BSC 215- EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
BSC 215- EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE BSC 215
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Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Lifel l Lectures 15 Atoms and Elements Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space Three states in which matter can exist 0 Solid 0 Liquid 0 Gas Chemistry deals with the identi cation of the substances of which matter is composed the investigation of their properties and the ways in which they interact combine and change and the use of these processes to form new substances Atoms and Atomic Structure Atom The basic unit of a chemical element consists of a nucleus containing protons and neutrons and electrons Subatomic particles 0 Protons positive nucleus 0 Neutrons neutralnucleus o Electrons negativeoutside nucleus atoms are electrically neutral meaning they have no charge The number of protons and electrons are equal cancelling out each subatomic particles charge The number of neutrons does not have to be the same as the protons Electron shells The lst shell closest to the nucleus can hold 2 electrons 2nd shell can hold 8 electrons The 3rd shell can hold 18 electrons but is satis ed with 8 Some atoms may have more than 3 shells Elements in the Periodic Table and the Human Body The number of protons in nucleus lde nes an element Element a substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by chemical means 0 Each element is made of atoms with the same number of protons periodic table of the elements lists the elements by their increasing atomic numbers 0 organizes elements into groups with certain properties 0 Each element is represented by a chemical symbol Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen and Nitrogen The human body is also made of 7 mineral elements and 13 trace elements Isotopes and Radioactivity o The mass number is equal to the sum of all the protons and neutrons found in the atomic nucleus lsotope an atom with the same atomic number and same number of electrons but different mass number and different number of neutrons Radioisotopesunstable isotopes have high energy or radiation that can be released by radioactive decay lThis allows the isotope to assume a more stable form Mixtures and Chemical Bonds Mixture a material system made up of two or more different substances which are mixed but are not combined chemically 3 types of mixtures 1 Water and our 2 Sugar and our 3 Sand and water Chemical Bonds Matter can be combined chemically to form a molecule which is when the atoms of two or more elements are combined by forming chemical bonds lchemical bond is not a physical structure but rather an energy relationship or an attractive force between atoms I39lformed when valence electrons in the valence shell the outermost electron shell of atoms interact Molecule a group of atoms bonded together representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction Compound A compound is a substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together Very large molecules composed of many atoms are called Valence electrons determine how an atom interacts with other atoms and whether it will form bonds with a speci c atom Octet rule atoms of maingroup elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell giving it the same electronic con guration as a noble gas Duet rule The duet rule states that hydrogen and helium may have no more than two electrons in their valence shells lons and Ionic Bonds lonic bond formed when electrons are transferred from a metal atom to a nonmetal atom and results in the formation of ions cations and anions lThe attraction between opposite charges holds or bonds the atoms to one another forming a compound called a salt Covalent Bonds Covalent bonds the strongest bond form when two or more nonmetals share electrons between themselves lTwo atoms can share one single bond two double bond or three triple bond electron pairs All elements have protons that can attract electrons a property known as An element39s electronegativity increases from the bottom left to the upper right of the periodic table making uorine F the most electronegative element More electronegativemore attraction of electrons Nonpolar covalent bonds when two nonmetals in a molecule with similar or identical electronegativities pull with the same force and share the electrons equally Nonpolar molecules occur in 3 situations 1 Atoms that share are the same element 2 Bonds between C and H 3 Arrangement of atoms makes 1 atom Polar covalent bonds form polar molecules when nonmetals with different electronegativities interact resulting in an unequal sharing of electrons I39lThe atom with the higher electronegativity becomes partially negative as it pulls and holds the shared electrons close to itself HThe atom with the lower electronegativity becomes partially positive as it allows the shared electrons to be pulled away toward the other atom Polar molecules with partially positive and partially negative ends are known as Hydrogen bonds weak attractions between the partially positive end of one dipole and the partially negative end of another lHydrogen bonds are responsible for surface tension Chemical Reactions Energy and Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction has occurred every time a chemical bond is formed broken or rearranged or when electrons are transferred