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Study Guide for Midterm 1

by: Laura Castro Lindarte

Study Guide for Midterm 1 PSC 1003

Laura Castro Lindarte

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There are 3 basic type of questions that will appear in the exam. Also read over the readings that the professor posted on blackboard. Make sure to know basic details about the sovereignty cases. D...
Intro to International Politics
Bill Mikhail
Study Guide
International politics
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Bill Mikhail in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Politics in Public Relations at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
Date of Exam: February 17, 2016  Midterm 1 Study Guide:   ● Professor has always said that there will be three type questions:   ○ Two are small essay questions: one about the school of international politics and  the other on security politics   ○ The rest will be questions on the cases talked about in class: BASIC  INFORMATION   ● For the short essay questions the professor said to t​­3 sentences for each  concept and to try to mention all the concepts in the outline.   ● Also read over the readings that professor posted on BB to see examples of realism in  the USA   ● School of International thought:   ○ Realism:  ■ Oldest and most profound   ■ The state is the basic unit of IR;   a. Leaders will think of ​tate before anything else   ■ Power = military stre territory size, etc.   ■ Sinful nature of hum is seen in nations as well  ■ IR is done mostby the elite   a. USA = WASP elitethat had strong connections to the Eastern  establishment   b. Decreased in powe​with minority groups getting more involved   ■ States mainly consid​aison d’Etat (national interest) = focus on biggest  challenge to nation  ■ Nations havno moral conduct​hen it comes to reaching their goals   ■ History and geographnfluences   ■ Balance of Power Formula complex arrangement​evolved around  alliances and counter­alliance  a. Europe organized themselves to alliances and counter­alliances  usually focused on countering Germany    ■ Criticism of Realism:   a. European Experience: focus only in Europe   b. Constant debates ov​how to use power? How to define the  natural interest?   c. Power is not only based on military and having territory with  economic power is very influential today   i. Ex: Costa Rica has no standing army and avoided fate of  internal violence that is common is rest of Latin America   ii. Ex: Dubai is super small but economy is powerful so it is  influential   d. Globalization has made geography less influential   e. Nationalism is also important which is ba​lood ties and can  go beyond specific states   ■ Example of Realism:   a. 2nd Congress of Berlin that discussesscramble of Africa  i. Germany, France, Britain, Portugal and Spain fighting over  territory in Africa   ■ New book “Ethical Realis​ocusing on doin​ealism goals through  moral ways  a. Early philosopher of realis​eorge Kennan (“Mr. X)   b. Hans Morgenthau taught realism in Chicago and wrote book  “Politics Among Nations”   ■ Niebuhr​was a famous intellec​hat tried to do realism with connection  to religion (Christian Realism)   ■ Nixon and Henry Kissingused realism goals​bigniew Brzezins​iith  Carter   ○ Liberalism:   ■ Aka world order and idealism   ■ Humans are ​ble to redeem s(naturally good)   ■ Negotiations > using force   a. Nations can get involved internationally to work together to avoid  real conflict   ■ Call fomore transparency  a. Not just the elites being in charge of Foreign Policy   ■ America is more schooled in liberalism   ■ Criticism of Liberalism:   a. Historical recordsnations going into war and ignoring  international law/treaties   b. Nations preserve self­int, not what's good for all   ○ Constructivism:   ■ Aka the Identity Perspective   ■ Growing field   ■ Based on culture, religion, language, ethnicity   a. They drive foreign policy    ■ Criticism of Liberalism:   a. Inability to take action   b. Power, Rivalry and other things are ignored   ■ Power, elite, national interest and negotiations can be part of culture   a. Example is the Nordic Tradition of Diplomacy   ● Security Politics:   ○ Balance of Power:   ■ A system of secur based on alliances and counter alliances  ■ Can be described witnumbers (quantitative) and descriptions  (qualitatives)   a. Descriptive=numbers; normative=judgements   ■ Sphere of influence: places where nations have influence   ■ Alliances can be donhrough treaties, before or after war or before or  after peace, usually begins with one nation taking initiative   ■ Can be static or dynamic   ■ Practice of Self­restraint: countries are in different alliances but no one is  fighting   a. Only work if there is another competing power  ■ Many different types of balancnuclear, conventional, economic,  among companies, mutual interest, terror, balance of ​different  groups of nations give needed resources to certain areas)   ■ Subject tdomestic conditions­ inner debate influences alliances   ■ Conservative in naturprovides stability and can prevent war   ■ Sometimes alliances arnot centralized or done to go against another  country   a. Ex: “Coalition of the Willing”, “Alliance of English Language  Speaking Nations”: against same enemy but only those countries  of english heritage helped   ■ Symmetrical relation  a. Eurozone is example with Britain being out and Germany backing  it up    ○ Collective Security:   ■ Ensuring security of nations by collective means   a. Directed against another nation  b. Can include non­nations  ■ Promoted by Woodrow Wilson in​eague of Nation​which ended up  failing   a. Italy assaulted Abyssinia in 1938 without caring about collective  security in League of Nations   ■ Decisions made by group of nations put together   ■ Members are not always nations, can be non­state actors  a. Ex: USA depending on Turks to fight ISIS even though it is not a  state   ■ Must question how involved each are and type of nation (degree of  conformity)   ■ All having confrontational att​gainst the “other”­binding power of  collectivity   ■ Very old idea:   a. Ex: Muhammad Ali being envoy of Ottoman Sultan that mediates  conflict; governor of Egypt; his son Ibrahim Pasha invaded nations  and leading to Constantinopl​urope worries because destroying  balance of power so collective security made to stop his invasion;  British Henry John Temple said “keep Egypt in Africa not Europe”   ■ Can be​done through regional or international groups:   a. Being part of this is voluntary with no punishment for not joining  ■ If structure is too rigid then nations will begin to stop caring and leave   ■ Could bewritten to documents   ■ Can be a cause for war or a cause for peace   ■ Structural Formaan alliance or membership​ regional or international  organizatioUN and Security Council)   ■ Assumes the war is infrequent, once collective security begins problem  will be solved   ■ Growing especially in ​rea of peacekeeping, limited intervention and  humanitarian intervention   ● Sovereignty Cases:   ○ Oder­Neisse Line:   ■ The border​etween Germany and Poland s defined by two rivers   ■ In the end, Russia took land from Poland, Poland took land from Germany  and rivers were defined as the border   ○ Falklands Islands:  ■ War between Britain and Argent​ver with Britain getting capital Port  Stanley   ■ Britain got soverei over the islands   ■ Exclusive economic zone = 200 miles  ■ Territorial water = 12 miles  ○ Strait of Tir1967  ■ Six Day WarEgypt closed way into Port of Stag lead​srael I attacking Egypt   ○ Kaliningrad:   ■ Top part of Poland   ■ Controlled by Russia   ■ German in ethnicity and culture    ○ Strait of Hormuz:   ■ 3 islands in Persian​(Abu Musa, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb)  ■ United Arab Emirates and I​ight over them   ■ Owned by United Arab Emirates  ■ Now owned by Iran   ○ Gulf of Sidr1981  ■ Part of Libya   ■ It is point of clash following Reagan shutting down two Libyan flights   ■ USA and Libya dispute over control of these waters   ○ Bubiyan Island:  ■ Oil rich area  ■ Kuwait almost gave Bubiyan Island to Iraq  ■ Iraq didn’t accept offer  ○ South China Sea:   ■ Japan vs. Chin(and other nations)  ■ Dispute over islands  ■ Now news of China building artificial island, USA send warship very close  to it  


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