EN 216, Exam 1 study guide
EN 216, Exam 1 study guide EN 216
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grant Logsdon on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EN 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Sarah C. Pilcher in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Honors English Literature II in Foreign Language at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Exam 1 Review Introduction to Romanticism(17851832) Key events during this period ● American Revolution ● End of the British slave trade ● FRench Revolution Social Hierarchy during this time 1. Royal Family very few 2. Titled aristocracy dukes, earles, etc. 3. Landed gentry owned land only from inheritance 4. Trade class businessmen, nonlandowning 5. Skilled Workers 6. Laborers and servants 7. Poor biggest of the classes Land was only passed down and not bought primogeniture: land was passed down to first born son; other sons would usually dropdown a class and acquire a trade (clergy, lawyers, military), daughters would get married, or become governess, writers, or prostitutes The Romantic Period ● Most prolific age of literary production in European history ● Reevaluation of classical romances ● Featured elements of fantasy, supernaturalism, and was based on feeling ● Major writers: William Blake, Mary Shelley, William Wordsworth, Samuel Coleridge, Lord Byron ● Had a variety of nontraditional voices women writers and peasants ● Developed in contrast with original trend of logic over emotion ● Shift in viewpoint from objective to subjective ● Industrial revolution begins at this time also Anna Letitia Barbauld Background ● 17431825 ● prominent English poet and author ● wife, teacher, and adopted mother ● one of the first women to publish Epistle to William Wilberforce ● Wilberforce presented to the House of Commons to abolish slavery in 1791 but was denied ● slave trade was eventually abolished in 1807 ● slavery as a whole was ended in 1833 ● Style: ○ Big paragraphs, no small stanzas ○ couplet rhyme scheme, strict rhyme scheme ○ sophistry a foul way of trying to persuade someone ● Purpose: ○ To tell Wilberforce to quit trying because the country knows that slavery is wrong but doesn't care ○ She says what he is doing is in vain The Rights of Women ● Short stanzas, alternate rhyme schemes ● Overly sarcastic at being to get point across ● Ends by saying that men and women should be equal in mutual love Mary Wollstonecraft Background ● financially unstable upbringing ● scandalous affairs ● suicidal tendencies ● married William Godwin a Jacobin philosopher ● Died ten days after birth of her daughter Mary Godwin later Mary Shelley Jacobin philosophy vs AntiJacobin ● Jacobin: women is core of family, if she is good then community is good, idealizes authority and community responsibility, led by Edmund Burke ● AntiJacobin supports individual goals and desires, supports female agency, rejected social norms, led by Godwin A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) ● She new that men and women are not equal and all ways but deserve equal education ● At the time women were only educated in the arts William Blake Background ● 17571827 ● Education in art ● apprenticeship in engraving ● married Catherine Boucher had no children ● Had visions in his early life of God and angles ● was considered insane later in his life, attributed to death of his brother Song of Innocence and of Experience ● 1789 ● illustrates “two contrary states of the human soul ● Innocencehappy, childlike ● Experience not as happy, more dark ● “The Lamb” ○ speaker is a child, speaking to a lamb ○ child tells the lamb that God made him ○ possible darker meaning of child telling the sheep what to thing ● “The Tyger” ○ contrast of “The Lamb” ○ same rhetorical question of “who made you” ○ poem is asking how God could make such a horrible thing as the tiger ○ shifts from innocence in The Lamb to a much more sadder darker view of life ● “The Chimney Sweep” ○ The versions again, one more innocent the other darker ● “Holy Thursday” ● “Nurses Song” William Wordsworth Background ● 17701850 ● Average home life ● Father was legal representative of the Earl of Lonsdale ● Very close to his mother ● Had 4 siblings but was closest to his younger sister Dorothy ● “The spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings, recollected in tranquility” Education ● First attended a low quality school in Cumberland ● Later moved to a better school for uppermiddle class families ● Parents had a big impact on education ● Moved to grammar school in Lancashire after his mother died ● Earned Bachelor's degree at St. John's College Post College ● Spent a lot of his time touring Europe ● 1791fell in love with Annette Vallon in France ● Together and unmarried