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UTEP / Science / CS 1306 / Which isolation is the prevention of interbreeding due to differences

Which isolation is the prevention of interbreeding due to differences

Which isolation is the prevention of interbreeding due to differences

Description

School: University of Texas at El Paso
Department: Science
Course: Organismal Biology
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Biology, Organismal Biology, and bio1306
Cost: 25
Name: Organismal Biology Week 3 Notes
Description: Notes from 2/8/2016 & 2/10/2016. From chapter 17-19
Uploaded: 02/14/2016
4 Pages 38 Views 4 Unlocks
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Organismal Biology


Which isolation is the prevention of interbreeding due to differences in physiology?



Dr. Carl S. Lieb

Weekly Notes 3

2/8/2016-2/10/2016

Chapter 17: Speciation

Pre-mating Isolating  Mechanism

Post-mating Isolating  Mechanism

Biological Species  

Concept

Lineage Species Concept  Sympatric Species

Allopatric Species

Parapatric Species

Binomial system of  nomenclature for species  

Allopatric Speciation

Parapatric Speciation Sympatric Speciation

Before mating; courtship displays or chemosensory signaling After mating; hybrid sterility Don't forget about the age old question of How do you convert prefixes?

Uses a standard of reproductive isolation (Ex: sympatric)


How do you take care of a western banded gecko?



Subjective. Asks: are the two populations on separate  evolutionary causes that they can be said to be from separate  lineages? (Ex: allopatric, parapatric) If you want to learn more check out When did we begin to see the emergence of written philosophies of child rearing in europe?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the pros and cons of licensing?
If you want to learn more check out Define copyright act of 1976.

Occur in the same area and don’t mate (isolating  mechanisms). If they mate, the hybrids have reduced fitness.  Ex: Great Plains and Texas Rat Snake

Separated by a geographic space. Ex: Texas banded gecko,  Western banded gecko

Species don’t overlap but are adjacent to each other,  hybridization areas may form

Naming system invented by Carl Linnaeus (1700’s). Uses two  Latin words for species.

First word: genus

Second word: specific epithet  

Ex: Canis latrans

Gradualistic; occurs by a physical barrier. When the barrier is  removed, the descendants contact and speciation occurs. Produces allopatric lineages but can become sympatric.


Would separated populations of squirrels be able to interbreed if the barrier was no longer there?



Produces parapatric lineages; hybridization zones may form

1) By polyploidization: the duplication of chromosomes  within individuals. Tendency in plant population for  complete nondisjunction of chromosomes.If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of nurture in psychology?

Organismal Biology

Dr. Carl S. Lieb

Weekly Notes 3

2/8/2016-2/10/2016

Chapter 19:  

Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes

Metabolic Types Anaerobes

Obligate Anaerobes Facultative anaerobes

Aerotolerant anaerobes  Aerobes

Obligate aerobes

Nutrition Types

Photoautotrophs

Phtoheterotrophs Don't forget about the age old question of What does it mean for a quality to be innate?

2 ways:  

∙ Autopolyploidy: chromosome duplication in a single  species  

∙ Allopolyploidy: combining of the chromosomes of  two different species

2) Host-plant(parasite) Specificity Divergence: results  in a second species. Ex: fruit flies on hawthorn fruits  vs. apple fruits

Bacteria/ Archaea

Don’t use oxygen as an electron acceptor for oxidative  metabolism

Oxygen will kill them

Can shift between aerobic and anaerobic; may use  fermentation for ATP production

Don’t use oxidative metabolism but oxygen won’t kill them Use oxygen for metabolism

NEED oxygen for survival

Perform photosynthesis. Ex: Cyanobacteria uses chlorophyll a  & releases O2. Bacteriachlorophyll release sulfur.

Use light energy as a source but obtain carbon form other  organisms. Ex: purple nonsulfur bacteria use phosphorylation  for ATP production.

Organismal Biology

Dr. Carl S. Lieb

Weekly Notes 3

2/8/2016-2/10/2016

Chemoautotrophs

Chemoheterotrophs

Bacteria important to  Nitrogen Cycle

Dentrifiers

Nitrogen fixers

Nitrifiers

Multicellularity

Biofilms

Quorum Sensing

Bacterial Lineages  Known

Low GC Gram Positives

High GC Gram Positives  (Actinobacteria)

Hyperthermophilic  Bacteria

Hadobacteria

Get energy by oxidizing inorganic compounds. They oxidize  ammonia and nitrate ions to form nitrate, hydrogen, sulfate,  sulfur (ex: Archaea)

Obtain energy & carbon from organic compounds

Process nitrate under anaerobic conditions to release nitrogen  Convert nitrogen into ammonia  

Oxidize ammonia into nitrate

Communities of different prokaryote species that stick to a  surface and collect more species. Ex: Stromatolites cyanobacteria biofilms

Interaction between individuals in a biofilm that promotes  growth, sustainability, & antibiotic resistance  

Low guanine/cytosine(GC) to adenine/thymine(AT) ratio in  DNA. May be gram negative without a cell wall Endospores: heat/desiccation resistant structures  w/spore coat which survive because they’re dormant.  Ex: bacillus anthacis

High guanine/cytosine ratio. Constitutes most antibiotics &  pathogens (Ex: mycobacterium tuberculosis)

Heat loving bacteria and archaea that occur near volcanic  vents, and all hot environments

Live in very cold/hot habitats. Ex: Thermus aquaticus  Discovered in 1960’s in Yellowstone.

Organismal Biology

Dr. Carl S. Lieb

Weekly Notes 3

2/8/2016-2/10/2016 Cyanobacteria

Spirochetes

Chalmydias

Proteobacteria (purple  bacteria)

Archaea

Extreme halophiles

Bacteria responsible for the oxygen revolution.  Photoautotrophs that use chlorophyll a. Types: 1. Vegetative: grow by binary fission

2. Spores: used for colonation growth

3. Heterocysts: used for nitrogen fixation which led to  oxygen revolution 3 billion years ago

Gram negative, motile. Chemoheterotrophic, have axial  filament and rotate. Includes pathogens, parasites, and some  free living

Gram negative cocci that only live as parasites. Some are  pathogens

Their common ancestor was photoautotrophic. Includes  nitrogen fixing, pathogens, non-pathogenic and free living.

Live in extreme environments  

1. Nanoarcheota

2. Euryarcheota- acidophilic/thermophilic. Some are  methanogens.

3. Crenarcheota

4. Korarcheota

5. Thaumarcheota

Contain pink pigments and are found in salty environments.

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