Study Guide for Midterm 1
Study Guide for Midterm 1 PSC 1003
Popular in Intro to International Politics
Laura Castro Lindarte
verified elite notetaker
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Bill Mikhail in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Politics in Public Relations at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Date of Exam: February 17, 2016 Midterm 1 Study Guide: ● Professor has always said that there will be three type questions: ○ Two are small essay questions: one about the school of international politics and the other on security politics ○ The rest will be questions on the cases talked about in class: BASIC INFORMATION ● For the short essay questions the professor said to t3 sentences for each concept and to try to mention all the concepts in the outline. ● Also read over the readings that professor posted on BB to see examples of realism in the USA ● School of International thought: ○ Realism: ■ Oldest and most profound ■ The state is the basic unit of IR; a. Leaders will think of tate before anything else ■ Power = military stre territory size, etc. ■ Sinful nature of hum is seen in nations as well ■ IR is done mostby the elite a. USA = WASP elitethat had strong connections to the Eastern establishment b. Decreased in powewith minority groups getting more involved ■ States mainly considaison d’Etat (national interest) = focus on biggest challenge to nation ■ Nations havno moral conducthen it comes to reaching their goals ■ History and geographnfluences ■ Balance of Power Formula complex arrangementevolved around alliances and counteralliance a. Europe organized themselves to alliances and counteralliances usually focused on countering Germany ■ Criticism of Realism: a. European Experience: focus only in Europe b. Constant debates ovhow to use power? How to define the natural interest? c. Power is not only based on military and having territory with economic power is very influential today i. Ex: Costa Rica has no standing army and avoided fate of internal violence that is common is rest of Latin America ii. Ex: Dubai is super small but economy is powerful so it is influential d. Globalization has made geography less influential e. Nationalism is also important which is balood ties and can go beyond specific states ■ Example of Realism: a. 2nd Congress of Berlin that discussesscramble of Africa i. Germany, France, Britain, Portugal and Spain fighting over territory in Africa ■ New book “Ethical Realisocusing on doinealism goals through moral ways a. Early philosopher of realiseorge Kennan (“Mr. X) b. Hans Morgenthau taught realism in Chicago and wrote book “Politics Among Nations” ■ Niebuhrwas a famous intellechat tried to do realism with connection to religion (Christian Realism) ■ Nixon and Henry Kissingused realism goalsbigniew Brzezinsiith Carter ○ Liberalism: ■ Aka world order and idealism ■ Humans are ble to redeem s(naturally good) ■ Negotiations > using force a. Nations can get involved internationally to work together to avoid real conflict ■ Call fomore transparency a. Not just the elites being in charge of Foreign Policy ■ America is more schooled in liberalism ■ Criticism of Liberalism: a. Historical recordsnations going into war and ignoring international law/treaties b. Nations preserve selfint, not what's good for all ○ Constructivism: ■ Aka the Identity Perspective ■ Growing field ■ Based on culture, religion, language, ethnicity a. They drive foreign policy ■ Criticism of Liberalism: a. Inability to take action b. Power, Rivalry and other things are ignored ■ Power, elite, national interest and negotiations can be part of culture a. Example is the Nordic Tradition of Diplomacy ● Security Politics: ○ Balance of Power: ■ A system of secur based on alliances and counter alliances ■ Can be described witnumbers (quantitative) and descriptions (qualitatives) a. Descriptive=numbers; normative=judgements ■ Sphere of influence: places where nations have influence ■ Alliances can be donhrough treaties, before or after war or before or after peace, usually begins with one nation taking initiative ■ Can be static or dynamic ■ Practice of Selfrestraint: countries are in different alliances but no one is fighting a. Only work if there is another competing power ■ Many different types of balancnuclear, conventional, economic, among companies, mutual interest, terror, balance of different groups of nations give needed resources to certain areas) ■ Subject tdomestic conditions inner debate influences alliances ■ Conservative in naturprovides stability and can prevent war ■ Sometimes alliances arnot centralized or done to go against another country a. Ex: “Coalition of the Willing”, “Alliance of English Language Speaking Nations”: against same enemy but only those countries of english heritage helped ■ Symmetrical relation a. Eurozone is example with Britain being out and Germany backing it up ○ Collective Security: ■ Ensuring security of nations by collective means a. Directed against another nation b. Can include nonnations ■ Promoted by Woodrow Wilson ineague of Nationwhich ended up failing a. Italy assaulted Abyssinia in 1938 without caring about collective security in League of Nations ■ Decisions made by group of nations put together ■ Members are not always nations, can be nonstate actors a. Ex: USA depending on Turks to fight ISIS even though it is not a state ■ Must question how involved each are and type of nation (degree of conformity) ■ All having confrontational attgainst the “other”binding power of collectivity ■ Very old idea: a. Ex: Muhammad Ali being envoy of Ottoman Sultan that mediates conflict; governor of Egypt; his son Ibrahim Pasha invaded nations and leading to Constantinoplurope worries because destroying balance of power so collective security made to stop his invasion; British Henry John Temple said “keep Egypt in Africa not Europe” ■ Can bedone through regional or international groups: a. Being part of this is voluntary with no punishment for not joining ■ If structure is too rigid then nations will begin to stop caring and leave ■ Could bewritten to documents ■ Can be a cause for war or a cause for peace ■ Structural Formaan alliance or membership regional or international organizatioUN and Security Council) ■ Assumes the war is infrequent, once collective security begins problem will be solved ■ Growing especially in rea of peacekeeping, limited intervention and humanitarian intervention ● Sovereignty Cases: ○ OderNeisse Line: ■ The borderetween Germany and Poland s defined by two rivers ■ In the end, Russia took land from Poland, Poland took land from Germany and rivers were defined as the border ○ Falklands Islands: ■ War between Britain and Argentver with Britain getting capital Port Stanley ■ Britain got soverei over the islands ■ Exclusive economic zone = 200 miles ■ Territorial water = 12 miles ○ Strait of Tir1967 ■ Six Day WarEgypt closed way into Port of Stag leadsrael I attacking Egypt ○ Kaliningrad: ■ Top part of Poland ■ Controlled by Russia ■ German in ethnicity and culture ○ Strait of Hormuz: ■ 3 islands in Persian(Abu Musa, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb) ■ United Arab Emirates and Iight over them ■ Owned by United Arab Emirates ■ Now owned by Iran ○ Gulf of Sidr1981 ■ Part of Libya ■ It is point of clash following Reagan shutting down two Libyan flights ■ USA and Libya dispute over control of these waters ○ Bubiyan Island: ■ Oil rich area ■ Kuwait almost gave Bubiyan Island to Iraq ■ Iraq didn’t accept offer ○ South China Sea: ■ Japan vs. Chin(and other nations) ■ Dispute over islands ■ Now news of China building artificial island, USA send warship very close to it
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