Study guide-Behavioral neuroscience
Study guide-Behavioral neuroscience PSYC 4183-001
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Celine Notetaker on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 4183-001 at University of Arkansas taught by Nathan Parks in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Neuroscience in Psychlogy at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Behavioral Neuroscience Exam 1 Study Guide Nervous System Know the four different types of neurons (multipolar, unipolar, bipolar, pseudo-unipolar) Difference between the CNS and PNS Be able to list all the Glial Cells and their functions Know the process of Neural Communication (Step-by-step details) o Resting potential o Graded potential o Action Potential o Synaptic Transmission The parts of the Neuronal Membrane Know the four main ions involved in neural communication, their concentrated location, and their main function The Force of Diffusion v. The force of Electrostatic Pressure The difference between EPSP and IPSP Know the graph of an action potential and the points of polarization and changes in ion channel activity Absolute V. Relative refractory periods What occurs in a myelinated axon vs. an unmyelinated axon The process of releasing and clearing of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft. Types of Postsynaptic receptor Know all the major neurotransmitter systems, what they do, and how they are cleaned from the synaptic cleft. Know the definition of a direct agonist, direct antagonist, indirect agonist, and indirect antagonist Know how the stretch reflex and flexion reflex works Practice Questions from Class 1. When looking at a neuron from a human finger, what kind of cell would form that neuron’s myelin sheath? 2. Dopamine cannot pass from the circulatory system into the neural tissue of the central nervous system. What best explains this system? A. Astrocytes B. Schwann cells C. Oligodendrocytes D. Microglia E. Myelin 3. True or False: Damaged neurons exhibit axonal regrowth primarily in the CNS 4. True or False: An IPSP will increase a neurons internal positivity 5. True or False- An EPSP always changes the membrane potential by +5mv 6. K+ exiting a neuron will lead to: a. Hyperpolarization b. Depolarization 7. Suppose we inject a bunch of Na+ into an axon. What will happen to the extracellular concentration of K+? 8. What best explains the movement of NA+ upon the opening of a NA+ ion channel? 9. True or false: Graded potentials are best recorded by an electrode placed in the axon terminal 10. An action potential is triggered when? 11.How does myelin speed the transmission of the action potential? 12.What are 2 ways to increase the glutamate levels in the synaptic cleft? ANSWERS 1. The myelin sheath would be made of Schwann cells. Since it is not part of the brain or the spinal cord, we know that the neurons in a finger would be a part of the PERIPHERAL nervous system. 2. A. Astrocytes 3. False 4. False 5. False - because it changes by different amounts 6. A. Hyperpolarizatiion 7. It will increase 8. Na+ is driven into the cell by the force of diffusion and electrostatic force 9. False- its actually at the axon hillock 10. When graded potentials depolarize the axon hillock enough to trigger open voltage-gate Na+ channels 11.Myelin insulates a large proportion of the axon requiring the action potential to be regenerated fewer times 12.A) Provide more of the precursor of glutamate (i.e. Stimulate more Ca++ channels to cause the neurotransmitter to increase) B) Blocking Reuptake of glutamate ANSWERS to the class study guide (posted on blackboard) 1. The link between a graded potential and neurotransmitter release is the action potential. INCREASING the size of the graded potential increases Action potential frequency causes more transmitter release with more action potential 2. Allows you to skip distances of the axon. Myelin insulates the axon allowing A.P. to be faster. If there were no nodes of ranvier you would be unable to regenerate the action potential down the axon. It would degrade over the distance and never reach the terminal 3. You would go limp. It could cause a flaccid paralysis. You would treat it with an acetylcholine agonist. You could also block acetylcholinesterase 4. K+ channels bring you back down. It would take a lot longer to come back down to resting potential. IT would no longer be a spike and be more of a plateau/slowly falling decline. 5. Use an antagonist to decrease BLARG. Block the enzyme that produces BLARG so that it is not synthesized/synthesized last. You could also use a competitive antagonist to block the post-synaptic receptor. Or you could use something that blocks or attacks the transporters or the vesicles. (monoamine) B&C can be eliminated for all answers because they are graded potentials which do not occur at the axon terminal where the electrode is measuring. 6. Answer = D 7. Answer=E (you get multiple action potentials) 8. Answer=A, because it is hyperpolarization not enough to trigger an action potential 9. Answer=A because the action potential cant be triggered without opening voltage-gated sodium channels 10.True but the neurons will have to be directly “touching” (very very small gap in between) 11.True. monoamine oxidase breaks down ALL monoamines. So if it is blocked more monoamines will be present in the synaptic cleft 12.Answer= A Depolarize (excited) the post-synaptic cell 13.Answer= B. The influx of calcium into the axon terminal
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