between two or more atoms or molecules Four Basie Types of jih lll39llll l Reaction STEM9 ioi LI Eecnmpnslmm 0 Elrgle Fireplacemam Emma e eternalii Two general forms of energy are 1 Potential energy is stored but can be released to do work at some later time 2 Kinetic energy is potential energy that has been released or set in motion to perform work All atoms have kinetic energy as they are in constant motion and the faster they move the greater that energy Energy is found in 3 forms in the human body 1Chemical 2 Electrical 3 Mechanical leach of which may be potential or kinetic depending on the location or process energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds atoms and molecules It is released in a chemical reaction often producing heat as a by product exothermic reaction EXfood as an electric charge that lets work be accomplished EX nerve impulses mechanical energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy It is the energy associated with the motion and position of an object EX working out Endergonic reactions also called a nonspontaneousreaction or an unfavorable reaction is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive and energy is absorbed Exergonic reactions where energy is released Because the reactants lose energy G decreases Gibbs free energy AG is negative under constant temperature and pressure These reactions usually do not require energy to proceed and therefore occur spontaneously Homeostasis and Types of Chemical Reactions Three fundamental processes that occur in the body to maintain homeostasis 1 breaking down molecules 2 converting the energy in food to a usable form 3 and building new molecules l are carried out by one of three basic types of chemical reactions 1 Catabolic reactions decomposition reactions occur when complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones exergonicThe general chemical notation for this reaction is AB 39AB These are usually exergonic because chemical bonds are broken 2 Exchange reactions occur when atoms molecule ions or electrons are exchanged between two chemical structures The general chemical notation for this reaction is AB CD 39AD BC 3 Oxidationreduction reactions redox reactions a special kind of exchange reaction occur when electrons and energy are exchanged instead of atoms The reactant that loses electrons is oxidized while the reactant that gains electrons is reduced Redox reactions are usually exergonic reactions capable of releasing large amounts of energy 4 Anabolic reactions synthesis reactions occur when written as a molecular equation appear to involve the exchange of parts between the two reactants An exchange reaction will occur when ions in solution form insoluble products weak electrolytes or nonelectrolytes The general chemical notation for this reaction is A B 39 AB These reactions are endergonic fueled by chemical energy Reaction Rates and Enzymes For a reaction to occur atoms must collide with enough energy overcome the repulsion of their electrons This energy required for all chemical reactions is called the activation energy Ea The following factors increase the reaction rate by either reducing the activation energy or increasing the likelihood of strong collisions between reactants 0 concentration 0 temperature 0 reactant properties 0 the presence or absence of a catalyst increasing the concentration of a reactant increases in the number of collisions between the reacting species per second and therefore increases the reaction rate At higher temperatures particles collide more frequently and with greater intensity When solids and Iiguids react increasing the surface area of the solid will increase the reaction rate A decrease in particle size causes an increase in the solid39s total surface area A catalyst is a species that speeds up a chemical reaction without being chemically changed upon completion of the reaction In other words the mass of a catalyst is the same before and after a reaction occurs properties of enzymes 0 They are all proteins which is one reason why we need protein in our diet They are all biological catalystsThey speed up a reaction without being used up this means they can be used over and over again 0 A small amount of enzyme can effect the change of a large amount of chemical The way enzymes work is affected by temperature pH and pressure They can be denatured destroyed by excessive heat 0 The reactions are reversible Enzymes are speci c that is they control only one reaction So maltase only acts on maltose sucrase on sucrose etc INU EFIT HYPOTHESIS 1 Emng changes shape EUDWVMquot i llghliii 35 substrate minds Act HE sire I w ucts BEEFElm lgiWhaling Enzymei uh lrat iEl39iEyl39l39l ll l39 ETlJEEE Fr dunl i leasing militia Eil r1 enrym complex complex antigr ellD uni enzyme lnorganic Compounds Water Acids Bases and Salts Bonds lnorganic compounds generally do not contain Carbon bonded to hydrogen and include water acids bases and salts Organic compounds are de ned as those that do contain Carbon bonded to hydrogen Water Water H20 makes up 6080 of the mass of the human body and has the several key properties vital to our existence Summarize the properties of water 0 High heat capacity 0 Universal solvent Cohesion Adhesion Neutrality 3 phases Acids and Bases lthe study of the hydrogen ion H A water molecule in a solution may break apart or dissociate into a positively charged hydrogen ion and a negatively charged