Psychology 100: Midterm 1 Study Guide
Psychology 100: Midterm 1 Study Guide PSYC 100
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Wang on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 100 at University of Southern California taught by Ann Renken in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 308 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Southern California.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Psychology 100: Midterm 1 Study Guide Dr. Ann Renken Highlig = Important Concept Highlig = Important People Highlig = Important Term Chapter 1 Page 1 Chapter 2 Page 5 Chapter 3 Page 9 Chapter 4 Page 15 Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology Section 1.1 What is Psychological Science? 1. Psychological science is the study, through researcmind, braiand behavior. a. Mind: The mental activity of the person. Pertains to thought, memories, and feelings. b. Brain: The mental activity that results from biological processes within the brain. c. Behavior: haracteristic studied through observable actions Questions that psychologists often ask: a. What do people do? (Interactions/ Actions) b. What is it like to be us? (Mentality Getting into someone’s mind) Therapies that did more harm than good: a Crisis Debriefing: Talking about a traumatic event over and over again with a group of people right after the occurrence of the event. Later on, this actually led to more cases of posttraumatic stress disorder. Therapeutic Touch: Emphasis on fixing the “biofield” around the patient. Mostly placebo. Rebirth: Forcing a child to be “reborn again” by artificially creating the environment of giving birth by wrapping the child in cloth to stimulate an actual delivery This was lethal as often the child would be wrapped so tightly he/she would suffocate. Section 1.2 What are the Scientific Foundations of Psychology? 1. The roots of psychology stem from ancient philosophy and medicine. 2. Commonly debated questions at the root of psychology is… Page 1 a. Nature vs Nurture Debate: “Are psychological characteristics innate (nature) or acquired through experience (nurture)? Modern View: How much of a trait is genetic? b. Mind/ Body Problem: “Are mind and body separate, or is the mind the physical brain’s subjective experience” Modern view: Mind is viewed as a level of analysis of the nervous system Mindfulness training Placebo and Nocebo Effects *Nocebo Negative result from using a drug/ opposite effect of placebo The Many Forms of Psychology: Structuralism: Wilhelm Wundt Based on the concept that conscious experience can be broken down into basic components. Laid the groundwork for how to understand mind and “breaking down the mind into parts” andeveloped the first experimental lab “Trying to dissect the world around us into its elements and parts” basic processing Performed experiments like seeing how long simple and complex mental tasks took. Introspective Method “Self Reflection” Edward Titchener Studied elements of consciousness, a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences. Wanted to develop a psychological periodic table Didn’t work because of consistency issues with test subjects. Functionalism: William Jones Evolutionary Theory: “How does the mind evolve and help us survive?” Addresses the purpose of behavior. How the brain or mind helps humans function or adapt Gestalt Psychology: Max Wertheimer Seeks to describe the whole experience, does not focus on the sum of its parts but rather a visual perception. Contested against structuralism Believed that in a split second, people can make a quick judgement/perception Page 2 Holistic thought processing that emphasized patterns and context in learning Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud Used FreeAssociation to reveal things in order to access the subconsciousness. Major Themes: Unconscious influences Early Life as formative Behaviorism: Ivan PavlovFirst Founder John Watson Conducted the “Little Albert” test,uperant conditioningto scare the shit out of a child whenever he saw something white B.F. SkinneModeling/shaping behavior, but mostly conducted animal research. Emphasizes environmental forces in producing behavior Associative Learning Reinforcement and Punishment (Used in Operant Conditioning) Cognitive Revolution: “Return to the Mind” Focuses on how thoughts influence behavior and studies neutral mechanisms underlying thoughts, learning and memory. How people think, remember things, and make decisions What prompted? Evidence of learning without environmental influence analogy to computers Cognitive areas include memory and language Social Psychology: Focuses on situations and how interactions shape people. Attitudes, relationships, influences Conformation versus Obedience Psychological Science Now Crosses Four Levels of Analysis: 1. ) Biological Level: a. Most basic level, which part of the brain is active b. animal research, brain imaging c. How the physical body (brain) contributes to mind and behavior Neurotransmitter hormones, animal, and drug studies Genetics gene mechanisms, heritability twin and adoption studies Page 3 Nurture vs Nature 2. )Individual Level: a. Personality, gender development, age groups, selfconcept b. Perception/Cognition: Thinking, decision making, language, memory, seeing, and hearing. c. How differences in personality and in mental processes affect perception d. Behavior: Observable, action responses, physical movements 3.) Social Level: a. Interpersonal Behavior: Group relationships, persuasion, influence, workplace b. Social Cognition: Attitudes, stereotypes, perceptions c. How group contexts affect both interactions and individual influences on one another. 