they had his first daughter Caroline ● Marries Mary Hutchinson ● Still financially supports Caroline and Annette Lyrical Ballads ● Revolutionary style of poetry ● Rejected decorum ● Wanted Lyrical Balladsto represent “incidents and situations from common life” ● Used diction of the common man ● Expanded range of poetry to the life and speech of the lowerclass Simon Lee ● Blind ● Finds joy in the bark of his hounds ● Worn down from working his whole life ● Tries to cut down a tree ● A younger person comes and uproots the tree with one blow ● Rich get richer ● Enclosure laws ● Dependent on masters The Thorn ● 1789 ● Mythical tale regarding a woman named Martha Ray ● Written as a legend ● the “choked thorn” represents Martha's child Tintern Abbey ● 1789 ● free verse ● about reflections and growth Boyhood, PostAdolescence, Present State ● set on the banks of the Wye River ● Wordsworth called it a mental poem Samuel Taylor Coleridge Background ● 17721834 ● Born in Devonshire, England ● youngest of 14 children ● went to Jesus College of Cambridge and there developed unitarian views ● wanted to create a unitarian utopia with one of his friends ● marries Sarah Fricker after meeting her in Whales, but he was still in love with another girl name Mary Lewis ● Befriended Wordsworth in 1795 they had a love hate relationship ● struggled with opium addiction ● In contrast to Wordsworth, his writing style was not as open to interpretation and he had a clear message that he wanted the reader to learn The Rime of the Ancient Mariner ● Sailor stops wedding guests and asks to tell him a story of his journey ● He killed an albatross and was cursed with bad luck because of it ● Wedding guest wakes up the next day a “sadder and wiser man” ● Themes ○ nature vs. man ○ supernatural forces ○ retribution ○ importance of storytelling ● “Willing suspension of disbelief” ● “too much moral” ● Moral of The Rime is that you are responsible for your actions and there is a sovereign force over man ● Didacticism something that has a specific moral lesson that should be taken from the story The Gothic Genre The Rise of the Gothic Genre ● 2 periods: ○ 18th centuryusually had a damsel in distress, because women read more at this time ○ 19th century more centered around men because they started reading more often, usually not in an exotic location, more relatable Elements ● Set in a castle or large estate ● vendetta against protagonist ● unexplainable events ● unrequited love ● ancient prophecy foretelling some of the protagonist ● exotic location ● atmosphere of suspense ● damsel in distresskey part Lord Byron Backround ● 17881824 ● born George Gordon, inherited name when he got land ● inherited a large amount of land unexpectedly after 7 people in front of him died ● abandoned by father ● in 1803 fell deeply in love with his cousin ● attended Harrow School in London ● First work was Hours in Idleness which was very poorly received so he made a satire based off of it that became very popular ● Mother died in 1811 ● He copes with her death through relationships with women ● marries his halfsister basis of Manfred ● Had a lot of twisted sexual relationships ● Had clubbed feet which he went through a lot of surgery to fix and had to go to therapy because he was bullied Manfred ● written in 1816 ● somewhat autobiographical ● Manfred is in love with his sister but she dies and he wants to forget about her ● The guilt of what happened is worse than Hell ● Themes: ○ supernatural forces ○ man vs. nature ○ isolation Byronic Hero ● New kind of hero ● all they care about is themselves, they do their own thing ● similar to Byron himself ● ex: Kanye West, Edward Cullen ● Presents obsessive tendencies; focused and constant ● Typically has one all consuming passion ● “Byronic love obsesses on the idea of a man and a woman so similar in character and in spirit, as to be almost one individual” ● passionate; has deep emotions ● Arrogant ● cynical; sarcastic ● sophisticated and educated; or even street smart ● Intellectually superior ● cunning behavior; ability to adapt ● a troubled past and/or suffering from a hidden crime or past sin ● selfcritical and introspective ● mysterious and charismatic ● seductive and can be very sexually attractive ● moodiness (sometimes presenting bipolar tendencies); tortured ● isolated (this can be both emotional and physical) from society in some way; an outcast or an outlaw ● dark attributes ● disregard for rank and privilege ● above the rules of society; distaste for social institutions ● jaded, gets easily bored ● selfdestructive behavior ● sympathetic despite his rejection of virtue ● capable of being redeemed ● capable of heroic behavior ● individualistic ● rejection of classicism
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