Intro to Women's and Gender Studies, Test 1 Study Guide
Intro to Women's and Gender Studies, Test 1 Study Guide WGST 1101 - 001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Sanacore on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to WGST 1101 - 001 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Kelly Anne Finley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 364 views. For similar materials see Intro to Women's Studies in Women and Gender studies at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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WGST 1101 – Professor Finley – Test 1 Study Guide Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term Highlight = Important Date Highlight = Important Quote Lecture 1 – January 13 Introduction to the Course civil rights – intersects with gender rights difference between women’s studies and study of women in the “study of women,” women are objects in “women’s studies,” women are subjects sex – identification of humans based upon chromosomal patterns, hormonal makeup, and genital structure Lecture 2 – January 20 Analyzing Gender and Sex in Society gender – refers to a complex set of characteristics and behaviors prescribed for a particular sex by society and learned through socialization experience feminine masculine androgynous gender identity – refers to a person’s innate, deeply felt psychological identification as a man, woman, or some other gender, which may or may not correspond to the sex assigned to them at birth woman genderqueer man gender expression – refers to all of the external characteristics and behaviors that are socially defined as either masculine or feminine, such as dress, grooming, mannerisms, speech patterns, and social interactions feminine androgynous masculine cisgender – someone who is not transgender transgender – umbrella definition for someone whose gender identity is not that same as the sex they were assigned at birth transition – process of changing one’s gender expression to match their gender identity genderqueer/gender diverse/gender independent/gender creative – a term applied to someone who does not identify with the gender binary preferred gender pronoun (PGP) – the practice of asking individuals what pronouns they use for themselves in an effort to respect the diversity of gender identities beyond man and woman essentialism – the idea that women and men have essential, unchanging (or unchangeable) natures, based in biology role – pattern of behaviors prescribed for individuals playing a certain part in the drama of life “nature versus nurture” – the debate surround to what degree something is natural to a human being versus something that is nurtured by their society stereotype – composite image of traits and expectations pertaining to some group…that is persistent in the social mind…typically an overgeneralization of characteristics Lecture 3 – January 27 Prejudice, Discrimination, and -Isms ideal – “picture in our heads”…contains only traits that the society deems desirable…functioning as a standard and a goal…stereotype on steroids prejudice – an unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought, or reason discrimination – unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people rather than individual merit sexism discrimination based on gender, especially discrimination against those identified as women attitudes, conditions, or behaviors that promote stereotyping of social roles based on gender racism a belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement hatred or intolerance of another race having the power to implement such beliefs or doctrine on a personal and and institutional level heterosexism – discrimination or prejudice against lesbians or gay men (LGBTQIA+ community) by heterosexual people privilege the advantages that people benefit from based solely upon their social status conferred by society to certain groups, not seized by individuals often invisible, often denied anthropocentrism – mistaking human values and perspective for universal ones ethnocentrism – imposing the standards of one’s culture on another egocentrism – assuming that one’s own special view of the world is true and the only one classism – bias based on social or economic class ageism – discrimination based age, especially prejudice against the elderly Lecture 4 – February 3 Feminism Intro Feminism the belief in the social, political, economic equality of the sexes the movement organized around this belief o different women = different “feminists” o different definitions -> inherent belief for all that there is no one correct definition Centuries of Feminism Enlightenment Era o 1620s – 1780s First Wave o 1848 (Seneca Falls Convention) – 1920 (19 Amendment) Second Wave o 1960 (Civil Rights Acts) – 1988 (ERA defeated) Third Wave o 1988 – 2010 Fourth Wave o 2008 – onward Core Concepts of Modern Feminism intersectionality – takes into account multiple dimensions of identity (gender, race, class, sexuality, nationality, etc.) in a given context as they interconnect and have intersecting oppressions knowledge production the ideas/methods/values/norms that are