HIST 3240 Test 1 Study Guide
HIST 3240 Test 1 Study Guide HIST 3240
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Joannes on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 3240 at Clemson University taught by Professor Andrews in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see History of the South in History at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Study Guide • Reconstruction: the period of time after the Civil War in which the government set up regulations to allow the southern states back into the war. Started in 1865. o People Involved § Carpetbaggers: northerners that came down to the south after the war. Generally they wanted cheap land, felt sympathy for the blacks and wanted to help, and were republicans. § Scalawags: southern whites who sided with the carpetbaggers. § Radical republicans: these were people dedicated to political opportunities for blacks and wanted to punish the south for the war. o Two big questions from the reconstruction. What would happen to the ex-confederates? & What will be the status of the freed people? § Answered in a variety of ways: • The army of confederates finally surrendered. o They didn’t want to end as Yankee slaves & all they had to do was swear to never take arms vs. the United States and obey the laws. • Andrew Johnson’s Amnesty Declaration in May of 1867 o Gave rights back to vast majority of confederates, but excluded: generals, high rank officials, and large property owners. • Presidential Reconstruction o Presidential reconstruction: series of proclamations for the south to be readmitted back into the union. § 3 requirements for each state: • Former unionist was appointed as a provisional governor • Each state had to write a new constitution • Each state had to ratify the 13 amendment, which abolishes slavery § Johnson’s plan failed- why? • White southern labor unions needed black work. • White southern racism, they thought blacks would revert to crime. • White south couldn’t follow the North’s intentions. The North was giving mixed signals, although the Black Codes were a definite shock. • The North still had racism, and the blacks weren’t equal. o Black codes: restrictions many of the southern states had that held restrictions amongst the blacks. § Attempted to find a place for blacks in society. § Significance of these codes were that they helped lead to the failure of the presidential reconstruction & that they only lasted a couple of months. § Examples • Required blacks to be courteous, dutiful, and diligent employees. • Blacks could marry and testify in court • Couldn’t vote or carry firearms • Had curfews. o Congressional Reconstruction (Reconstruction Acts of 1867). Under Ulysses S. Grant, who was elected in 1868. § Put the south under military rule § Southern states had to rewrite their constitutions again and get congress approval th § Had to ratify the 14 amendment: “States cannot deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.” • Was the first time that the federal government stepped between states and individuals. o The Compromise of 1877 was a set of provisions given by congress when the election of 1876 was inconclusive. Election was between Samuel Tilden (democrat) and Rutherford B. Hayes (republican). § Hayes was president § Democrats name one cabinet member, the post-master general. § The federal government helps south economically § Federal troops are withdrawn (which signifies the end of the reconstruction) § Southern democrats had to respect civil rights of blacks. o Blacks’ goals during the reconstruction o Freedman’s Bureau: the agency created by the federal government to aid blacks in their transition from bondage. § Was it successful though? • Failed to provide the freed men with land as promised, and instead put them in a position as a renter, not owner. • Land contracts were made many times between ex- slaves and whites. • Post War o What were the problems of post war? § Loss of war assets such as work animals and plows § Depleted soil for cotton § Whites didn’t know where to get reliable labor. § Lack of credit. There were very few banking institutions in the south. There were no loans, so few investments were made. § Lack of capital to buy basic supplies. § Low cotton prices § Farmers’ cycle of debt. o Sharecropping § Serves several functions • Gives blacks employment • Gives northerners hope that blacks gain initiative • Gives southern whites a way to build up their land again. § Advantages • The workers were paid out of a portion of what was produced • Allowed blacks to live a bit further apart, as well as gave them more control on some decisions. § Disadvantages • Landowner doesn’t pay cash until they get the crop (crop leins, which make it hard for both parties to get out of debt) • The law allowed for sharecroppers to evict a worker before the crops revenue came, which posed a threat. • Landowner could pay a worker in “scripts” to their store. o Redeemers: Southern Democrats who brought end to reconstruction, crushed opposition, restored white supremacy, and oversaw transition to the “New South”. They were called Redeemers because they promised to rescue and restore the south to greatness. § Bourbon Democrats: the negative opposition of the Redeemers. Old planting class. § Paternalism: subordinate but responsible for taking care of blacks. § Examples: Wade Hampton and J.B. Gordon o Lost Cause: referred to the confederacy. Told the southern story of the war. Body of facts, and legends through which white southerners interpreted the war. Glorified the confederacy. o Henry Grady § Famous speech of 1866. Told that the new south was a south that needs to modernize. As for race, he said that slavery was bad but blacks still needed to be under white rule. o New South Industries § Outside capital except for textile mills. § Railroads and mills. o Education (1890-1910) § Miserably supported, poorly attended, wretchedly taught, and wholly inadequate for the education of the people. § 20% of whites and 50% of blacks were illiterate. § There were more children than adults, which made it harder to support. § Moral land grant act of 1862: Federal government gave land to help grant to pay for higher education. They had a few regulations o Farmers alliance § Omaha platform o Disenfranchisement (1890) § Lynching • Speeches for the black population o Booker T. Washington § Accomodationist, born a slave. § Atlanta Compromise, compare to Grady’s “New South” § Presented toward a mostly white audience. Tells them that blacks don’t care about political rights but instead, economic advancement and opportunity. Says that blacks need vocational training and skills to work themselves up, therefore receiving white respect. He was accommodating the racist environment instead of going against it, and was not trying to fight. o De Bois § Believes in blacks rising, but doesn’t believe in Washington’s approach. Instead, he’s more of an “immediatist”. He thinks blacks shouldn’t compromise their rights. • Victorianism (1900s) o What was it? The cultural movement in which progressivism. § Valued moral and social order § Strong sense of moral certainty § Shunned relative morality § Had a strictly defined place for women § Belief in the inevitability of progress. o What was different about progressivism in the south? § Gave more emphasis on educational improvements § Reformed the convict lease system § Child labor reform § Medical problems • Hookworm & pellagra § Race emphasis o Progressives focused on temperance and prohibition. § Women played a big role § WCTU: Women’s Christian temperance union.
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