ANTH 320 Midterm 1 Study Guide
ANTH 320 Midterm 1 Study Guide ANTH 320
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 320 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by R. Colloredo-Mansfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Development in ANTH at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
ANTH 320 Midterm 1 Study Guide Key Terms: - Unfreedom: any lack of freedom or basic opportunities, causes disadvantages of particular individuals or group - Evaluation: success of society evaluated/determined by the freedoms individual members enjoy o Focus on fact - Capital: what an individual gets in return for their goods or services o Can be tangible (money, other goods) or intangible (loyalty, trust) - Indigenous: people native to a certain region - Freedom: ability to choose what to do with one’s life - Capabilities: basic needs that allow a person to survive and sustain themselves o Two-way relationship between capabilities and public policy Ability (capability) to participate in decision-making allows advocating of other future capabilities - Markets: doesn’t necessarily refer to the freedom to participate in transactions and exchange o Note: I am not sure exactly where this definition comes from, but I found it on the terms sheet, so use it to your own discretion - Substantive Freedoms: certain freedoms necessary for individuals to have agency for valuable outcomes - Wealth: focus on how material wealth can contribute to overall individual and societal success/growth - Mortality: death o usually referred to in sense of premature mortality- consequence of unfreedoms - Tradition: negative connotation in terms of development, refers to societal tendency to be stuck in the past, unwilling to promote growth and change o Can lead to unfreedoms - Education: difference between agrarian and industrial societies o Encourages idea of growth o Refers to education outside of family o Allows societal mobility o Basic education: molded to suit goals of different societies, teaches general skills for occupations, creates social norms - Literacy: creates “us versus them” mentality because literate group has access to more freedoms/capabilities o Privilege to literacy usually inherited, so difficult to change gap between “us” and “them” - Mobility/Occupational Mobility: individuals able to transition to other parts of society (change jobs, income level, etc.) o Creates changing division of labor o Increased through education Retraining occurs later in life, use standardized education as a base and gain different specializations in time o Characteristic of industrial societies - Diploma Disease: too much value put on higher education o Gellner argues that while we shouldn’t rely too much on diplomas, some respect can come from institutions that encourage hard work and honesty - Exo-educational/Exo-socialization: individuals trained outside the home by specialists o Characteristic of industrial societies o Led to nationalism Because links state and culture - Instrumental freedoms: not necessary to maintain development, but give people more capabilities to live fuller life o Ex. political freedoms, economic freedoms, social opportunity o Can combine to form different opportunities/capabilities - Economic Development: economic growth and specialization o Can lead to an increase in social opportunities o Decrease in negative consequences caused by low economic status Ex. decreased poverty, increased literacy rates - Agro-literate polity: a region (state, district, etc.) that develops as a result of the emergence of a literate and specialized class o Also include centralized power and belief system/culture - Culture: habits and values formed along political boundaries o Political units defined in terms of cultural boundaries o Goes against Western rationality Used as justification for intervention in “inferior” cultures o Community-specific - Differentiation: ruling class in agrarian society set themselves apart from the peasant class o Attributed specific cultural and genetic differences between societal classes o Implied permanence - Vernacular: language of the common man/peasant class o Language difference between peasant class and ruling class to create distance between them - Industrial society: requires ability of individuals to shift skills to different occupations o Strengthened by general education system Begins general, ends specified Problems= more difficult to obtain specialized positions because require education/opportunity/capital - Gelding: individual deprived of ability to reproduce o Used to break ancestral lineage o Used commonly for priests - Stallions: individuals reproduce to continue power in family line o Usually elites - Homogeneity/Cultural homogeneity: low in agrarian societies, high in industrialized societies o Agrarian: cultural differentiation, local languages, specialization o Industrial: standardized skillset, generalized basic education Leads to rise of nationalism - Transparency guarantees: an important freedom in society o Lack of transparency takes away many capabilities Ex. lack of governmental transparency in Africa makes it difficult to prevent famine and/or drought - “Ends” and “means”: freedom as means for