considered sound “science” or formal “knowledge” controlling who practices these sciences, what is worth studying and what s valid knowledge feminist theory of knowledge production acknowledges traditional modes of production with critical analysis of the politics of a dominant source of “knowledge” that makes invisible or devalue the knowledge of others knowledge from personal experience impact of media representations of knowledge making modes of knowledge production accessible to all social justice justice in terms of distribution of wealth, opportunities, and privilege within a society equal access to institutions feminist application of social justice defining “justice” defining “wealth” defining “distribution” defining “opportunities” recognizing “privileges” of gender identity, race, class, ethnicity, nationality, sexual orientation, religion, etc. Waves of Feminism Enlightenment Era (1620 – 1780) emphasis on reason and analysis established rights of the individual challenged traditional power (monarchy and Church) era of revolutions (French and American) “Remember the Ladies” – Abigail Adams (1776) “I long to hear that you have declared an independency. And, by the way, in the new code of laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make, I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the husbands. Remember, all men would be tyrants if they could. If particular care and attention is not paid to the ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice or representation.” “If particular care and attention is not paid to the Ladies we are determined to foment a Rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice, or Representation.” First Wave (1848 – 1920) Abolition (13 , 14 , and 15 Amendments) Suffrage (19 Amendment) Rights of Citizens women recognize power of political action intersectionality of sex/race August 26 , 1920 – the 19 Amendment is ratified and 26 million women gain the right to vote “Ain’t I A Woman” – Sojourner Truth, 1851 “That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! And ain't I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man - when I could get it - and bear the lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen children, and seen most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman?” “If de fast woman God ever made was strong enough to turn de world upside down all alone, dese women togedder ought to be able to turn it back, and get it right side up again! And now dey is asking to do it, de men better let em.” Did the movement die? (1920 – 1950) Sigmund Freud Great Depression WWII Women enter he workforce in mass Margaret Sanger, birth control 1940s “Rosie the Riveter” becomes the 1950s “Happy Homemaker” Woman and the New Race – Margaret Sanger (1920) “No woman can call herself free who does not own and control her body. No woman can call herself free until she can choose consciously whether she will or will not be a mother.” Lecture – February 10 Waves of Feminism (continued) Second Wave Feminism (1960 – 1988) Civil Rights Act reproductive rights equality in the workplace Equal Rights Amendment equality in education and economics fighting psychological inequality/raising consciousness Pre-Second Wave (1950s) 1955 – Rosa Parks begins bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama and spurs the Civil Rights Movement 1964 – Civil Rights Act is enacted, prohibiting discrimination based upon sex, race, color, religion, and national origin Women as “Other” – Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex (1953) “If we are to gain understanding, we must get out of these ruts; we must discard the vague notions of superiority, inferiority, equality which have hitherto corrupted every discussion of the subject and start afresh.” “The Problem That Has No Name” – Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (1963) “No other road to fulfillment was offered to American women in the middle of the twentieth century. Most adjusted to their role and suffered or ignored the problem that has no name. It can be less painful for a woman, not to hear the strange, dissatisfied voice stirring within her.” 1964 – Second Wave Feminism Civil Rights Movement and Vietnam war protest inspired Women’s Movement Bill of Rights – NOW (National Organization of Women), 1966 Equal Rights Constitutional Amendment enforce law banning sex discrimination in employment maternity leave rights in employment and in social security benefits tax deductions for home and child care expenses for working parents child care centers elimination of discrimination in education anti-poverty measures which protect human dignity the right of women to control their reproductive lives equal access to public accommodations and housing partnership marriages of equalized rights and shared responsibilities 1970s – Peak of Second Wave Feminism 1970 – Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) takes shape and is endorsed by many organizations o “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.” 