New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Anthropology Exam 1 Study

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: McKenna Johnson

Anthropology Exam 1 Study Anth 140-01

McKenna Johnson
GPA 3.53

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This covers everything that will be on the first exam (excluding information from the lab).
Human origins diversity
Matthew Tornow
Study Guide
Anthropology Test
50 ?




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"Same time next week teach? Can't wait for next weeks notes!"
Raphael Wiza II

Popular in Human origins diversity

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by McKenna Johnson on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 140-01 at St. Cloud State University taught by Matthew Tornow in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Human origins diversity in anthropology, evolution, sphr at St. Cloud State University.


Reviews for Anthropology Exam 1 Study

Star Star Star Star Star

Same time next week teach? Can't wait for next weeks notes!

-Raphael Wiza II


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/13/16
Saturday, February 13, 2016 Study Guide For Exam 1 Introduction Information: I. Anthropology: Study of humans. Including culture, nature, and behavior II. Context: Interrelated conditions in which something exists III. Theory: Cannot be 100% proven. When a hypothesis cannot be proven or falsified IV. Scientific Method: Process in Which you test/retest hypothesis Chapter 1: I. Trends A. Bipedalism 1. Bone Structure a) Hips are wider/shorter b) Knees are narrow c) Femurs have carrying angle (1) 2 bumps at end are at different levels d) supporting function in feet (1) Spring in step (2) Arch in foot B. Exploiting a Terrestrial environment 1. K-Selection Fewer offspring; more investment a) 2. Sexual Division of Labor 3. Language a) Broca’s Area: part of brain that converts ideas into symbols/language Page 1 of 9 Saturday, February 13, 2016 b) Wernicke’s Area: part of brain that converts language into ideas for us to recognize C. Brain Size and Complexity 1. Encephalization Quotient a) Relative brain size increases (1) brain weight to body weight of species over time 2. Cranium Endocast a) increased groves/folds = higher thinking D. Object Manipulation Precision Grip: ability to hold something between finger and thumb 1. 2. More related to evolution of hand more than evolution of brain. E. Increased Meat Eating 1. Four Classes of teeth a) Incisors: front teeth b) Canines: Next to incisors; sharp/pointy c) Premolars: Next to canines d) Molars: next to premolars; furthest back 2. Thicker enamel 3. smaller canines a) Primates have diastema gap (1) Gap where canines overlap on the other row of teeth II. Mosaic Evolution A. Evolution occurs at different times. Not Linear 1. Bipedalism came first Page 2 of 9 Saturday, February 13, 2016 Chapter 2: I. Fossil: Materialized evidence of past life A. True Fossil: physical remains 1. Bones 2. Teeth B. Trace Fossil: Imprints II. Fossilization: Process in which evidence of the past is preserved A. Influences 1. Environmental structure a) water b) temperature c) shelter d) burial 2. Organism structure size a) b) hardness III. Taphonomy: study of an organism after death A. Three Stages 1. Necrology: cause of death 2. Biostratimony: Before it is buried 3. Diagenesis: Fossilization IV. Assemblage: Theoretical Idea. All things that lived at some point in time A. Life assemblage: totality of all living things in a specific time and place B. Death assemblage: subset of life assemblage; totality of all dead things in a specific time and place Page 3 of 9 Saturday, February 13, 2016 C. Preservation assemblage: Subset of total death assemblage; totality of all preserved thins at a specific time and place D. collection assemblage: Subset of total preservation assemblage. The portion brought to the lab Dating Fossils V. A. Relative Dating: gives age relative to the age of something else 1. Stratigraphy: accumulation of sediments that are layered a) Law of superposition: younger starts are above older starts (1) younger fossils will be layered above older ones 2. BioStratigraphy: the life span of a species; how long a species survived. B. Absolute Dating: Gives age in actual measurements 1. Paleomagnism: changes in the polarity of the earth a) you can see changed in sediment layers when polarity shifts 2. Radiometric Techniques a) half-life: how long it takes for something radio active