development instead of simply the end or completion of development, freedom helps the pursuit of development o Freedom is the goal of development, not the result o Development doesn’t end, always changing and allowing other freedoms - Traditional society: seen in Rostow’s Stages of Growth as the first stage of societies, Etounga-Manguelle says traditional societies must get out of traditional stage and adopt modern practices o Problems= history affects present, Africa isn’t poor because it is traditional- must take into account its history that caused its current situation - Subordination of individual: Etounga- Manguelle’s analysis of African culture o View individual as part of family/social groups o Don’t recognize agency and responsibility of individual - Inefficiency: way to describe African culture by Etounga-Manguelle o Viewed as burden to their society o Ex. meet in person and talk about personal things before business - Confusionism: Shweder’s pillar of cultural pluralism o Impossible to have complete view of world Have only part from one point of view Too confusing from multiple points of view Meaningless if seen from nowhere in particular - Tyranny of Time: Etounga-Manguelle says Africans do not prioritize thinking about the future o Thinking about future is necessary in development o Not planning for future inhibits development and progress (because future not a priority) - Westernization: idea that Western beliefs spread through globalization, Shweder’s belief of new world order o liberal democracy o individual rights o equality o decentralization of power - Cultural developmentalism: view that there are certain universal values necessary to be “developed”, some cultures are backwards or wrong o Want to “enlighten” these cultures - Progress: different meanings to different groups of people/cultures o Different progress leads to different development processes o More of something that is desired - Cultural Pluralism: different cultures coexist within same larger context o Respect for all cultures - Resilience: required in Rostow’s take-off stage of economic development o Economy must be resilient to adapt to changing conditions during the period of rapid growth - New World Order: replaces the old system of the idea of the three worlds (capitalism, communism, underdeveloped countries) - Hierarchical distance: separation between power and masses, elites/power holders removed from rest of society o From Etonga-Manguelle reading - Universalism: Shweder’s idea of universal values across all cultures, cannot be achieved all at once o Ex. justice, loyalty, liberty - National Character: relates entire culture to single set of characteristics/personality traits o Leads to assumption that action is not a result of rational thought - Bondage: Sen’s idea that all people have a right to the same freedoms o Should escape from the bondage of unfreedoms or oppression - Relative Deprivation: Sen’s idea that wealth and freedom is relative, one group that we believe to be poor is rich in comparison with another, more impoverished group o Ex. Africa-Americans are rich in comparison with impoverished Africans - Capability Deprivation: analysis of poverty that focuses on the freedoms/capabilities necessary to satisfy the goals that people pursue o Idea of choice- those with more choice have more control over future - Endemic illiteracy: major problem in many Third World countries that much of population is illiterate, can affect outcomes of poverty - Public Goods: shared among individuals, difficult to divide into private goods - Missing Women: view of development as more than income o Specifically recognize the capability deprivations of women - Capability perspective: Sen argues that poverty is not only defined by low income, should focus on capability deprivation o Ex. rich person deprived of voting rights can still qualify as poverty - Pareto optimality: one person cannot excel or better their condition without worsening another person’s condition, everyone pursues own self-interest but still has effect on others o Related to tragedy of the commons - Child labor: example of an unfreedom because deprived of capability to pursue education - Social exclusion: capability deprivation of participation in community life, can be an example of poverty - Income-earning/income-using: people can have trouble acquiring income, but can also have trouble converting income into capabilities o Can increase effects of poverty if combined - Entitlement: perception of availability of choice, what people are worth owning/giving o Relates to idea that people can starve in area that has food because aren’t entitled to food without income o Ex. women usually not entitled to certain capabilities with traditional gender roles o Entitlement can be increased with education and decreased fertility rates - Democracy: important idea to Sen, keeps government accountable o Preventative role Ex. can prevent famine - Agency: the role a person has in the ability to create change o Women’s agency can be increase through literacy and employment - Microcredit: small-scale lending to the poor o Related to decrease in unfreedoms, especially for women o Allows increased participation in social and economic life - Culture alienation: large distance between ruling power and public o Makes it difficult for policymakers to create legislation benefitting the masses - Practice: Sen’s definition of the action of individuals to take advantage of opportunities provided - Famine: no longer refers to lack of food in given area o Famine can exist in places with plenty of food o Caused by unfreedoms of certain groups - Hunger: caused by factors other than availability of food/food production o Political/social factors: ability to grow/purchase, health/nourishment level o Entitlement factors: not entitled to land, technology, or trade/exchange in markets - Empowerment: usually refers to women’s empowerment o Allows greater access to freedoms Which can have greater effects on society as a whole Readings: - Millennium Development Goals: know some of these (along with indicators) o Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty Goal: halve number people living on less than $1 per day Indicators : proportion below $1 per day, poverty gap ratio o Achieve universal primary education Goal: children of all genders finish primary school Indicators: net enrollment, number who complete grades 1-5, literacy rates o Promote gender equality and empower women Goal: eliminate gender disparity in primary/secondary education Indicators: ratio of girls to boys in different grades, ratio of literate women to men, number seats held by women in Parliament o Reduce child mortality Goal: reduce mortality rates for under 5 years by 2/3 Indicators: under 5 years mortality rates, infant mortality rates, proportion 1 year olds immune to measles o Improve maternal health Goal: reduce maternal mortality by 2/3 Indicators: maternal mortality rate, number births attended by health professional o Fight AIDS, malaria, etc. Goal: halt and reverse spread of HIV/AIDS Indicators: HIV prevalence, condom use rate o Ensure environmental sustainability Goal: reverse loss of resources, integrate into policies Indicators: proportion of forest land, proportion of protected areas, energy use per $1 GDP, amount CO2 emissions o Develop global partnership for development Goal: address needs of disadvantaged countries Indicator: proportion developed countries’ imports, debt relief amount, average tariffs - Sen o Freedoms: processes to allow them and capabilities to obtain them as opposed to unfreedoms Development success indicator Substantive and instrumental freedoms o Democracy: no evidence that democracy is bad for development, authoritarian governments aren’t necessarily good for it either Only creates opportunity, people have to take agency to enact actual change Government can prevent famine o Capability approach: focus on intrinsically important deprivations, other factors that cause poverty, relationship between income and capability varies in different cultures Relative deprivation o Arrow-Debreu theorem (efficiency achievement): everyone’s utility can’t be enhanced by market mechanisms o Income-earning vs income-using o Public discussion important to policymaking o Problems with public goods Consequence of incentive abuse of recipients o Targeting: incentives and aid to specific area or group Problems= difficult to ensure that only needy get benefits, stigma, corruption, political capability o Utility: availability of different market choices satisfaction People do not gain same satisfaction from same material good o Entitlement determined by: production possibilities, endowment, exchange conditions o Cultural alienation o Idea that all people/communities are different, want/do different things Similarity to Shweder - Colloredo-Mansfeld o Importance of capital as means of progress/development o Education important to increase capital - Gellner: agrarian vs. industrial society o Agrarian: cultural differences between ruling class and public Use of language to create cultural distance Types of rulers: Centralized vs uncentralized Gelded vs stallions: gelded= unable to reproduce, breaks ancestral link; stallion= ancestral lineage Open vs closed: area of recruitment Fused vs specialized: degree of separation of military and clergy o Industrial: importance of growth and progress Social mobility Specialization Basic/standardized education, exo-education (trained outside the home) Diploma Disease: overvaluation of paper qualifications Perpetual economic growth has consequences: concentrated waste, machine-like human discipline, destruction of family ties Increased living standard - Rostow: Stages of Economic Growth o Traditional society: limited production, constant change caused by outside environment, production ceiling from lack of technology o Pre-conditions for take-off: evolution of science, discovery of new lands to create wider market and increased trade/productivity/capital, emergence of nationalism o Take-off: rapid production growth from technological advances, self- sustaining- can survive rough times, general growth/modernization desire o Road to maturity: applies modern technology to most of resource production, decreased agricultural professions with increase in semi- skilled workers o Age of high mass consumption: 3 options Increased security, welfare, leisure Increased private consumption (consumerism) Increased