Anthropology 101 Study Guide for 1st Exam
Anthropology 101 Study Guide for 1st Exam ANTH 101 (Anthropology Julie Jenkins)
Popular in Intro to cultural anthropology
ANTH 101 (Anthropology Julie Jenkins)
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nichole Notetaker on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 101 (Anthropology Julie Jenkins) at Ball State University taught by Dr. Julie Jenkins in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Intro to cultural anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ball State University.
Reviews for Anthropology 101 Study Guide for 1st Exam
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/13/16
nitro This file was edited using the trial version of Nitro Pro 7 Buy now at wwwnitropdfcom to remove this message Conventlonal underswoo Dy many people Symbol something that means stands for or calls to mind something else Arbitrary nothing in its proportions thatjustifies the meaning Values beliefs about the goals or way of life that s desirable Worldview perceptioninterpretation of reality how we think we should relate to the world other people etc Construction of Reality perceptioninterpretation of reality how we classifycategorize Language how we communicate with each other and the world Ethnographies the scientific descriptions of the customs of people and cultures Culture Shock being so out of your element in a new culture that it can be difficult to adjust Placentophagy eating the placenta after a birth Renaissance rebirth name for a period of time during the 14th and 17th centuries where there was a renewed interest in human intellect and creativity Eucharist Catholic practice of consuming the body and blood of Christ wine and bread wafers Cannibalism consumption of one s own species used to describe people who were not Christian Evolve to change over time Industrialization manufacturing of products Animism worship of animalsnatural spirits Polytheism worship of multiple gods Monotheism worship of one god Atheism belief that there is no higher power or god Historical Particularism the idea that different cultures histories are important to understanding the cultures as they are now Relativism perspective of Anthropology that focuses on evaluating cultures without bias Ethnocentrism thinking your culture is right and all others are wrong Participant Observation studying a culture by immersing yourself in it Emic Perspective the perspective of an insider Functionalism idea that society and culture are seen and studied as a system of interrelated parts Holism perspective of Anthropology that considers all parts of a society and how they interact with each other Determinative having an end stage Reifying making more concrete or real Navel gazing focusing on yourself Cultural Appropriation the adoption of elements of one culture into another culture I n39 This file was edited using the trial version of Nitro Pro 7 Buy now at wwwnitropdfcom to remove this message Professor s Study Guide and Answers 0 What is Anthropology 0 Identify amp define 5 subfields of anthropology I BiologicalPhysical Anthropology the study of how humans differ from other primates biological variations origins and evolution of Homo sapiens nonhuman primate behavior I SocialCultural Anthropology differences and similarities in contemporary and near historical cultures universal vs particular traits study of beliefs and practices of social actors within a society where social groups are treated as openended systems questions and perspectives of the world 0 What people do and think and why 0 How people experience and create their world 0 Values and norms and how they are created transmitted and contested I Archaeology the study of ancient cultures through the analysis of material remains I Linguistics study of languages style of speech for specific contexts how language reflects and shapes worldview how speech shapes thought processes I Applied Anthropology anthropological knowledge applied to real world problems health education development marketing public policy business 0 Be familiar with the 2 definitions of sociocultural anthropology I the study of differences and similarities in contemporary and historical cultures I the study of the beliefs and practices of social actors within society in which societies and social groups are treated as open ended systems I Can you explain what the second definition of cultural anthropology means 0 it means you have to study not only what people of a certain society think and do but also realize that that society is not a separate entity and has probably been influenced by other cultures 0 Identify define amp apply 3 perspectives of anthropology amp meanings ie holism comparativism relativism I Holism study of the whole by studying the parts that make it up and their interactions with each other I n39 This file was edited using the trial version of Nitro Pro 7 Buy now at wwwnitropdfcom to remove this message AntnropOIogy r o Ethnocentrism the belief that one s own culture and belief system is superior to all others 0 You confront ethnocentrism by putting yourself in someone else s shoes and trying to see how they see your culture and your beliefs 0 Challenging ethnocentrism is important because it opens our minds to be able to see other cultures for what they are without comparing ourselves to them In this way we can learn about them in a purer less restrictive way I Understand the difference between moral relativism and methodological relativism o Moral Relativism believes there is no universal morality or right Methodological Relativism places emphasis on suspending ethnocentrism o What is Culture 0 Definition of culture Tylor vs Geertz I Tylor the complex whole which includes knowledge belief art morals law customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society I Geertz believing that man is suspended in webs of significance I take culture to be those webs 0 Identify amp define aspects of cultural knowledge symbols polysemic arbitrary conventional values norms world view construction of reality