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Sociology 1000 Exam 1

by: Melanie Pelczynski

Sociology 1000 Exam 1 Sociology 1000

Melanie Pelczynski

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About this Document

Chapter 1 through 3 covers culture norms theories etc.
SOC 001
Allen Edwards
Study Guide
mizzou, sociology, 1000, Exam 1
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melanie Pelczynski on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 1000 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Allen Edwards in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see SOC 001 in Behavioral Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 02/13/16
Chapter 1: Sociology in Perspective The Sociological Imagination: Capacity for individuals to understand the relationship between individual lives and broad social forces that influence   ­The intersection of history and biography ­The relationship between private troubles and public issues ­Our lives are not purely personal, but are lived out in context of social circumstances  that affect us all ­C. Wright Mills The difference between micro and macro level sociological analysis  Micro­level: analyses focusing on individuals, such as studies of small groups and attitude  change Macro­level: analyses focusing on social structures, such as studies of political and economic  systems   Early founders of sociology (Marx, Durkheim, Weber, and Mead)  Karl Marx­ Conflict Theory, born in Germany & spent most life in Britain, influenced by the  industrial revolution & capitalism, believed human history was the history of class conflict,  wrote the communist manifesto that social change was inevitable Emile Durkheim­ Structural­Functional theory, born in raised in France, classic study that found  suicide to be related to social interaction of individuals in the larger society, internalized social  control, wrote the division of labor in society that argues mechanical solidarity Max Weber­ Interactionist Theory, German son of a successful protestant entrepreneur, argued a protestant work ethic led to rise of capitalism, increasing rationality in modern life, Verstehen Verstehen­ subjective understanding of individual participants anchored in a context of  shared cultural ideas Mead­ Son of New England minister, studied in Berlin and Harvard, founded symbolic  interactionism (perspective emphasizing the importance of symbols and meanings for human  interaction), wrote paper called mind, self, and society “Marginalized sociologists” (Martineau, Addams, DuBois).  Martineau­ Women native of England, wealthy family, studied social life in US and England,  wrote a book called society in America Addams­Women Chicago, wealthy family, assisted immigrants in hull house, co­winner of  Nobel Peace Prize Dubois­ Son of poor Massachusetts family, Harvard, wrote ‘the Philadelphia negro’, ignored by  mainstream sociologists, ‘put science into sociology’, emigrated and died in Ghana Other sociologists Comte­ Born in France and heavily influenced by the French Revolution, created the term  sociology, positivism (scientific methods used in the natural sciences too the social sciences). George Simmel­ Born in Germany, microsociology, strong influence on symbolic interactionism and “group dynamics Structural­functional theory: purpose of social structures according to Structural­functional  theory, social facts, manifest and latent functions  Some social structures lead to important consequences, the consequence in turn help societies  survive, so societies that survive are more likely to have families because those lacking families  were unlikely to survive  Problems with theory: bad consequences, doesn’t help society, structures fail consequences  Conflict theory: purpose of social structures according to conflict theory, bourgeoisie and   proletariat, false consciousness     Society consists of group competing for scarce resources, social structures persist in society  because they serve the interests of those who have wealth and power, socials structures only  exists for the benefit of some groups, serve interests of those with wealth and power (get away  with crime, people in control make laws) Problems with theory: People can be born in to poverty and make it big  Interactionist theory: symbolic interactionism, social construction of reality, social   exchange theory (including norm of reciprocity), and dramaturgical theory.  Individuals make decisions and take actions that influence their own lives and those of others,  micro­level of focus, symbols used to communicate meaning between people The social construction of reality: Definition of the situation­ a statement of action that explicitly or implicitly suggests the  meaning the actor would like other to attribute to their actions Negotiated order­ a shared meaning of the situation agreed upon by all participants Overall­ Reality is socially constructed not directly experienced Mechanical vs. Organic Solidarity  Mechanical­ is the social integration of members of a society who have common values and  beliefs. These common values and beliefs constitute a “collective conscience” that works  internally in individual members to cause them to cooperate. Organic­ is social unity based on a division of labor that results in people depending on each  other, contrasts with mechanical solidarity.   What is a bureaucracy? Be able to recognize a specific example (e.g. corporations, educational  institutions, governments). See page 1­7.       