to break down half way. (1) Class example: Potassium (K-Ar) Chapter 3: PG 44-54 I. Evolution: Change over time. Includes behavior, anatomy, and environment A. Microevolution: Evolution on a population level B. Macroevolution: evolution at a species level (results in new species) II. Population: subsection of a species where mates are usually found III. Species: a group of organisms that have and share a lineage. Have independent fate apart from other groups A. Anagenesis: Changes in a single species over time Page 4 of 9 Saturday, February 13, 2016 B. Cladogenesis: Something (geography, behaviors, etc.) that causes a group to split into two or more. C. Tokogenetic Relationships: Individuals in a species share this relationship D. Phylogenetic Relationships: Shared by higher level taxon IV. Genetics A. Gene:Heredity passed from parent to offspring 1. specific part on a chromosome 2. provides for specific trait B. Allele: Variations of the gene Eukaryotic Cell C. 1. Membrane: cell boundary 2. Cytoplasm: liquid that everything is suspended in 3. Nucleus: control center of cell 4. Chromatin: DNA and Protein 5. Ribosomes: the proteins of the cell D. DNA: Deoxyribose nucleic acid 1. Nucleotide a) Phosphate b) sugar c) bases (1)Adenine (2) Thymine Adenine pairs with Thymine and Guanine pairs with (3) Guanine Cytosine (4) Cytosine Chromosomes E. 1. Each person as 23 pairs (46 total) Page 5 of 9 Saturday, February 13, 2016 F. Protein synthesis 1. RNA: Ribose Nucleic Acid a) single strand b) passes through nucleus c) Uracil instead of Thymine 2. Transcription a) messenger RNA (mRNA) forms across from DNA strand (1) copies DNA with opposite pairs b) mRNA leaves nucleus to go to ribosomes 3. Translation a) mRNA gets translated by Transfer RNA (tRNA) (1) produces complimentary bases which are codes for amino acids G. Amino Acids: Building blocks for protein H. Proteins: essential to sustaining our bodies Charles Darwin V. A. Natural Selection: requires three things 1. Variation a) Comes from mutation (changes in DNA sequences) 2. Differential Reproduction a) not all individuals reach reproductive potential for a number of reasons 3. Heredity a) traits individuals pass to offspring VI. Gregor Mendel A. Principle of Dominance/Recessiveness 1. Some alleles mask others a) Dominant: the allele that shows Page 6 of 9 Saturday, February 13, 2016 b) Recessive: the allele that is masked c) Heterozygous: having one dominant and one recessive allele d) Homozygous: having two of the same allele. Either two dominant or two recessive B. Principle of Segregation 1. half of the genes received are from mother and half are from father 2. parents only give half C. Principle of Independent Assortment 1. genes control only one trait. Independent from other traits. this only works for simple inheritance traits a) VII.Evolution Processes A. Gene Flow: An exchange of genes between population when different populations come into contact with each other 1. There are many ways for genetic material to flow a) does not have to be by physical movement B. Genetic Drift: Random factors/chance create a change in genetic frequencies 1. Founder Effect: a small population 2. Bottleneck: left over survivors of a group after a stressor (tornado, earthquake, etc. Chapter 3: PG 54-62 I. Cladograms: shows the relationship between major groups A. Clade: a branch, or section, being studied B. Taxon/taxa: a species or group 1. Terminal Taxon: species at the ends of a cladogram C. Node: where one branch splits into more D. Internode: Space between nodes Page 7 of 9 Saturday, February 13, 2016 E. Root: Beginning of branch; common ancestor F. Diagonal Cladogram: G. Square Cladogram: II. Tree Thinking A. Reading Trees - be able to read one B. Construction Trees: 1. Systematic Biology: Phylogeny: relationships between different organisms a) Phonetics (Score System) does not account for common ancestry, convergence, or admixture (1) (2) does not account for direction in evolution b) Cladistics: shared derived traits (1) Primitive: Original traits (2) Derived: Evolutionary 2. In-group: related taxon being studied 3. Out-Group: Not being studied. Character polarity is based on comparison of these. C. Forming Classification from trees 1. Systematic Biology: Taxonomy: Art and science of naming taxonomic levels: species, genus, family, order, etc. a) Page 8 of 9 Saturday, February 13, 2016 NEED TO KNOW THINGS FROM LAB 1 AS WELL Page 9 of 9


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.