monkey v. Ape - monkeys have tails; apes do not Culture - culture - sets of learned behavior and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society together with the material artifacts and structures that human beings create and use - human beings use culture to adapt and to transform the world in which they live - extrasomatic means of adaptation - human-made part of the environment (niche construction) - new selective pressure - symbolically mediated (letters, words, etc.) - material culture – objects created or shaped by human beings and given meaning by cultural practices - if culture is associated with encephalization, why don’t human brains continue to grow? - physical limitations (bigger brains require larger bodies which need more food to survive) - different storage methods besides memory (books, art, technology, etc.) - specialization (focus on particular kinds of knowledge; we have socially adapted to build off of each other’s knowledge) - Early Stone Age (ESA) – the name given to the Oldowan and Acheulean stone-tool traditions in Africa - Oldowan tradition – a stone-tool tradition named after the Olduval Gorge (Tanzania) where the first specimens of the oldest human tools were found. The earliest specimens of this tradition are 2.6 million years old and were found in Gona, Ethiopia - Acheulean tradition – a Lower Paleolithic stone-tool tradition associated with Homo erectus and characterized by stone bifaces or “hand axes” - Middle Stone Age (MSA) – the name given to the period of Mousterian stone-tool tradition in Africa, 200,000-400,000 years ago - Mousterian tradition – a Middle Paleolithic stone-tool tradition associated with Neanderthals in Europe and southwestern Asia and with anatomically modern human beings in Africa - Upper Paleolithic/Late Stone Age (LSA) – the name given to the period of highly elaborate stone-tool traditions in Europe in which blades were important, 40,000- 10,300 years ago - blades – stone tools that are at least twice as long as they are wide - composite tools – tools such as bows and arrows in which several different materials are combined (e.g. stone, wood, bones, ivory, antler) to produce the final working implement
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