Bureaucracy­ Organizations based on rationality having a clear division of labor, written rules  and regulations, impersonality, hierarchical lines of authority, and selection and promotion  based on competence Example­ College, administrative need large numbers and work together   Other Terms: Internalized Social Control­ people do things because they believe it is the right thing to do, not  because they are forced to do so, (said by Durkheim) Increasing urban and social inequality, 1% of owns most wealth in US Chapter 2: Studying Social Life The standards of science and the scientific method  5 standards of scientific knowledge 1. Empirically Testable, measureable data 2. Falsifiable 3. Reproducible, able to repeat procedure 4. Valid, correlation 5. Generalized, explain similar cases Research Process (Draw)   Confirmatory versus exploratory research  Confirmatory­ research starts with theory Exploratory­ research starts with data   Differences between quantitative and qualitative methods  Quantitative­ numbers and statistics, deduce the implications of theories and test hypothesis Qualitative­ verbal and descriptive, exploratory rather than confirmatory, developing new  theories rather than testing hypothesis   Different types of samples/sampling methods  Sample­ a subset of members of population rather than the entire population, can be inaccurate  and predicted incorrectly, biased Convenience Sample­ sampling or people selected because they are easy to find (20 people who  enter through the door) Quota Sample­ specific numbers of cases falling in carious subcategories, (10 boys and 10 girls  you meet on the street) Probability Sample­ each case of population has some known probability of being included, all  segments of population are represented   The differences among independent, dependent, and control variables  Independent­ changed by scientist being observed Dependent­ caused by depends on the independent variable value Control­ remain constant and unchanged for comparison with other variable] Common (descriptive) statistics, how they are computed, and their strengths or weaknesses  Statistics­ mathematical measures summarizing important characteristics about a sample Descriptive Statistics­ summarize the distribution of a variable, mean median and mode, median  is best to find average with uneven variables Measures of association­ examine the relationship between variable Tests of Significance­ ask whether a result/association could have occurred by chance   Association versus causality, spurious variables Two variables are associated when the values of one variable depend on or can be predicted  from the values of the other variable, just because two variables are associated does not mean  that one causes another, correlation does not equal causation Measurement issues including reliability and validity    Types of sociological studies: experiments, survey research, participant observation,  ethnography, etc.  Social Surveys­ gather information by asking people questions, factual information or attitudes  and beliefs, example is election polls, common types of surveys are face­to­face or phone  interviews Systematic Observation­ a formal, quantitative method of observation in which researchers  typically develop a systematic set of codes, use those to code each event observed, and analyze  the result statistically, use audio tapes or video cameras Participant Observation­ researcher participates in and is directly involved in the lived of those  she/ he is studying, involves both observation and interviews Ethnography­ a typically detailed descriptive account summarizing and interpreting a culture or  a collection of people studied, richly detailed on experiences and observations Historical­Comparative Methods­ examines ways in which social life changes across cultures  and or over time, macro level focus, sensitive to case context but also seeks broader  generalizations Researcher Roles A True Insider­ someone already participating in a context in a non­research role who chooses to study that setting A Researcher Acting as an Insider­ pretends to be an insider An Outsider­ someone who does not distinguish their role as a researcher   Characteristics that distinguish social sciences and non­social sciences including ethical issues  related to human subjects  Subjective experience (verstehen) ­ people experience life subjectively, to understand actions we must understand what their acts mean to and individual Reactivity­ the extent to which humans being studied respond to the research process or the  researcher by changing their behavior, intentional or unintentional Hawthorn Effect­ productivity of women who were observed increased no matter what  they changed Ethical Issues­ standards of treatment,  Tuskegee Syphilis study­ studied low income black men, even though there was cure  researches refused to treat, subjects deceived repeatedly, did not minimize risks Tea room study­ men observed having sex in public restrooms, traced license plates and  interviewed at house in front of family, subjects were at risked of sexuality being  discovered, no consent Standards of Treatment­ no harm, more benefit than risk, risk should be minimized,  confidentiality or anonymity, fair selection of subjects, informed consent    Chapter 3: Culture Material culture versus non­material culture  Material Culture­ includes all the art, architecture, technological artifacts, and material objects  created by a society Non­Material Culture­ anything not part of a