language I norms social expectation how we think people should behave I values beliefs about the goals or way of life that s desirable I worldview perceptioninterpretation of reality how we think we should relate to the world other people etc I construction of reality perceptioninterpretation of reality how we classifycategorize I language how we communicate with each other and the world I symbols something that means stands for or calls to mind something else 0 Polysemic having multiple meanings 0 Conventional understanding by many people 0 Arbitrary nothing in its proportions thatjustifies the meaning 0 Identify amp define aspects of patterns of behavior roles social context I Habits can be contextual I Roles in Interactions I n39 This file was edited using the trial version of Nitro Pro 7 Buy now at wwwnitropdfcom to remove this message 0 learn benaVIors and use OT IOOIS o taught by family friends teachers peers media etc o guided reinvention of culture 0 Also contested and debated I shared subcultures distribution of meaning hegemony 0 how to define a group 0 different levels of groupings I subcultures based on region religion education etc 0 degrees of being shared or the distribution of meaning 0 factor in power 0 use of economic andor institutional resources to make one interpretation stick 0 hegemony so widespread it is difficult to question I adap ve 0 change to ways of living better fitted to survival and reproduction 0 interaction with environment causes it I constructed practiced produced circulated o the construct is always shifting I changing what does tradition mean 0 changes through debate and interaction 0 tradition is an unchanging practice within a civilization 0 How then would you describe culture 0 What do Anthropologists do 0 Fieldwork ethnography I do fieldwork to create ethnographies usually in written form but occasionally in the form of a documentary 0 emicetic perspectives I Emic insider s perspective I Etic outsider s perspective 0 Know ethnographic qualitative methods amp limitations interviewing and participation observation I qualitative methods include interviews and participant observation I Interviews usually informal more of a conversation 0 Limitations sometimes people lie or give inaccurate information unintentionally I Participant observation becoming part of the culture you study I n39 This file was edited using the trial version of Nitro Pro 7 Buy now at wwwnitropdfcom to remove this message and better understand cuntures 0 Be familiar with the issues we might face in fieldwork rapport trust culture shock biases I rapport getting people to trust you implicitly enough to tell you the truth I culture shock can make it difficult to adjust to living among the people you study I biases must be overcome to get pure data 0 Historical amp Contemporary Perspectives on Culture 0 Understand how difference was constructed by EuroAmericans prior to evolutionary theories esp the role of religion and the ideas of Rousseau amp Hobbes I Great Chain of Being hierarchy of perfection taken from the Bible I Hobbes British Savage 17th Century 0 NonEuropeans live closer to nature than Europeans o NonEuropean people encountered many dangers and had to become violent and animalistic to survive o This was a chaotic experience of life 0 Hobbes believed a strong government was needed to control man s desires I Rousseau Noble Savage 18th Century 0 NonEuropeans live closer to nature than Europeans o NonEuropeans lived more harmoniously with nature 0 No poverty or hunger o This was a criticism of the social and economic quality of Europe 0 NonEuropeans had a purer more pristine way of life 0 Know and understand the context in which Anthropology developed as a discipline I Tylor amp Henry Lewis Morgan 0 EB Tylor 18301917 0 1st to have the title of Anthropologist 0 Worked at Oxford University in 1884 o Wrote about cultures before accepting the position at Oxford I n39 This file was edited using the trial version of Nitro Pro 7 Buy now at wwwnitropdfcom to remove this message 0 Railroad tycoon o Came into contact with many indigenous cultures I He thought this qualified him to propose a theory about social or cultural evolution I Understand Social Evolutionary theory misunderstanding of evolutionary theory unilinear evolution Morgan s cultural stages 0 Cultures evolve through stages 0 Every culture evolves through the same set of stages 0 Unilineal Evolution cultures progress in a straight line 0 Simple gt Complex Morgan 0 Complex gt Simple Tylor 0 Morgan Technology and Materials define where a culture sits on the timeline o Savagery gt Barbarism gt Civilization I Who were Sarah Baartman amp Ota Benga What was the purpose of human zoos 0 Sarah Saartjie Baartman 1810 0 She lived in South Africa and worked for a medical doctor 0 This doctor took her to England and placed her onstage as a circus attraction 0 People payed to stare at her and prod her with their fingers or with sticks 0 She had her humanity questioned by some who came to see her 0 Eventually she was sold to an animal trainer in Paris and was examined in the Natural History Museum there I The scientists had the idea that Africans were on a different evolutionary line than Europeans and they looked solely for proof of that idea in Sarah and ignored anything that might contradict their belief 0 She died in 1816 I Her body was dissected and the bones were put on display in the museum in 1818 This file was edited using the trial version of Nitro Pro 7 Buy now at wwwnitropdfcom to remove this message He lived in the Congo which had been a European colony for years so he probably wore European style clothes He was short in stature considered a pygmy during that time One day he encountered Samuel Verner a man who had been commissioned to bring back people from Africa to be shown at the St Louis World s Fair in 1904 Verner brought back Ota Benga and four other Africans I They were encouraged to pose and play with the audience in such a way that would further show the difference between the races and they were made to wear loincloths