hydroxide ion OH Acid pH less than 7 chemical agents that release hydrogen ions when added to water Base in aqueous solution are slippery to the touch taste bitter change the color of indicators eg turn red litmus paper blue react with acids to form salts promote certain chemicalreactions base catalysis accept protons from any proton donor pH higher than 7 The pH scale ranging from O 14 is a simple way of representing the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution and literally stands for negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration or log lHl When the pH 7 the solution is neutral where the number of hydrogen ions and base ions are equal Most body uids are slightly basic pH blood 735 745 inside cells 72 Buffer a solution that can maintain a nearly constant pH if it is diluted or if relatively small amounts of strong acids or bases are added Buffer solutions resist pH changes A buffer solution is typically made by mixing a weak acid and one of its salts OR mixing a weak base with one of its salts Salts and Electrolytes A ionic compound refers any metal cation and nonmetal anion held together by ionic bonds Salts can dissolve in water to form cations and anions called electrolytes which are capable of conducting an electrical current Organic Compounds Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins and Nucleotides Monomers and Polymers Each type of organic compound in the body carbohydrate lipid protein or nucleic acid has its own monomer or single subunit and the corresponding polymer built from those subunits a Dehydration synthesis Monomers are joined by removal of OH from one monomer and removal of H from the other at the site of bond formation L r Monomers linked by covalent bond b Hydrolysis Monomers are released by the addition of a water molecule adding OH to one monomer and H to the other lVlonomers linked by covalent bond Carbohydrates composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen function primarily as fuel in the body with some limited structural roles have from 3 to 7 carbons and are the monomers from which all carbohydrates are made The most abundant monosaccharides in the body glucose fructose sucrose lactose maltose OOOOO are formed by union of two monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis consist of many monosaccharides joined to one another by dehydration synthesis reactions Glycogen the storage polymer for glucose found mostly in skeletal muscle and liver cells Some polysaccharides are found covalently bound to either proteins or lipids lglycoproteins and glycolipids which have various functions in the body Lipids Lip39ds group of nonpolar hydrophobic molecules composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen include fats and oils Fatty acids the basic lipid monomers consisting of 4 to 20 carbon atoms which may have none one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon chain Saturated fatty acids solid at room temperature have no double bonds between carbon atoms so the carbons are quotsaturatedquot with the maximum number of hydrogen atoms Monounsaturated fatty acids generally liquid at room temperature have one double bond between two carbons in the hydrocarbon chain Polyunsaturated fatty acids liquid at room temperature have 2 or more separate double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon chain Three fatty acids linked by dehydration synthesis to a modi ed 3carbon carbohydrate glycerol form a the storage polymer for fatty acids also called a neutral fat Phospholipids are composed of a glycerol backbone two fatty acid quottailsquot and one phosphate group quotheadquot in place of the third fatty acid A molecule with a polar group the phosphate head and a nonpolar group the fatty acid tail is called Steroids are nonpolar and share a fourring hydrocarbon structure called the steroid nucleus I39lcholesterol is the steroid that forms the basis for all the other steroids in the body Proteins Proteins macromolecules that are involved in movement function as enzymes play structural roles function in the body39s defenses and can be used as fuel lTwenty different amino acids the monomers of all proteins can be linked by peptide bonds into polypeptides Peptides formed when two or more amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds as a result of dehydration synthesis Dipeptides consist of two amino acids tripeptides have three amino acids and polypeptides contain 10 or more amino acids proteins consist of one or more polypeptide chains folded into distinct structures that must be maintained to be functional There are two basic types of proteins classi ed according to their structure brous globular Fibrous proteins protein with an elongated shape provide structural support for cells and tissues There are special types of helices present in two brous proteins dkeratin and collagen Globular proteins somewhat watersoluble forming colloids in water unlike the brous or membrane proteins Each level of protein structure ermine aeide Pleated aheet x Pleated aheet alpha helia s Denaturation the disruption and possible destruction of both the secondary and tertiary structures Since denaturation reactions are not strong enough to break the peptide bonds the primary structure sequence of amino acids remains the same after a denaturation process titl liirriarglr Protein structure sequence at a Eh il ef airtime acids Seeelndary Pretein atrueture