material culture includes both Cognitive Elements­ expressing thoughts beliefs and preferences (symbols, language,  values, beliefs, attitudes) Normative Elements­ which express how we should behave, norms   Attributes and examples of symbols Symbols­ words, gestures, pictures, anything that convey meaning to people who share a culture, arbitrary signs that stand for something   Arbitrary­ symbols can mean very different things in different contexts and cultures Language and the Sapir­Whorf Hypothesis  Language­ an abstract system of symbols and rules for their usage permitting people to represent abstract thoughts and experiences and communicate them to others, spoken and written forms Sapir­Whorf Hypothesis­ argues that language shapes thought, different groups contest  important cultural issues by using different language   Values, beliefs, and norms: what are the differences and how are they related to each other?   Folkways, mores, and social sanctions Norms­ expectations of behavior, apply to social roles that people are playing more than to the  individuals themselves, two kinds Folkways­ rules governing everyday conduct that are not considered to be morally  important and are not strictly enforced Mores­ or taboos, serious norms for important activities having a strong moral  imperative and strictly enforced Values­ standards of desirability, rightness, or importance in a society, indicate whether  something is good or bad, not neutral Work ethic­ a respect for and appreciation of people who work hard and a sense that hard work should be rewarded Sanctions­ acts designed to encourage behaviors conforming to norms and discourage behaviors  that violate norms Punishments­ negative sanctions  Rewards­ positive sanctions Internalization­ adopting the norm as your own   Dominant culture, subcultures, and countercultures  Dominant Culture­ the culture that takes precedence over other cultures in activities or events  involving people from many categories of the population, so pervasive not questioned Subcultures­ a culture containing many elements of the dominant culture, but have unique  features from the rest of the population, may be based on heritage lifestyle choices social class  age race etc. Countercultures­ a subculture that challenges important elements of the culture such as beliefs  attitudes or values and seeks to create an alternative lifestyle, often have a normative culture at  odds with the dominant culture in society   Responses to cultural diversity such as ethnocentrism, cultural relativism, and multiculturalism  Ethnocentrism­ the view that your own culture is the standard against which other cultures can  be judges right or wrong, the US is often criticized for being ethnocentric Cultural Relativism­ a view that judges other cultures not by standards of the viewer’s culture,  but by the standards of the other culture itself Multiculturalism­ a perspective that recognizes the contributions of diverse groups to our society and holds that no single culture is any better than all the rest   High culture versus popular culture: how does “high culture” relate to distinction and social  class?  High Culture­ the artifact values knowledge beliefs and other cultural elements that elites in a  societal elements that elites in society use to distinguish themselves from the masses, people in  this class don’t view themselves with amount of money but taste Strategy of Distinction­ high culture is an effort by people in the upper social classes to  differentiate themselves from the masses through the creation and consumption of cultural  elements that may remain largely inaccessible or not understood by those in lower social classes Popular Culture­ all the artifacts, values knowledge, beliefs, and other cultural elements that  appeal to the masses   Functionalist, conflict, and interactionist approaches to culture  Functionalist­ explains cultural elements by their functions for society, if this view is correct  then there should be cultural universals Conflict­ cultural elements persist when they support the interests of powerful members of  society, resisted or eliminated when they conflict with the interests of power members, works to  prevent people from recognizing cultural alternatives Interactionist­ the social interactionist view examines how we came to define the meaning of  cultural elements through social interaction, we develop regular ways of interaction reflected in  cultural norm of behavior   What are examples of “cultural universals”?  Cultural Universals­ cultural elements found in all cultures, reflect problems that every society  must face such as communication, government, socialization, coping with the environment,  regulating reproduction, and assigning people roles. Examples­ music, religion, dancing, myths, trade, games, housing   How culture is related to social change including cultural diffusion, cultural leveling, and culture lag  Cultural Lag Theory­ technological change drives other changes in culture with other cultural  elements often lagging behind technology, occurs when one of two parts of culture which are  correlate changes before or in greater degree than the other part does Cultural Diffusion­ the spread of cultural elements including objects and ideas form one culture  to another, “the global village” Cultural Leveling­ the reduction of differences (both good and bad) between cultures resulting  in a loss cultural uniqueness and cultural heritage


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