national power on world scale o Beyond consumption: increased population sustained by income and resources, larger families, affluence o Development doesn’t work this way! - Etounga-Manguelle o Cultural similarities in Africa Hierarchical distance Little control over uncertainty Tyranny of time (lack of future planning) Invisible power/authority- unity of church and state, little social mobility Community dominates individual Pleasure before business Material wealth less important than status Irrationalism- sorcery and witchcraft Self-destructing tendencies- corruption, genocide, violence o Solutions: Education: emphasize science, separate education and religion Politics: individualism, tolerance Economics: establish markets, workers enjoy fruits of labor Social life: sense of unity, increased self-confidence on world scale - Shweder o Cultural pluralism: universal values exist, but not possible to achieve all at the same time Must have trade-offs for values- different cultures handle trade- offs differently (pros and cons to all cultures) o Confusionism o Idea of universal values o Cultural developmentalism: value-centered idea of culture Universal human values Culture motivates behavior o Cultural relativism: no culture is better than other to use as measure of progress One group’s values cannot be used to judge others - Farmer o Liberation theology: observe, judge, act; preferential option to the poor o Luddite trap: end up giving second-hand treatment to poor, developmentalists focus only on eradicating poverty and less on things that can be done immediately o Haitian dilemma between medicine and sorcery o Many medical problems caused by poverty o Social justice as best way to address suffering because charity and development imply innate inferiority of recipient o Ideas of anthropology and cultural relativism are part of Luddite trap problem because associate and accept that cultural differences are causes of suffering - Bhavani o “structure of feelings”: culture not just as set of habits/traditions/norms, takes into account how people actually live their lives o WID perspective: equality of men and women, include women in development o WAD: Marxist feminism, structural modes of production usually don’t allow women to take advantage of their income Doesn’t offer actual solutions, just points out problems o GAD: attempt to change structure of society to address inequality of women, empower women Solutions to WAD approach o WCD: less focus on changing role of women, more focus on integrating role of women as reproducers with role in development as producers, takes culture of area into account - Sachs o Causes of economic growth: saving, trade, technology, resource boom o Causes of economic reduction: lack of saving, absence of trade, technological reversal, natural resource decline, adverse productivity shock, population growth o Reasons for economic stagnation: poverty trap, physical geography, fiscal trap, governance failures, cultural barriers, geopolitics, lack of innovation o Treat development projects like clinical medicine: test different theories, identify causes of problems and investigate all solutions Extent of extreme poverty Economic policy Fiscal framework Physical geography Patterns of governance Cultural barriers Geopolitics o Foreign aid will jumpstart capital and help impoverished work toward growth o Poverty trap: poor may have enough resources to save, but poorest of the poor may not even make enough income to survive - Banerjee and Duflo o Difficult to find evidence to support presence of poverty trap Conflict between viewpoints of Sachs and Easterly Sachs= political left, poverty trap exists, spend more money on aid, give poor things for free Easterly= political right, oppose aid because it corrupts government and doesn’t respect people’s freedom o Focus on narrow questions to find concrete answers to specific problems instead of trying to fix them all o Microfinance: small-scale lending to poor Usually involves joint liability Only works when trend is repayment Rigid rules, so doesn’t work for entrepreneurs that need risk- taking o Poor have higher interest rates o Multiplier effect: increased interest rates create more incentive for monitoring, which creates need for even higher interest rates to cover cost Other Important Information: - 4 premises of development: 1. Evolution: development builds on itself, previous events affect future 2. Enlightenment: expansion of material/knowledge/technology, development requires exchange of ideas 3. Expertise: knowledge and resources to be able to take action with development projects 4. Economy: production, material wealth - Indicators vs measurements: o Indicators: backed by theories of development Measure development in ways that are proven to be related o Measurements: number to measure development, but not necessarily known to have an effect - “Good Fortune” Documentary: o Dominion Farms invested money to make rice farms in Yala Swamp in Kenya To benefit different urban slum o Didn’t cooperate with locals Led to destruction of land/livelihoods of locals o Language matters: area called a swamp, so implies that it isn’t important
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