hydrdgen bending at the peptide paeklpene CELISEE the amine acids tu me true a repeating pattern Tiiihrtiargir protein etrueture threedimenaianal fdlding pattern at a pretein due to aide attain inte raetidna Quaternarjlir prdtein atruetuire preteiri eaynaleting at mere than ene amino acid attain Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Nucleotides monomers of nucleic acids so named because of their abundance in the nucleus of cells and make up our genetic material Phosphate group C Nitrogenous base Cytosine 1 Nucleotide Sugar There are two types of nitrogenous bases purines and pyrimidines Adenosine triphosphate ATP adenine attached to ribose and three phosphate groups is the main source of chemical energy in the body lATP is synthesized from adenosine diphosphate and an inorganic phosphate using energy from the oxidation of fuels such as glucose It is the potential energy in this quothighenergyquot bond that can be released to as kinetic energy to do work Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and ribonucleic acid RNA are the two main nucleic acids that together are responsible for the storage and execution of the genetic code an extremely large molecule found in the nucleus of the cell is composed of two long chains that twist around each other to form a double helix 0 DNA contains the pentose sugar deoxyribose so called because it is missing an oxygencontaining group found in ribose DNA contains the following bases adenine thymine guanine and cytosine The two stands of the double helix are held together by hydrogen bonding between the bases of each strand 0 DNA exhibits complementary base pairing where the purine Adenine always pairs with the pyrimidine T and the purine G always pairs with the pyrimidine Cytosine lDNA contains the genes that provide the recipe or code for protein synthesis the process of making every protein in the body m a single strand of nucleotides can move between the nucleus of a cell and its cytosol and is critical to the making of proteins 0 RNA contains the pentose sugar ribose RNA contains the pyrimidine uracil instead of thymine which still pairs with adenine A U 0 RNA copies the recipe for a speci c protein found in a gene on DNA a process called transcription 0 RNA is free to exit the nucleus to a location where protein synthesis occurs then proceeds to direct the making of the protein from the recipe a process called translation Chapter 3The Cell Lectures 68 lntroduction to Cells Cell metabolism the set of lifesustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms These enzymecatalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce maintain their structures and respond to their environments 0 Anabolic o Catabolic 0 oxidationreductions reactions Transport of substances passive and active transport proteins Communication signal transduction Cell reproduction meiosis and mitosis Cell Structure Plasma membrane surrounds each cell isolating its internal structures and processes from the external environment What are the functions of the plasma membrane Selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings It consists of the phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins The plasma membrane de nes the intracellular space that contains the intracellular uid ICF or cytosol and separates it from the extracellular space that contains extracellular uid lECFl Cytoplasm inside of the cell consists of both the uid cytosol and the organelles Cytosol the intracellular uid is mostly water with dissolved solutes inclusions or storage molecules and proteins and is the site of many important chemical reactions Organelles are a variety of cellular machines with very speci c functions that are suspended in the cytosol and serve to separate the potentially damaging chemical reactions from the surrounding cell structures known as compartmentalization The consists of a network of protein laments that supports the cell by creating and maintaining its shape holding the organelles in place and providing a means of protection for substances within the cell NUCLEUS The nucleus is enclosed in a phospholipid bilayer similar to the plasma membrane called the nuclear envelope 0 The nucleus contains most of the cell39s genes and is the primary location for making most of the DNA Cell Size and Diversity lcells vary widely in size and structure to enable them to better perform specialized funcUons Structure of the Plasma Membrane The Phospholipid Bilayer In order for the plasma membrane to form an effective barrier between the ECF and cytosol the molecules that make up the membrane namely the phospholipid bilayer must have two key properties lSelectively permeable polarity EliLilllliJiflLGrTl EH3 G wHill 39Eulllfpallitu ELL Pu lil tiko llr huirl l39ul I erJuuLiuIII 39Jl Lili lls 39 Fluid lilosalc lilodel Transmembrane Extracellular flu id pr tEIn Ga rbohyd ra G lycoprote re 94 F39ila rnlE n t39szauii quot 39 Wm keleton Clytuplas 11 Il Membrane proteins transmembrane proteins can span the entire plasma membrane and travel through both layers of the plasma membrane peripheral proteins are found only on one side the plasma membrane or the other Cholesterol a lipid molecule stabilizes the plasma membrane39s uid structure during temperature changes Glycolipids and glycoproteins carbohydrate bound to either lipid or protein respectively serve to identify the cell as part of the body and for cell recognition