1972 – ERA overwhelmingly approved by Congress and submitted to states for ratification 1972 – Title IX of Education Amendments is passed, prohibiting discrimination on account of sex in most Federally assisted education programs 1973 – Roe v. Wade decision from Supreme Court allowing abortion during first trimester 1974 – Civil Rights Act amended prohibiting discrimination in financing, sale, or rental of housing or brokerage services. Also, led by Congresswomen Bella Abzug, Equal Credit Opportunity Act prohibiting discrimination based upon sex or marital status is passed 1980s – Second Wave into Third Wave 1981 – Sandra Day O’Connor is first female Supreme Court Justice 1982 – ERA defeated with 3 states short to ratify 1984 – Rep. Geraldine Ferraro, first women named for office on a major party ticket – marital rape outlawed in New York Third Wave Feminism controlling vote for President (1992) significant legislation/policy gains diversity of Feminisms introduction of trans feminism and pop culture feminism feminist becomes embedded in majority culture Diversity and Pop Culture Third Wave Alice Walker, first African-American woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for The Color Purple Riot Grrrl Feminism 1993 – Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) 1994 – Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) The Beauty Myth – Naomi Wolf (1991) “A cultural fixation on female thinness is not an obsession about female beauty but an obsession about female obedience.” “Cultural Criticism and Transformation” – Feminism Is for Everyone, bell hooks (2006) “Simply put, feminism is the movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression. I like this definition because it does not imply that men were the enemy. By naming sexism as the problem, it went directly to the heart of the matter. … all sexist thinking and action is the problem.” Fourth Wave Feminism (2008 – Present) Bad Feminist – Roxanne Gay “I believe that feminism is grounded in supporting the choices of women even if we wouldn’t make certain choices for ourselves.” Notes on Makers: Women Who Make America (links to these films as well as what to look for while viewing are on Moodle) Part 1: Awakening Women did go to college in the 50s. Most got education degrees. Their main goal, however, was to find the man they would marry Post-college, these women would not use their degrees, but rather, “take their place” in the home Countless advertisements and TV shows depicting “happy housewives” perpetuated the myth that women are happiest as mothers/homemakers During World War II, however, many women had factory jobs that were formerly held by the men who had gone overseas A large part of the “happy homemaker” propaganda of the 50s was to get women out of factories and content with being back home again The jobs available to white women post-WWII were usually secretary, while jobs available to black women post-WWII were maids or nannies The Feminine Mystique is published in 1963, exposing the harm of the “happy homemaker” myth Many women felt dissatisfied with being at home and not having much opportunity The Civil Rights Act was passed by Lyndon Johnson, which included a ban on discrimination based on race, religion, and gender The first case of gender-based discrimination addressed by the EOEC was in airlines with flight attendants, who need to meet specific age and appearance requirements and were often fired on those terms as well Part 2: Changing the World The 1970s saw Women’s Liberation and the Feminist movement gain traction across America Protest for women’s rights took place across the country Various laws were passed throughout the 70s that ensured equal rights for women (Equal Pay Act, Title IX, Roe v. Wade) Ms. Magazine was founded by Gloria Steinem and other journalists in 1972 to give feminism fair representation Steinem’s big break in feminist journalism was covering an abortion hearing in New York in 1969 Title IX is passed, requiring schools to provide girls equal opportunities in school as boys, especially in sports but medical and law schools began taking more women as well, seeing an overwhelming increase of women in these fields Women began being seen in the workplace more and more frequently, breaking barriers in professions formerly exclusive to men The 1980s saw the first woman astronaut in Sally Ride, first woman to be nominated for Vice President in Geraldine Ferraro, first Supreme Court Justice in Sandra Day O’Connor, New York Fire Department allowing women to become firefighters Part 3: Charting a New Course Despite the Equal Pay Act having been passed 50 years ago, women still make less than men on average Only 1/5 of Congress consists of women Opposition to the right to abortion and access to contraceptives has grown Many modern feminist movements don’t just focus on women’s rights but also on issues such as immigration reform, the fight for a living wage, access to healthcare, environmental issues, and international human rights In the 90s, many girls who had grown up in the feminist movement came of age and got jobs and became mothers, but felt like the feminist movement didn’t prepare them for the difficulty of balancing both
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