GY101 Study Guide Test 1
GY101 Study Guide Test 1 GY 101
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elle Notetaker on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Eben Broadbent in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 196 views. For similar materials see Atmospheric Processes & Patterns in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Test 1 Study Guide This study guide covers material from 120 21 0 This does NOT have all the information on the test due to the facts that a I don t have the test b we haven t gone over everything in class yet I will post my notes BEFORE the test though Geography the study of physical features of the environment and their relationships to people Steps in Investigation 1 V3833 U l observations make questions from observations propose explanations and make predictions collect data to test predictions draw conclusions from the data The Earth System consists of 4 spheres 1 Atmosphere air atmospheric patterns dust volcanic ash 2 Hydrosphere water lakes oceans etc Water in all it s forms even in the atmosphere 3 Biosphere living things everywhere they are Extends to the depths of the oceans and as high up in the sky as things fly 4 Lithosphere rocks land the solid part of the earth not just the crust and upper mantle mostly a closed system to matter except for occasional space launches meteors etc an open system to energy we receive energy from the sun and we send out energy from ourselves System lmputs amp Responses Vocab to know inputs ex when liquid water evaporates that s an input to the atmospheric system response occur because of inputs ex when a cloud forms because of the evaporated water that s a response Feedback the system s response to inputs often either reinforces or reduces the effect positive feedback reinforces an input makes it stronger When the sun warms and melts ice the ice becomes water which can help warm and melt more ice negative feedback reduces the impact of an input When water evaporates it makes clouds that block the sun from evaporating more water Movement of material in the Spheres Lithosphere weathering erosion and transport deposition ex wind water Atmosphere energy is in air and moisture When warm air goes up it moves around Air has mass and can move bits of rock Hydrosphere currents evaporation clouds glaciers flowing water groundwater etc Biosphere Plants take nutrients from the ground Lithosphere water from the Hydrosphere and sometimes straight from the air both Hydrosphere and Atmosphere Plants can also cause cracks in rocks and take C02 from the air and replace it with 02 Without the Sun the globe would go below 0 degrees by the end of a week after a year the Earth would be at 100 degrees We would eventually stabilize at 400 degrees Maps Parallels run eastwest Same distances apart measured by degrees between the equator and the location Measure Latitude Meridians run north to south Measure degree between Greenwich UK and the location Greenwich is on the Prime Meridian Measure Longitude Great Circles planes that go through the center of a sphere ex Equator Small Circles planes that don t go through the center of a sphere eX arctic circle Map Projections conformal try to keep shapes equal area try to keep areas Sinusoidal tries to keep shape and area Have lobes cut out Shape distortion is greatest at edges of lobes Cylindrical imagine wrapping paper around the Earth and shining a picture out onto it Distortion increases as you leave the standard line where the globe touches papen Conical wrap a cone around the globe Distortion increases away from the arc where the globe and cone touch Shows 1 hemisphere only Planar hold a camera above the globe and take a picture of it Shows only 1 hemisphere Scales ratios of real life to map small representative fraction small scale Large rep fraction big scale map GPS global positioning system GIS Geographic information system Spatial Problem Solving analyze distributions and their implications Atmosphere has gases solid particles and liquid particles climate long term weather patterns Vertical Organization troposphere clouds mountains weather us cold as you rise Stratosphere ozone warm as you rise mesosphere shooting stars cold as you rise thermosphere auroras lt50 mi up Homosphere gases are in constant proportion gt50 mi up Heterosphere gases are in vertical organization due to densHy ends 60 mi from Earth Atmospheric Composition Permanent gases Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Neon Variable gases Water Vapor Carbon Dioxide and Ozone Water Vapor O4 o concentrations depending on location COz trace gas added through respiration volcanic activity and combustion Removed via photosynthesis Ozone absorbs UV radiation in the stratosphere ruined by CFCs Most of the atmosphere s mass is close to the Earth Density massunit volume Pressure nonlinear relationship As you go up pressure decreases quickly then slowly Thermal Layering Troposphere lowest layer warmed at surface by solar radiation 80 atmosphere s mass Temp goes down as you go up Stratosphere little weather temp goes up as you go up Ozone in altitudes of 20 30 km mesosphere coldest layer as you go up temp goes down thermosphere top layer as you go up temp goes up lonosphere in meso amp thermospheres filled with ions where the aurora borealis and aurora australis happen Energy the ability to do work kinetic moving energy potential comes from position power the amount of energy being used work using force to move something a distance Transfers conduction through physical contact energy moves matter doesnt convection matter moves with its heat radiation energy doesn t use a physical medium Radiation Characteristics energy moves as waves rquantity amount of energy being moved amplitude rquality wavelength EMR electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic spectrum large variation in wavelengths atom sized to Mt Everest s height Steffan Boltzmann Law radiation intensity is inversely proportional to the object s temperature to the 4th power Blackbodies emit radiation perfectly according to the SB law above Graybodies emit radiation at a percent of what blackbodies would most liquids and solids are graybodies Emissivity the o of energy an object emits as opposed to what it would send out if it were a blackbody most stuff is 9 or above Electromagnetic Radiation doesn t weaken as it moves it just spreads out proportional to 1d2 Solar Constant the amount of energy Earth constantly gets 1366 wattsm2 Earth s Rotation amp Orbit we orbit in al ellipse Perihelion Earth is closest to the Sun Aphelion Earth is farthest from the sun seasons come from Earth s 235 degree tilt Aphelion is in June Perihelion is in December solstices are in March and September Solar Angle the angle the sunlight hits Earth Zenith angle angle between the sun and the vertical at noon Angle of lncidence the angle between teh sun and the ground lnsolation the radiation Earth gets Spread out according to different Zenith angles Weather air likes to go from highpressure areas to lowpressure areas this makes wind High Pressure air sinks and there might be clearer skies Low Pressure the air rises and helps form clouds big changes in temp are usually because of fronts Humidity the percentage of water vapor in the air as opposed to what it could hold at that temperature Meteorology the study of the atmosphere lnsolation in the Atmosphere the sun hot gives us shortwave radiation Earth cold sends out Iongwave radiation Absorption when energy is absorbed in the atmosphere Reflection things in the atmosphere redirect energy Albedo the amount of energy a surface reflects a percentage Specular reflection an object reflects energy in a concentrated beam scattering diffuse reflection energy is reflected into less intense beams Rayleigh Scattering blue skies some wavelengths of energy are turned back to space Mie Scattering fog or red sunsetssunrises some wavelengths are redirected Nonselective Scattering rainbows radiation is scattered equally Sensible vs Latent Heat Sensible heat an object changes temperature Latent heat an objcet changes state
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