Transport Across the Plasma Membrane selectively permeable cell membrane allows certain molecules or ions to pass through it by means of active or passive transport Substances may cross the plasma membrane in several ways Three variables or factors that determine how a substance is able to move across the plasma membrane by passive or active transport 0 Concentration ChargePolarity Size Passive Transport Processes Diffusion the net passive movement of particles atoms ions or molecules from a region in which they are in higher concentration to regions of lower concentration It continues until the concentration of substances is uniform throughout Simple diffusion involves mostly nonpolar solutes like oxygen carbon dioxide lipids and hydrocarbons that are able to pass straight through the phospholipid bilayer without the need for membrane proteins Facilitated diffusion involves charged or polar solutes such as ions and glucose that cross the phospholipid bilayer with the help of a membrane protein either a carrier or channel Osmosis a passive process in which a solvent moves across a membrane from higher to lower solvent concentration Water is able to move across the plasma membrane by the following two ways methods Diffusion amp Osmosis Aquaporins Tonicity a way to compare the osmotic pressure gradient between two solutions the cytosol and ECF in the body lsotonic both uids have approximately the same concentration of solute Hypertonic The solute concentration of the ECF is higher than inside the cell meaning there are more water molecules inside the cell than outside the osmotic pressure gradient pulls water out of the cell and the cell shrinks o Hypotonic The solute concentration of the ECF is lower than inside the cell meaning there are more water molecules in the ECF than inside the cell Active transport processes require energy in the form of ATP to proceed as solutes move against their concentration gradients from higher concentration to lower concentration Both primary and secondary active transport processes use plasma membrane carrier proteins called pumps Primary active transport involves a pump in the plasma membrane that binds and transports a solute against its concentration gradient using the energy from the hydrolysis of ATP Secondary active transport uses ATP indirectly to fuel a transport pump ATP is used to create and maintain a concentration gradient one substance Moving this substance across the plasma membrane and down its concentration gradient can be harnessed to move another substances against its concentration gradient The separation of charges creates an electrical gradient known as a membrane potential that has the possibility of providing energy to do work The resting membrane potential is the value of the membrane potential when a cell is at rest and is measured in millivolts mV The value in the cytosol is negative meaning the inside of the cell is more negative than the surrounding ECF Active Transport via Vesicles using carrier proteins and channels is effective but has limitations Large polar macromolecules are too big to t so they must be transported by other means namely vesicles Vesicles are small sacs lled with large molecules too big to transport by other means Endocytosis transports ECF large molecules and whole cells into the cell Types of endocytosis are phagocytosis pinocytosis receptormediated endocytosis Exocytosis is the process where large molecules exit the cell when vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane opening into the ECF Figure 314 Cytoplasmic Organelles Organelles cellular machinery each with speci c functions vital to maintaining homeostasis lSome organelles are separated from the cytosol known as compartmentalization by a membrane such as ER golgi apparatus nucleus while others are not enclosed in a membrane such as ribosomes and centrosomes Mitochondria the power plant of the cell are membranebound organelles involved in chemical energy production providing a majority of the energy used in the cell lEach mitochondrion has its own DNA the enzymes and organelle involved in protein synthesis and the ribosome lThe mitochondion has a double bilayer structure with a smooth outer membrane and an inner membrane that is highly folded into cristae lThe matrix contains the mitochondrial DNA proteins and enzymes speci c for the breakdown of organic fuels by oxidative catabolism to produce ATP that requires oxygen Peroxisomes a membranebounded organelle use oxygen to carry out several chemical reactions that produce hydrogen peroxide H202 Ribosomes tiny granular nonmembranebound organelles where protein synthesis takes place lcomposed of a large and a small subunit each made of ribosomal proteins and ribosomal RNA rRNA Where are ribosomes found within the cell What functions do ribosomes serve in these locations They are found scattered in the cytoplasm and some are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum When the ribosomes are bound to the ER there are known as the rough endoplasmic reticulum The bound and the free ribosomes are similar in structure and are invloved in protein synthesis They assemble amino acids to form speci c proteins proteins are essential to carry out cellular activities The process of production of proteins the deoxyribonucleic acid produces mRNA by the process of DNA transcription The genetic message from the mRNA is translated into proteins during DNA translation