Chem 120 exam #1 study guide
Chem 120 exam #1 study guide Chemistry 120 (Chemistry, Heather Bass, General Chemistry)
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Chemistry 120 (Chemistry, Heather Bass, General Chemistry)
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Burns on Friday February 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chemistry 120 (Chemistry, Heather Bass, General Chemistry) at UTK taught by Heather Bass in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at UTK.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Chemistry 120 Exam #1 Equations: Number of neutrons = mass number atomic number; N = A – Z -24 8 1amu= 1.66053892*10 grams, Charge -to-mass-ratio, e/m=1.758821*10 c/g e 19 e E=1.602177*10 C (charge of electrons), Mass of an electron: ( ) m Atomic mass (x amu) (natural abundance) + (y amu) (natural abundance) + … 14 Plank’s constant (h): h= 6.62606876*10 J*s Temp in K= °C+273.15°, Temp in C=°K-273.15°, °F 9 Celsius Fahrenheit: °F= ( 5 X °C) +32°F, FahrenheitCelsius: °C= 5 X ¿ -32°F) 9 Avogadro’s Number ( N ) =A.02214199*10 23mol , 1Herts (Hz)=1s -1 h kgm 2 Density=mass/velocity, KE=1/2mv , (Δx) (Δmv) ≥ , 1J=1 2 4Π s Constant = c (m/s) =3.00*10^8 m/s=speed of light, Planck’s relation: E=hv=hc/ʎ 1. Why is chemistry important? a. To know about nature, the world (how it works), technology, and drugs/medicine 2. What is chemistry? a. The study of properties and behavior of matter i. Matter anything that has mass and takes up space 3. Classify Matter: state of matter, composition a. State of matter solids, liquids, gases b. Mixtures i. Substance- fixed composition (elements/compounds) ii. Mixture- variable composition of two or more substances 1. Homogeneous- same composition/appearance a. Ex) kool-Aid 2. Heterogeneous- composition/appearance varies a. Vegetable soup 4. Scientific Approach a. Scientific Method b. International System of Units(SI)- based on metric system i. Length-meter ii. Temperature-Kelvin iii. Mass-kilogram iv. Time-second v. Amount-mole 5. Laws/Daltons Atomic theory a. Law of Mass Conservation i. Mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions 1. Ex) 2HgO 2Hg +O2 b. Law of constant Composition i. Different samples of a pure chemical compound always contain the same proportion of elements by mass c. Law of multiple proportions i. Elements can combine in different ways to form different chemical compounds, whose mass ratio are simple whole- number multiples of each other. 1. Ex) a. 1. Nitric oxide(NO): 8grams oxygen per 7 grams Nitrogen(N:O mass ratio= 7:8=0.875) b. 2. Nitrous Oxide (NO )2 16 grams of oxygen per 7 grams of Nitrogen (N:O mass ration=7:16-0.4375) N:Omassratio=7:8=0.875 c. = 2 N :Omassration=7:16=0.4375 6. % composition a. (number of atoms of element)(atomic weight of element)/Formula weight ×100) 7. intensive properties a. do not depend on sample size ex. melting point 8. extensive properties a. depends on amount of sample ex. mass & volume 9. physical change a. a change that does not change the substances chemical composition 10. chemical change a. a change in a substance that alters the chemical composition ex. burning 11. Wavelength(ʎ) is the distance between successive wave peaks 1. Meters, visible-nanometers(nm) 12. Frequency(v) is the number of wave peaks that pass a given point per unit time 13. Amplitude is the height of the wave maximum from the center 14. What did John Dalton do? a. law of conservation of mass law of multiple proportions law of constant composition 15. What is J.J. Thompson known for? a. Plum pudding model discovery of electrons via cathode ray 16. What is Rutherford known for? a. Gold foil experiment 17. What is Milikan known for? a. Oil drop experiment 18. What is the atomic number? a. the number of protons in an atom 19. What is the mass number? a. number of protons+ number of neutrons in an atom 20. What are isotopes? a. atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons 21. How does an empirical formula differ from a molecular formula? a. The empirical formula reduces the number of atoms in a compound to its smallest, wholenumber, ratio 22. What is the chemical formula for acetate? What is its charge? a. C₂H₃O₂⁻ The charge is 1 23. What is the chemical formula for chlorate? What is its charge? a. ClO₃⁻ The charge is 1 24. What is the chemical formula for perchlorate? What is its charge? a. ClO₄⁻ The charge is 1 25. What is the chemical formula for nitrate? What is its charge? a. NO₃⁻ The charge is 1 26. What is the chemical formula for permanganate? What is its charge? a. MnO₄⁻ The charge is 1 27. What is the chemical formula for carbonate? What is its charge? a. CO₃²⁻ The charge is 2 28. What is the chemical formula for chromate? What is its charge? a. CrO₄²⁻ The charge is 2 29. What is the chemical formula for dichromate? What is its charge? a. Cr₂O₇²⁻ The charge is 2⁻ 30. What is the chemical formula for sulfate? What is its charge? a. SO₄²⁻ the charge is 2 31. What is the chemical formula for phosphate? What is its charge? a. PO₄³⁻ The charge is 3 32. What are ionic compounds? a. Compounds composed of metals and nonmetals 33. What are molecular/covalent compounds? a. Compounds composed of nonmetals 34. What is a combination reaction? a. A+B→C 35. What is a decomposition reaction? a. C→A+B 36. What is a combustion reaction? a. GENERALLY... Compound +O₂→CO₂+H₂O 37. What is percent composition? a. (((#of atoms in an element)×(atomic weight of that element))/formula weight)×100 38. What is percent yield? a. (actual yield/theoretical yield) ×100 39. What are the steps to finding the empirical formula? a. Calculate the number of moles in each gram amount (if given a percent, then assume 100 g) 2.Divide each mole by the smallest mole amount 3. Multiply to get a whole number ratio 40. What are the steps to finding the limiting reactant? a. Convert each reactant gram amount into moles 2.Divide the mole amount by coefficient in front of that reactant 3.The smallest mole amount is the limiting reactant 41. Atomic number(z): a. number of protons in an atom’s nucleus equivalent to the number of electrons around atom’s nucleus 42. Mass number(A): a. the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in an atoms nucleus 43. Isotope: Atom w/ A i. Z X 14 ii. Ex) C= Carbon-14,6 protons, 6 electrons and 8 neutrons 6 44. Ions- a. A charged particle 45. Cation- a. a positively charged particle 1. Metals tend to form cations 2. Ex) Li 46. Anion- a negatively charged particle 1. Nonmetals tend to form anions 2. Ex) F- 47.
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