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BIO 120 study guide

by: Oyinkansola Bakare

BIO 120 study guide BIO 120 (Principles of Biology)

Oyinkansola Bakare

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Study guide Questions and answers for the first exam.
The science of Life.
Christa Partain
Study Guide
Introduction to Biology
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Oyinkansola Bakare on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 120 (Principles of Biology) at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Christa Partain in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see The science of Life. in Biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
Biology: Science of Life BIOL 120 Unit 1: Study Guide.   Scientific Method Describe the characteristics of a scientific hypothesis. ● The hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable. ● It must be possible to evaluate a hypothesis through observations that are measurable. ● An observation to prove the hypothesis false. Statement that are value judgments. Describe a controlled experiment. A controlled experiment is done to make sure the experiment is unbiased. The control is the subject or group that is similar in every way to the experimental subject or group EXCEPT that the control does not get the experimental treatment. Distinguish between primary and secondary sources. A Primary source is the person who writes the article or scientific journal that is proposed to be published and also the one who makes corrections while the journal is going through peer review while secondary sources are the media, magazines and radio that publish the journal and make it known to the public. Know the following terms & how they relate to the scientific method: Double-blind experiment: Limited knowledge of experimental hypothesis and no knowledge of which group participants belong to and also each participants have no idea what group they belong to. This is done to avoid biased results. Correlation studies: They are generated by researchers who collected data on subjects’ psychological stress levels before giving them nasal drops that contained a cold virus. This is related to the scientific studies because scientists use existing data and try to determine if there is a relationship, or correlation, between variables. Alternative hypotheses: Statistical significance Scientific theory: A theory is when there is an abundance of evidence and its typically well-supported by observations and experiments from several different, independent lines of research. Water, Biochemistry, and Cells Describe the characteristics of life. (first lecture) ● Individuals Organized- cells/molecules, taxonomy Energy- get/use Genetic information- DNA/inheritance Continuity- same molecules – unity of origin Reproduce- sexual/asexual Homeostasis ● Groups Diversity Evolution Why is pH important for life? Describe the physical and chemical properties of water. What’s the difference between adhesion and cohesion? Describe the basic differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and between animal and plant cells. prokaryotic cells have DNA but no nucleus and has two domains bacteria and archaea while eukaryotic cells has one domain eukarya and four kingdoms animal, plant, fungi and protist. Describe carbohydrate structure(s) and function(s). Structures of carbohydrate Made from monosaccharides (glucose). Disaccharides (sucrose/ table sugar.) Polysaccharides (Complex carbohydrate) One main function of carbohydrate is that they store energy. Describe protein basic structure and function(s). Structure Polypeptide- long chains of amino acid. Functions ● Structural part of cell can form larger structures. ● control cell processes ● acts as messengers that move through fluids. ● protect animals from diseases ● speed life processes called enzymes. Describe lipid structure(s) and function(s). Structures Triglycerides: Found in vegetable oils and fats. Steroid: Found in animals, fungi and plants. One main function of lipids is that they store energy for a long time. Describe nucleic acid structure(s) and function(s). Describe the plasma membrane structure and function. It surrounds all cells and its composed of bilayers of phospholipids perforated by proteins. Functions ● Proteins in the bilayer help transport substances across the hydrophobic core of the membrane. ● Cholesterol in the membranes of animal cells help maintain fluidity of the membrane. ● The sugar chains function as identification tags, marking cells as a particular cell type. What is Cell Theory? Define the following: pH Organic Chemistry Macromolecule: macromolecules (large organic molecules) in all living things, and produced only by living organisms. Enzyme: They are organic catalyst Nucleus Ribosome: Ribosomes are built in the nucleus and shipped out through nuclear pores to the cytoplasm, where they are used as work benches for protein synthesis. Mitochondrion: They are energy producing organelles surrounded by two membranes. The inner and outer mitochondrial membranes are separated by the intermembrane space. Chloroplast: An important organelle present in plant cells, the chloroplast uses the sun's energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar. Lysosome: A lysosome is a membrane-enclosed sac of digestive enzymes that degrade proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Cell Wall: The cell wall is found outside the plasma membrane of plant and bacterial cells. Cytoskeleton: They are proteins fibers in the cytoplasm that give shape to a cell, hold and move organelles (including transport vesicles), and are typically involved in cell movement. Simple Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Active Diffusion Respiration, Digestion, Metabolism What is the job of respiration, digestion, and metabolism? Metabolism This is the physical and chemical process in the body that convert or use energy for things like breathing digestion of food, circulation of blood e.t.c Metabolism requires: Water, enzymes and calories. Digestion means breaking down of food in the body. Requires: Macronutrients e.g carbohydrates, micronutrients e.g vitamins and enzymes. Respiration means Breathing. Requires: Oxygen, glucose and enzymes. Why is ATP important? How is it made? Macronutrients Water: disperses nutrients, dissolved waste, maintain blood pressure and temperature. Carbohydrates: Major source of readily available energy which is easily converted to ATP. Proteins: used to obtain necessary amino acids important in building tissues. Lipids: used as an energy source. Contains 2x as much energy as carbohydrates. Micronutrients Vitamins: Body cannot manufacture these (except vitamin D), used as helper molecules to enzymes. Minerals: maintain fluid balance, control nerve function, muscle control, teeth, and bone building. Antioxidants: Protect cells from the action of free radical (very reactive and breakdown cells and other chemical compounds in the body).


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