The sequences of protein assembly during protein synthesis are speci ed in the mRNA The mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and is transported to the cytoplasm for further process of protein synthesis In the cytoplasm the two subunits of ribosomes are bound around the polymers of mRNA proteins are then synthesized with the help of transfer RNA The proteins that are synthesized by the ribosomes present in the cytoplasm are used in the cytoplasm itself The proteins produced by the bound ribosomes are transported outside the cell The Endomembrane System The organelles of the endomembrane system form vesicles that exchange proteins and other molecules The members of the system synthesize modify and package molecules produced within the cell The plasma membrane nuclear envelope and the following organelles are components of the system Endoplasmic reticulum ER a large folded phospholipid bilayer continuous with the nuclear envelope exists in two forms 0 Most proteins that enter the RER are for transport out of the cell 0 The RER packages secretory proteins into transport vesicles made of a phospholipid bilayer that is sent to the golgi apparatus for further processing 0 The RER produces membrane components for the membranebound organelles and the plasma membrane including the integral and peripheral proteins ilt synthesizes lipids phospholipids and steroids The Golgi apparatus located between the RER and the plasma membrane is a group of attened membranous sacs lled with enzymes and other molecules 0 Proteins and lipids made by the RER are further modi ed sorted and packaged for export in the Golgi apparatus 0 Products packaged in the Golgi apparatus can be secreted from the cell by exocytosis become part of the cytosol or are sent to the lysosomes Lysosomes the organelles responsible for digestion of worn out cell components or whole cells in some cases The Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton made of several types of protein laments is a dynamic structure able to change its function based on the needs of the cell Protein laments Micro laments Actin 0 Form terminal web Extend into microvilli support amp milkingquot Intermediate laments Various proteins 0 Give cell shape stiff Purely structural role MicrotubulesTubuin o Radiate from centrosomes hold organelles in place Act as railway tracksquot for organelle movement Axonemes of cilia amp agella mitotic spindles 0 Some remodel spindles some don t axonemes depending on function Cellular Extensions Microvilli 0 Plasma membrane extensions Increase absorptive surface area 15x 40X Intestinal epithelia kidney tubules Actin lament connected to terminal web Cilia 0 Every human cell has one Cell sensory function Monitors surrounding conditions Flagella Only found in sperm cells in humans 0 Identical axoneme to secondary cilia 92 Much longer and stiffer Beats in an undulating motion The Nucleus Nucleus the governing body that directs the activities of the other cellular components and largely determines the type of proteins and the rate at which the cell makes them DNA housed in the nucleus contains the code or plans called genes for nearly every protein in the body lGenes found within the DNA are executed by several different types of RNA to build a wide variety of proteins 39 Nuclear Envelope a double phospholipid bilayer surrounds and encloses the entire contents of the nucleus Nuclear pores serve to connect the nucleoplasm with the cytoplasm allowing substances to move between the two locations Chromatin consists of one extremely long DNA molecule and its associated proteins that organize and fold the molecule to conserve space Nucleosome consists of a strand of DNA coiled around a group of histone proteins that appears like a bead on a string This structural arrangement reduces the length of the strand by about onethird During periods of cell division chromatin threads coil tightly and condense into thick structures called chromosomes Identical copies of each chromosome made in preparation for cell division known as sister chromatids connect to one another at a region called the centromere Nucleoli The nucleolus plural nucleoli is a region in the nucleus responsible for the synthesis of ribosomal RNA and the assembly of ribosomes Protein Synthesis The process of manufacturing proteins from DNA blueprint using RNA is called translation The production of a protein from a speci c gene is called gene expression the rst step of gene expression in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA mRNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins lnItranslation messengerIRNAImRNA produced by transcription from DNA is decoded by a ribosome to produce a speci c amino acid chain or polypeptide DNA39transcription39 mRNA 39 translation39 Protein Genes and the Genetic Code Gene a long chain of nucleotides is a speci c segment of DNA that determines the sequence of amino acids in a protein It takes several combinations of 3 nucleotides called a triplet to represent the 20 different amino acids Each amino acid is represented by one or more of these triplets During transcription each DNA triplet is transcribed into a complementary RNA copy a 3nucleotide sequence of mRNA called a codon During translation at a ribosome each codon is paired with a complementary tRNA called an anticodon with its speci c amino acid attached it can be added to the growing peptide chain The genetic