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KSU / Engineering / PSY 2065 / What is a genome and what does it do?

What is a genome and what does it do?

What is a genome and what does it do?

Description

School: Kent State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Child Psychology
Professor: Sharon sciartelli
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: child psych, child psychology, Kent, kent state, sciartelli, chapter 3, Genetics, color notes, Diagrams, helpful notes, and week 4
Cost: 25
Name: Child Psych, Week 4
Description: Week four, chapter three of child psychology notes for Professor Sciartelli's class. I think these notes might be the most beneficial so far. They really helped me understand the material and i hope they do the same for you! (I'm sorry that these are up a day late! I was on the roads for 7.5 hours last night due to the blizzard, and didn't get home until nearly midnight. Thank you guys for being pa
Uploaded: 02/13/2016
10 Pages 85 Views 3 Unlocks
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Chapter 3: Nature Through Nurture Don't forget about the age old question of What is the purpose of using aids in presentation?

Gene: Segment of DNA that creates proteins that are the basis for the body’s development and functioning * Large part of what makes you, you*

  • Also the basic unit of heredity; how traits and behaviors are passed to the next generation

If you want to learn more check out How do interneurons operate?

     

       * each cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes If you want to learn more check out What factors increase diversity among species?

  • Every cell has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) except egg and sperm. They only have 23, not in pairs

We also discuss several other topics like What two political parties emerged?
If you want to learn more check out What are the longterm consequences of the 14th amend?

Genome: All genetic information (active and passive)

  • Human genome project mapped genome this helped us know what genes are where on the chromosomes (1990-2003)
  • Humans have about 21,000 protein making the genes (genes are the minority of the genome)

We also discuss several other topics like Where does the solubility of water depend upon?

3 Ways to Study Genes:

  1. Molecular Genetics:
  • Determine how individual genes work within the cell
  1. Behavioral Genetics:
  • Determine how much of a behavior, trait, or ability is due to genes
  1. Behavioral Genomics:
  • Measure the extent to which specific genes determine a particular behavior or characteristic

GENETIC BEGINNINGS

  • Life begins with sperm and egg joining
  • The combined product is called a zygote
  • All future cells made to form the fetus come from the zygote
  • 23 chromosomes come from sperm, we come from egg to make a total of 46 at fertilization

Autosomes: 22 of the Chromosomes from the egg and sperm are identical (the genes match, but there are different versions. These are called alleles

They are alleles because they are different colors

Sex Chromosome: The 23 pairs of chromosomes

This means the sperm chooses the sex of the child

Example:

  • 3.3* of pregnancies include more than 1 child (twins, triplets, quintuplets, etc)

Monozygotic Twins:

  • Identical
  • One zygotes splits in two
  • Identical genes
  • 1 in every 300-400 births
  • Always the same gender

Dizygotic Twins:

  • Fraternal
  • Two eggs fertilized by two sperm
  • Same genetic similarity as regular siblings
  • 3% of births
  • Can look very different

How Genes Work:

  • Chromosomes are made of DNA (tightly coiled- 6 feet long)
  • Made of sugar, phosphate, and bases
  • G,C, A, T are bases
  • Genes are segments along chromosomes
  • The bases pair across the strands and the order of these bases determine the protein the gene makes

Mutations: Changes that occur in the structure of a gene

Benefits:

  • These changes cause differences, if these changes are adaptive the organism will survive and pass the gene onto offspring
  • Evolution depends on mutations

Cost:

  • Changes can cause problems, many are linked to disorders

IE. Cystic fibrosis

MENDELIAN INHERITANCE: DOMINANT AND RECESSIVE GENES

We have two copies of each gene (one from each parent)- versions of gene may be different

  • Homozygous - alleles match
  • Heterozygous - alleles don’t match
  • Phenotype - genetically inherited traits that you display
  • Genotype - all genes present, even if not displayed

                   IE. You have brown eyes (this is the phenotype)

                         Your mom has blue eyes

                          You have this gene but is not visible, its the genotype

Dominant:

  • The gene will always be displayed, even if only one is there

Recessive: 

  • Only displayed if no dominant gene is present(if you have 1 copy, you are a carrier)

Co-dominant:

  • Two versions of dominant trait, both will be visible

            IE. If you breed a white flower and a red flower, it will be red and white

Incomplete Dominant: 

  • Two dominant traits blend together

IE. If you breed a red flower and a white flower, it will pink or if one parent has straight hair, and one has curly, the child will have wavy hair

GENETIC DISORDERS

3 Types:

  • Single gene
  • Chromosomal
  • Multifactorial Inheritance

Genetic Counseling:

  •  There is a 3% chance of a genetically based disorder per pregnancy
  • Some pregnancies are at higher risk

IE. Infertility, multiple miscarriages, family history of genetic disorders, etc…

  • Genetic Counseling can help determine the risk

How?

Ans: Prepare pedigree (this identifies disorders through family generations so parents can know the risk)

 

     

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