PSY 2501, Chap2
PSY 2501, Chap2 PSY 2501 - 002
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PSY 2501 - 002
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Upasana Raja on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2501 - 002 at Temple University taught by Sheree Logue (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Neuron Doctrine: The hypothesis that the brain is composed of separate cells are distinct structurally, metabolically, and functionally Synapse: The tiny gap between neurons and where information is passed from one to the other Gilal Cells or Glia or Neuroglia: Nonneuronal brain cells that provide structural, nutritional, and other types of support to the brain Mitochondria: A cellular organelle that provides metabolic energy for the cell's processes Cell Nucleus: The spherical central structure of a cell that contains the chromosomes Ribosomes: Structures in the cell body where genetic information is translated to produce proteins Dendrite: One of the extensions of the cell that are the receptive surfaces of the neuron Cell Body or Soma: The region of a neuron that is defined by the presence of the cell nucleus Input Zone: The part of a neuron that receives information, from other neurons or from specializes sensory structures. Usually corresponds to the cell's dendrite Integration Zone: The part of the neuron that initiates nerve electrical activity. Usually corresponds to the neuron's axon hillock Axon: A single extension from the nerve cell that carries nerve impulses from the cell body to other neurons Conduction Zone: The part of the neuron over which the nerve's electrical signal may be actively propagated. Usually corresponds to the cell's axon Axon Terminal or Synaptic Bouton: The end of an axon or axon collateral, which forma synapse on a neuron or other target cell Output Zone: This part of a neuron, usually corresponding to the axon terminals, at which the cell sends information to another cell Golgi Stain: A histological stain that fills a small proportion of neurons with a dark, silver-based precipitate Nissl Stain: A histological stain that outlines all cell bodies because the dyes are attracted to RNA, which encircles the nucleus Autoradiography: A histological technique that shows the distribution of radioactive chemicals in tissues Immunocytochemistry (ICC): A method for detecting a particular protein in tissues in which an antibody recognizes and binds to the protein and then chemical methods are used to leave a visible reaction product around each antibody In Situ Hybridization: A method for detecting particular RNA transcript in tissue sections by providing a nucleotide probe that is complementary to, and will therefore hybridize with, the transcript of interest Immediate Early Genes (IEGs): A class of genes that show rapid but transient increases in expression in cells that have become activated c-fos: An immediate early gene commonly used to identify activated neurons Horseradish Peroxide (HRP): An enzyme found in horseradish and other plant that is used to determine the cells origin of a particular set of axons Multipolar Neuron: A nerve cell that has many dendrites and a single axon Bipolar Neuron: A nerve cell that has a single dendrite at one end and a single axon at the other end Unipolar Neuron a.k.a. monopolar: A nerve cell with a single branch that leaves the cell body and then extends in two directions; one end is the receptive pole, the other end the output zone Motoneuron a.k.a. motor neuron: A nerve cell that transmits motor messages, stimulating a muscle or gland Sensory Neuron: A neuron that is directly affected by changes in the environment, such as light, color, or touch Interneuron: A neuron that is neither a sensory neuron nor a motoneuron; it receives input from and sends output to other neurons Astrocyte: A star-shaped gilal cell with numerous processes (extensions) that run in all directions Microglial Cells a.k.a microgila: Extremely small gilal cells that remove cellular debris from injured or dead cells Myelin: The fatty insulation around an axon, formed by gilal cells, that improves the speed of conduction of nerve impulses Myelination: The process of myelin formation Node of Ranvier: A gap between successive segments of the myelin sheath where the axon membrane is exposed Multiple Sclerosis: Literally “many scar”; a disorder characterized by widespread degeneration of myelin Oligodendrocyte: A type of gilal cell that forms myelin in the central nervous system Schwann Cell: The gilal cell that forms myelin in the peripheral nervous system Edema: The swelling of tissue, especially in the brain, in response to injury Arborization: The elaborate branching of the dendrites of some neurons Presynaptic: Referring to the region of the synapse that release neurotransmitter Postsynaptic: Referring to the region of a synapse that receives and responds to neurotransmitter Presynaptic Membrane: The specialized membrane of the axon terminal of the neuron that transmits information by releasing neurotransmitter Postsynaptic Membrane: The specialized membrane on the surface of the cell that receives information by responding to neurotransmitter from a presynaptic membrane Synaptic Cleft: The space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements Synaptic Vesicle: A small, spherical structure that contains molecules of neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter a.k.a. synaptic transmitter, chemical transmitter, or simply transmitter: The chemical released from the presynaptic axon terminal that serves as the basis of communication between neurons Receptor a.k.a. receptor molecule: A protein that captures and reacts to molecules of a neurotransmitter or hormone Neural Plasticity a.k.a. neuroplasticity: The ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment Axon Hillock: A cone-shaped area from which the axon originates out of the cell body. Functionally, the integration zone of the neuron Axon Collateral: A branch of an axon from a single neuron Innervate: To provide neural input Axonal Transport: The transportation of materials from the neuronal cell body to distant regions in the dendrites and axons, and from axon terminals back to the cell body Gross Neuroanatomy: Anatomical features of the nervous system that are apparent to the naked eye Cauda Equina: The caudal-most spinal nerves, which extend beyond the spinal cord proper to exit the spinal column Peripheral Nervous System: The portion of the nervous system includes all the nerves and neurons outside the brain and spinal cord Central Nervous System: The portion of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord Nerve: A collection of axons bundled together outside the central nervous system Cranial Nerve: A nerve that is connected directly to the brain Spinal Nerve a.k.a. somatic nerve: A nerve that emerges from the spinal cord Autonomic Nervous System: The part of peripheral nervous system that supplies neural connections to glands and to smooth muscles of internal organs Dorsal Root: The branch of a spinal nerve, entering the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, that carries sensory information from the peripheral nervous system to the spinal cord Ventral Root: The branch of a spinal nerve, arising from the ventral horn of the spinal cord, that carries motor messages from the spinal cord to the peripheral nervous system Cervical: The topmost 8 segments of the spinal cord, in the neck region Thoracic: The 12 spinal segments below the cervical (neck) portion of the spinal cord, corresponding to the chest Lumbar: The 5 spinal segments that make up the upper part of the lower back Sacral: The 5 spinal segments that make up the lower part of the lower back Coccygeal: The lowest spinal vertebra (a.k.a. the tailbone) Autonomic Ganglia: Collections of nerve cell bodies, belonging to the autonomic divisions of the peripheral nervous system that are found in various locations and innervate the major organs Preganglionic: Referring to neurons in the autonomic nervous system that run from the central nervous system to the autonomic ganglia Sympathetic Nervous System: A component of the autonomic nervous system that run from the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord Sympathetic Chain: A chain of ganglia that runs along each side of the spinal column; part of the sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic Nervous System: A component of the autonomic nervous system that arises from both the cranial nerves and the sacral spinal cord Norepinephrine a.k.a. Noradrenaline: A neurotransmitter produced and released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons to accelerate organ activity. Also produced in the brainstem and found in projections throughout the brain Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter produced and released by parasympathetic postganglionic neurons, by motoneurons, and by neuron throughout the brain Enteric Nervous System: An extensive meshlike system of neurons that governs the functioning of the gut Cerebral Hemisphere: The right and left halves of the forebrain Gyrus: A ridged or raised portion of a convoluted brain surface Sclus: A furrow of a convoluted brain surface Frontal Lobe: The most anterior portion of the cerebral cortex Temporal Lobe: Large lateral cortical regions of each cerebral hemisphere, continuous with the parietal lobes posteriorly, and separated from the frontal lobe by the Sylvian fissure Parietal Lobe: Large regions of cortex lying between the frontal and occipital lobe of each cerebral hemisphere Occipital Lobe: Large regions of cortex covering much of the posterior part of each cerebral hemisphere Sylvian Fissure a.k.a. Lateral Sulcus: A deep fissure that demarcates the temporal lobe Central Suclus: A fissure that divides the frontal lobe from parietal lobe Cerebral Cortex a.k.a. Cortex: The outer covering of the cerebral hemisphere, which consists largely of nerve cell bodies and their branches Postcentral Gyrus: The strip of parietal cortex, just behind the central sulcus, that receives somatosensory information from the entire body Precentral Gyrus: The strip of frontal cortex, just in front of the central sulcus, that is crucial for motor control Corpus Callosum: The main band of axons that connects the two central hemisphere White Matter: A shiny layer underneath the cortex that consists largely of axons with white myelin sheaths Gray Matter: Areas of the brain that are dominated by cell bodies and are devoid of myelin Neural Tube: An embryonic structure with subdivisions that correspond to the future forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain Forebrain a.k.a. Prosencephalon: The frontal division of the neural tube, containing the cerebral hemisphere, the thalamus and the hypothalamus Midbrain a.k.a. Mesencephalon: The middle division of the brain Hindbrain a.k.a. Rhombencephalon: The rear division of the brain, which, in mature vertebrate, contains the cerebellum, pons, and medulla Telecephalon: The frontal subdivision of the forebrain that includes the cerebral hemisphere when fully developed Diencephalon: The posterior part of the forebrain, including the thalamus the thalamus and hypothalamus Metencephalon: A subdivision of the hindbrain that includes the cerebellum and the pons Cerebellum: A structure located at the back of the brain, dorsal to the pons, that is involved in the central regulation of movement Pons: A portion of metencephalon; part of the brainstem connecting midbrain to medulla Nucleus: A collection of neuronal cell bodies within the central nervous system Example: The caudate nucleus Myelencephalon or Medulla: The posterior part of the hindbrain, continuous with the spinal cord Brainstem: The region of the brain that consists of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla Tract: A bundles of axons found within the central nervous system Basal Ganglia: A group of forebrain nuclei, including caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and putamen, found deep with the cerebral