code a list of which amino acids is speci ed by each possible DNA triplet Transcription the process of making mRNA copies of DNA called a transcript which can exit the nucleus through a nuclear pore This addresses the issue of getting the code for a protein into the cytoplasm where the ribosomes are found lThe transcript is built with the help of the enzyme RNA polymerase which binds to a gene and brings in complementary nucleotides linking them together to form mRNA Transcription the process of making mRNA proceeds in 3 general stages initiation chain elongation and termination Translation occurs at the ribosome where nucleotide sequence of mRNA is translated into an amino acid sequence with the help of transfer RNA tRNA tRNA made in the nucleus picks up speci c amino acids and transfers them to a ribosome The anticodon on one end of tRNA is a sequence of 3 nucleotides complementary to the codon on mRNA The other end of tRNA carries a speci c amino acid molecule Translation is organized into 3 stages lThe newly formed polypeptide must be modi ed folded properly and sometimes combined with other polypeptides to become a fully functional protein The Cell Cycle 1A TlhECEAII ineublecheelzeWhe an l 41quot duplicated ehrernnenrnes fer quot errer making any needed I Ifquot I repairs H t6jgig lnterphase a period of growth and a 1 preparation for cell division includes the vacemi i it I follownng 3 subphases 61 S and 62 the period where a cell performs Ehmmm mie its normal daily metabolic activities Production of mmp caled new organelles cytoskeleton and other vital proteins highlight this phase r V is the period where synthesis quot Ci39mic39f imt replication occurs 1 A a Chromatin unwinds and each base pair is duplicated using an existing DNA strand as a template to build a new strand DNA replication proceeds in the following steps DNA strands are separated by the enzyme helicase lThe enzyme RNA primase builds an RNA primer on the exposed DNA strands lThe enzyme DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the RNA primer which is necessary as the enzyme is only able to make add to an existing chain of nucleotides DNA polymerase proceeds in opposite directions along each strand as helicase separates them The RNA primers are eventually removed and replaced with DNA nucleotides DFinally two identical double helices each with one old and one new strand are made during semiconservative replication The cell then proceeds into 62 phase is another period of cellular growth where proteins required for cell division are produced and centrioles are duplicated However at the beginning of mitosis the nucleus and nucleolus disappear and the chromosomes become apparent Mitosis the division of genetic material proceeds in the following 4 stages centrosome Interphase orchrorrlosome 2 DNA is copied Prophase Chromosomes pair up Metaphase Chromosomes line up at equator 4 7 mitotic spindle Anaphase Sister chrolmatids pulled apart l 1 4n Telophasesa Cytokinesis Cell piniches In the middle 0 0 Two identical daughter cells 2n 2h diploid 4n tetraploid During the cell cycle checkpoints act as stopgo signals for the cell The cell responds to a variety of extracellular signals that determine if the conditions are for division are unfavorable The cell may not proceed with division if the following conditions are not favorable Cells that cannot pass through the checkpoints and cannot be repaired undergo a process of programmed cell death called apoptosis CLICKER QUESTIONS 0Group of cells working together to complete common function oTissue oAll living organisms composed of 1 or more cells oTrue oWhich statement is false o feedback loops work in H feedback loop fashion 0A gradient exists when oAll temperature concentration pressure oNot one of 7 characteristics oAbility to conduct o4 major elements in human body oC O N H 0lsotope oSame atomic different mass oLithium atomic 3 mass 7 o3 protons 4 neutrons 3 electrons 0Muddy sample oSuspension oMolecule of Hyd Able to form bonds with water oFalse 0CHO 10202 oLipid oCatabolic reactions involve dehydration sythesis oFalse oCholesterol is a type of oLipid oNot a part of nucleotide oAmino acid o3 main components of the cell oplasma membrane cytoplasm nucleus oDifference between active passive transport oEnergy oNaK pump o2K in 3 Na out onot part of endomembrane system ocilia osecondary active transport oglucose symporter The Compound Light Microscope o 2 different types of lenses 0 Ocular eyepieces 0 Objective 4x 10x 40x 100x 0 Requires a light source 4 Parfocal Dru clquot 1539 HIV HEE rf Hymanrm H JEEEHQIZQ r n a 7 r 7 il39T gurine IE was ELIE 5mm Emma a jjgi Tmi Hugh c ans Ianum if E tun4 JLgl Fine a lg i iiE 39li o E zmmz rang IIu ln1rrrl h l o Ocular lens 0 Head Objective lens 0 Regular and oil immersion Stage and stage clips Arm Condenser Coarse adjustment Fine adjustment Substage light o Iris diaphragm Magni cation o Magni cation of ocular lens ALWAYS 10x 0 Total magni cation multiply ocular X objective 0 EX 4x lens 40x Image 0 Appears upside down and inverted Working distance distance between specimen and bottom of lens 0 Field diameter necessary to estimate size of objects viewed Depth of eld when looking at a largelayered object all may not be in focus at the same time must rotate through the depth of focus with ne adjustment knob Care 0 Carry with one hand on the arm and one supporting the base 0 Keep cord wrapped 0 Always begin on