After the World s Fair the four other Africans Verner brought to America went home but Ota Benga stayed in the United States under Verner s care Ota Benga was sent to live at the Natural History Museum I The scientists complained that Benga was too noisy and difficult this behavior was seen as a sign of savagery so he was sent to the Bronx Zoo At the Bronx Zoo Benga was displayed in the same enclosure as the orangutans and was encouraged to play with them I Ministers made a fuss about Benga being in an enclosure and he became a source of bad publicity for the Zoo so he was sent to an orphanage At this point in his life Ota Benga was a grown man but he was sent to an orphanage because he was seen as childlike I Some people said that Benga should be in school but these people were shot down with the response that Benga wasn t human and therefore could not learn I n39 This file was edited using the trial version of Nitro Pro 7 Buy now at wwwnitropdfcom to remove this message ethnic backgrounds in such a way so that they appeared as a subspecies of human By dehumanizing them Europeans made it easier to assert their superiority I Understand the ideas and problems with Social Darwinism 0 Ideas Used level of intelligence to rank societies 0 Utilized survival of the fittest which is a corruption of the concept that those who are better adapted to survive and reproduce will do so more often 0 This idea was mapped onto class and race I The poor and those of a different skin tone were seen as mentally and biologically inferior 0 Problems 0 Race is NOT a biological fact I Variations exist throughout the species because of historic meaning millions of years ago adaptations to different environments 0 There are no discrete populations of people NO SUBSPECIES 0 Interaction happened on a large scale between different populations I Race is a biologicallygenetically meaningless classification 0 Understand Boas role in modern anthropology amp his critique of Social Evolution amp Social Darwinism What were his contributions I Different environments inspire different needs which produce different technologies 0 example In the rainforest the best use of technology is in the form of nets and Bow and arrows for hunting and woven baskets for collecting edible plant life The have no room or need for agriculture so it was never developed but this does not automatically place the people living here on the low end of the evolution of societies I Historical Particularism different cultures histories are important to understanding the cultures as they are now I n39 This file was edited using the trial version of Nitro Pro 7 Buy now at wwwnitropdfcom to remove this message V IVIGIII Is UUI I Ilslal IQUII VVUUIU VVUI l VI II LU UIUVGLU VI IV 0 UVVII sense of superiority This gives us Relativism perspective of Anthropology that focuses on evaluating cultures without bias I What questions does Boas idea of historical particularism compel us to ask 0 What were cultures like in the past I What anthropological perspective did Boas contribute o Relativism I Understand why race is a discredited concept in human biology How does the notion of race fail to account for human variation 0 Variations exist throughout the species because of historic meaning millions of years ago adaptations to different environments 0 There are no discrete populations of people NO SUBSPECIES I Interaction happened on a large scale between different populations 0 Race is a biologicallygenetically meaningless classification 0 Understand the kind of questions that Functionalism Structural Functionalism Materialism amp Interpretativism asked I Which anthropologists are associated with these analytical orientations o Functionalism Bronislaw Malinowski 0 Structural Functionalism A R Radcliffe Browne 0 Materialism Marvin Harris 0 Interpretivism Clifford Geertz I What were their answers 0 Malinowski What is the context for and function of a practice or idea and what is its purpose in relation to other aspects of culture 0 Browne How are social relationships structured in groups What institutions go along with them How do institutions shape ideas and behavior 0 Harris How do materials create ideologies o Geertz How do ideas shape experiences I What methodological contribution did Malinowski offer 0 Participant Observation I What anthropological perspective did Malinowski amp Radcliffe Brown emphasize I n39 This file was edited using the trial version of Nitro Pro 7 Buy now at wwwnitropdfcom to remove this message I CllTTICUII to acnleve complete freedom from DlaseS so tnere are no naro facts I MeadFreeman debate 0 both did studies on the value of female virginity in Samoa 0 Opposite results 0 studies done 60 years apart and interviewed different kinds of people 0 Understand relativism and reflexivity as central to ideal of objectivity I the power between the researcher and the researched affects results I relativism is necessary for objectivity o Theorizing the Local and the Global 0 Understanding that globalization is a process that has intensified throughout history in particular stages 0 Be able to respond to theories of globalization that emphasize growing similarities or growing differences I Friedman The World is Flat What are the limitations of this argument 0 globalization is an uneven process just because people have the same opportunities doesn t mean they will get the same results o Is economic globalization an even process Is the world becoming flat Friedman o NO I Westernization including McDonaldization What are the limitations of this argument 0 must be efficient calculable predictable and have deskilled labor I Clash of Civilizations Huntington What are the limitations of this argument 0 he was ethnocentric and ignored the history of cultures and stereotyped the islamic world I Hybridity What are the limitations of this argument 0 can t assume that any culture starts out pure I Localization at are the limitations of this argument 0 power dynamics can affect which aspects of cultures get shared
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'