hemisphere Caudate Nucleus: One of the basal ganglia; it has a long extension or tail Putamen: One of the basal ganglia Globus Pallidus: One of the basal ganglia Sudstantia Nigra: A brainstem structure in humans that is related to the basal ganglia and is named for its dark pigmentation Limbic System: A loosely defined, widespread group of brain nuclei that innervate each other to form a network Amygdala: A group of nuclei in the medical anterior part of the temporal lobe Hippocampus: A medial temporal lobe structure that is important for learning and memory Fornix: A fiber tract that extends from the hippocampus to the mammillary body Cingulate Gyrus: A cortical portion of the limbic system, found in the frontal and parietal midline Olfactory Bulb: An anterior projection of the brain that terminates in the upper nasal passages and, through small openings in the skull, provides receptors for smell Mammillary Body: One of a pair of nuclei at the base of the brain Thalamus: The brain regions that surround the third ventricle Hypothalamus: Part of the diencephalon, lying ventral to the thalamus Superior Colliculi: Paired gray matter structures of the dorsal midbrain that receive visual information and are involved in direction of visual gaze and visual attention to intended stimuli Inferior Colliculi: Paired gray matter structures of dorsal midbrain that receives auditory information Tectum: The dorsal portion of the midbrain, including the inferior and superior colliculi Red Nucleus: A brainstem structure related to motor control Reticular Formation: An extensive region of the brainstem (extending from the medulla through the thalamus) that is involved in arousal (waking) Purkinje Cell: A type of large nerve cell in the cerebellar cortex Granule Cell: A type of small nerve cell Parallel Fiber: One of the axons of the granule cells that form the outermost layer of the cerebellar cortex Neocortex (Isocortex) or Cortex: Cerebral cortex that is made up of six distinct layers Allocortex: Brain tissue with three layers or unlayered organization Pyramidel Cell: A type of large nerve cell that has a roughly pyramid-shaped cell body; found in the cerebral cortex Apical Dendrite: The dendrite that extends from a pyramidal cell to the outermost surface of the cortex Basal Dendrite: One of several dendrites on a pyramidal cell that extend horizontally from the cell body Cortical Column: One of the vertical columns that constitute the basic organization of the neocortex Meninges: The three protective sheets of tissues-dura mater, pia meter, and arachnoid- that surround the brain and spinal cord Dur Mater: The outermost of the three meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord Pia Mater: The innermost of the three meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord Arachnoid: The thin covering (one of the three meninges) of the brain that lies between the dura mater and pia mater Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): The fluid that fills the cerebral ventricles Meningitis: An acute inflammation of the meninges, usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection Ventricular System: A system of fluid-filled cavities inside the brain Lateral Ventricle: A complexly shaped lateral portion of the ventricular system within each hemisphere of the brain Choroid Plexus: A highly vascular portion of the lining of the ventricles that secretes cerebrospinal fluid Third Ventricle: The midline ventricle that conducts cerebrospinal fluid from the lateral ventricle to the fourth ventricle Fourth Ventricle: The passageway within the pons that receives cerebrospinal fluid from the third ventricle and releases it to surround the brain and spinal cord Carotid Arteries: The major arteries that ascend the left and right sides of the neck to the brain, supplying blood to the anterior and middle cerebral arteries Anterior Cerebral Arteries: Two large arteries, arising from the carotids, that provide blood to the anterior poles and medical surfaces of the cerebral hemisphere Middle Cerebral Arteries: Two large arteries, arising from the carotids, that provide blood to most of the lateral surfaces of the cerebral hemisphere Posterior Cerebral Arteries: Two large arteries, arising from the basilar artery, that provide blood to posterior aspects of the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brainstem Vertebral Arteries: Arteries that ascend the vertebrae, enter the base of the skull, and join together to from the basilar artery Basilar Artery: An artey, formed by the fusion of the vertebral arteries, that supplies blood to the brainstem and to the posterior central arteries Circle of Willis: A structure at the base of the brain that is formed by the joining of the carotid and basilar arteries Stroke: Damage to a region of brain tissue that results from blockage or rupture of vessels that supply blood to that regions Blood-Brain Barrier: The mechanism that make the movement of substances from blood vessels into brain cells more difficult than exchanges in other body organs, thus affording the brain greater protection from exposure to some substances found in the blood Angiography: A brain-imaging technique in which a specialized X-ray image of the head is taken shortly after the cerebral blood vessels have been filled with a radiopaque dye by means of a catheter Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT or CT): A noninvasive technique for examining brain structure in humans through computer analysis of X-ray absorption at several positions around the head Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): A noninvasive technique that uses magnetic energy to generate images that reveal some structural details in the living brain Magetoencephalography (MEG): A passive and noninvasive functional brain-imaging technique that measures that tiny magnetic field produced by active neurons, in order to identify regions of the brain that are particular active during a given task
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