lowest power objective 0 Clean lens with lens paper Properties of water 0 Universal Solvent High heat of vaporization High heat capacity Reactivity Adhesion Cohesion Hydrogen Bond Forms when slightly positive charge on a hydrogen atom of one polar molecule is weakly attracted to the slightly negative charge of an atom of another polar molecule lresponsible for the properties of water lBody s major transport w aMeasure of the concentration of hydrogen ions 0 Water breaks into H and OH ions LPH3909 H Acids HgtOH ljrelease H increase H of the solution Bases HltOH ljrelease OH accept H decrease solution s H neutral pH of 7 Salts when acids and bases mix 0 contain cations and anions other than H and OH EX NaCl in H20 Buffers aStabilize pH aCan act as an acid OR a base Basic Components of a cell 1Pasma cell membrane aSurrounds cell de nes boundaries bMade of proteins and lipids cSelectively permeable 2Cytoplasm 3Nucleus PLASMA MEMBRANE TRANSPORT 1 Passive substances cross the membrane without the cell expending any energy 2 Active requires the cell to expend energy Passive o Osmosis special type of diffusion across a selectively permeable membrane 0 Movement of a solvent from an area of higher water concentration lower solute concentration to an area of lower water concentration higher solute concentration Gymson Moooomo EmtmsEM Plasma momhrano Endooy39lilo FEEIEIE Foroogioomo Hu l ug Enougho woolollo Huol ooloo Eoigi opporotuo lnolooiooo v 7 Hutoohontlnon Rough onooploomlo 7 ir r rt i culum I Hiltoooomoo In roo Smooth onooploom lo roiioolum r Hilbooomoo bounoj Sunnide Ti uElLLE 12 Editarydilit tell dmwmentd Inning ml in nalEr tm dm Membrane Edzrnpungnt Fundinnx HDEIEME iduble Erweldde39 i hrdmd drmed end t i in idrmal idn upm39ngg mum nuclear Hunladlud 355th dl rihdanmg Eutiunits re 5 i luflEdr lar nlna Structural Suppan Eih l Hana Cilml l i limit and Fratain Eyn thegig p rdlein Eddemdmhrarm Ey mm Emagli Eingle E n39ldi recentam Fdr entry d39i ElEtlE l pinElna dammit df bran d1 i n3 5 I35 Elibddn n1 Ed a ncialEd F39ml ii39i Eyntheraia and 39ril iIiEEElfl Enlgi appumn Singla Enn lains FE can tan Fur nrddu d F mugh EH Sla cl dli Hallie l39iE39IZl E i Eternal F39In lEin prnte ding 33 g lngylatin n Emdnm EH din glue mntaina enzymea fdr Helmdrh di brandling 53 5 Lipid Sigri I39l l lEEiE 5y nth Edizin 3 pl nsph lip id 5 EnEirm E5 Fdr Synth E Eifl n g lipid LFE SMH39EE Sinai e Edn la ins p rdldn A id lwdm 5343 it did IyE E Dige tid r1 a rid r39E Ey lin a nu m n5 liyd rd Iiigig rEd i 39n 5 Permisamds Singl E tdri39la in 5 EngirrnEIE in at cats large di d alinn drf fa Ely acids tranapnrttrs fur EElEE EEd dxidaiidn reaciidns Elih li l dr miller I39rl crriil nrdletule u C mla Epmc s p mxid tdmpd unda Vail wilds ing I E mum in 5 tm n 5 Cil l EEErE Elia FlE d pigme nlSi nil 39li39aTiE E cnlnral inn i at FE g3 id EEIE L IE d 39I n l tulea mmdhy drate a wane i di di d i 5 ca rt d hyd ralei ln n wateri nr tnxin MinimumElvis Chil lT pl TEE Eytdslmlemri Plasma mam bland Bundle inner ddntgina EnlymES inr MP prnduclidn Bumble plug merribrdnelaun d 535 in interim Hnne E ii IEld Ednldind 39Lran ndit and Emmi pr iding Enaym 95 that natalyze dxi El Ell39l l39lTE dd 1 i an 39i39E EIJL39EiU 15 MPquot gimme 5 i5 Fling en 5 En awn 35 that midliprze middlidnrdduclidn FEE tidns ittin lamentg 39nt rmediata mmm Minn tubule s Piidanlidlidid him5rd with lra I IE39p i39l39 and FE DE ptdr p rdtein ATP produ idn Prndlictidn iJF MP and Sugar did run l i y lh E El Etrutlmal Supddrt 39mdarernen t nF ITlaEl lEllelSEr in 5de SpE lEE mmrernenl nf whale Ell SE lectqu pe FITTIE all it rnain tafi 15 intracellular E nu i mm m e rut Ell wall Hnne Ca FlIiElh39gl ElrEltE 39FIlJETE running ihmugh marbdhydraie JF39 drakesir matrix Praia dim and Ellliiiil Suppd E 39l39l Pearsdn Edmatidn Ind 4 Basic types of tissues EptheHal Connchve Muscular Nervous All have 2 main components 1 Cells unique to type 2 Extracellular Matrix ECM Epithelial Tssues Supported by connective tissue beneath the basement membrane Avascular no blood supply Regeneration a lot of friction need to regenerate if well nou shed FuncUons 0 Protection 0 Absorption o Filtration o Excretion o Secretion Classi cation 0 Simplelj one layer of cells attached to the basement membrane 0 Strati ed 2 or more layers of cells Shape o Squamous at and scale like 0 Cuboidal cube shaped or squared o Columnar Column shaped and tall Connective tissue Protects supports and binds together tissues of the body Highly vascularized except for cartilage Typically have a few cells extensive nonliving matrix 3 main types of protein bers 0 collagen bers provide tensile strength o elastic bers gives tissues distensible properties 0 reticular bers network for support 0 Types 0 Connective tissue proper I Loose areolar walls of hollow organs i Dense 0 Regular tendons and ligaments o Irregular deep layer of thick skin around joints u Reticular spleen lymph nodes bone liver n Adipose primarily adipocytes o Cartilage 0 Bone 0 Blood 0 Connective tissue proper o Widely distributed 0 Consists of broblasts that secrete ECM and is lled with many ber types 0 Highly vascularized Cartilage o Tough exible Chondrocytes in lacunae Avascular 3 types 0 HyaHne o Fibrocartilage 0 Elastic cartilage Bone 0 Hard calci ed matrix 0 Many collagen bers osteocytes in lacunae vascularized Blood 0 Within vessels 0 Red and white found in plasma Transport
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