4.) Cultural Level: a. Thoughts, actions, behaviors in different societies and cultural groups b. norms, beliefs, values, symbols, ethnicity c. How individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and actions differ across culture Page 4 Chapter 2 : Research Methods Section 2.1 How is the Scientific Method Used in Psychological Research? Ethics in Research: Balance Scientific Progress with Protecting People i. ThInstitutional Review Board: Application Process: Risk/Benefit Ratio Security of Data Informed Consent Research Ethics Training Followup ii. Two Required Steps to Inform Participants after experiment: Dehoaxing Desensitizing Random Sampling: Each member of the sample pool has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample Selection Bias is the unintended difference between participants in different groups. Key Principles of the Scientific Method: Connectivity Connecting to past studies Relevancy, what works/doesn’t Replication To make sure data samples are same throughout Peer Review Reviews, References, Journal Publications Bias: To publish only significant differences won’t publish if nothing changed Page 5 “FileDrawer Problem” When someone is trying to replicate an experiment, but fails and then declares the experiment as inadequate after only a few trials. Sample Size (#) and Statistical Fluke (Error in # Stats) Evaluating Research Tools: Reliability Consistency Validity Meaningfulness Consistent does not mean reliable Description informs psychologists how, when, where, and how often a phenomenon occurs Three Types of Validity for Good Research Qualifications: 1. External Concerns cognitive psychology Do the results generalize… To a broader group of people? Does it apply to everyday life? A study’s findings can be generalized ex: Improvements do not apply to all populations claimed ex: The gains in task performance don’t predict gains in realworld cognition nternal Is there experimental control? Only true experiments have internal validity A study’s results are due to the independent variable rather than to confounds ex: Surveys of users indicate that they feel mentally sharper Construct Does the research gets at what it is supposed to do? Variables measure what they claim to measure ex: The tasks do not train intelligence, as intended but train Page 6 performance on the tasks The six steps in the scientific method for conducting research: 1. Form a hypothesis 2. Conduct a Literature Review 3. Design a Study 4. Conduct the Study 5. Analyze the Data 6. Report the Results 2.2. What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research? Naturalistic Observation: Discrete, better in external validity Frequencies with a behavioral checklist qualitative notes (Open, not constrained by a checklist, but downside is that there is too much detail and it isn’t focused on one particular subject. Record time or measure Participant Observation: Researcher joins the study group in secret Covert/Overt Study Correlational Research: a. Illusory Correlation: Just because two things seem to go together, doesn’t mean that they really do b. Spurious Correlation: Random Statistical Correlation Why correlation does not equal causation: i. The Directionality Problem (Selfesteem level and frequently exercising) ii. Third Variable Problem/Confound (Number of leaves on the ground and commute time) Two Types of Stats: a. Descriptive Stats: What the data looks like Mean> Average Median>Middle Number Mode> Most Frequent NUmber ***Median and Mode are not affected by extreme statistics b. Inferential Stats: Analyzing results and comparing it to a larger population Page 7 How statistically significant? *0.05% TScore = Statistically Value Terms to know for Chapter 2: The Hawthorne effecis a phenomenon where people improve or change their behavior when they know they are under observation. Experimental grouThe people who receive some level of the independent variable Control groue people who receive none of the indepriable, to serve as a comparison Dependent variable he measured variable in the experiment Operational definitiothe quantifiable description of a variable, a definition that qualifies (describes) and quantifies (measures) a variable so the variable can be understood objectively. Independent variablethe manipulated variable, or the variable that gets manipulated in a research study hypothesis a testable prediction, derived from a theory scientific methodthesystematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena Occam’s Razor Law of parsimony. Less Assumptions = More Accurate Theorya model of interconnected ideas that explain observations Research The process of data collection Reliabili A study’s measurements are consistent over time. Accuracy Errors do not occur while measuring data. Mean: The average of a set of numbers Median: The exact middle of a set of values Mode: the most frequently occuring value Page 8 Standard Deviation: Measure of how far each value is on average from the mean Chapter 3: Biology and Behavior Chapter Objectives: Name, identify on diagram, and discuss the function of…. a. A gyrus (Bumps, foldings) versussulcus (fissure, grooves) b. The longitudinal, central and lateral fissurs, and th corpus callosum (Divides and connects the two hemispheres) The Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex: Frontal Lobe (Control of Motor Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Broca’s Area) Parietal Lobe(Somatosensory cortex, Association Areas) Occipital Lobe (Primary visual cortex, destination and function of the what and where pathways) Temporal Lobe (superior, medial, and inferior temporal gyri, and auditory, memory and object recognition areas within The Cerebellum and Medulla Know the Names and functions of the Basal Ganglia and Limbic System structures Page 9 *Notes from Class* Page 10 FThe Primary Visual Cortex: (Inside the Occipital L Looking for basic stimuli G Ventral Stream:Object recognition, takes place along the inferior temporal lobe. Dorsal Stream:Recognition of objects in space and guidance of actions H Fusiform (Part of the Ventral Stream) , recognition of faces I Inferior Temporal Lobe J Medial Temporal Lobe: On the outside cortex level somantic knowledge/ memory (immediate memory) The ippocampus Storing memory K Superior Temporal Lobe: Auditory Cortex, basic hearing analysis Page 11 L Cerebellu(Balance/Coordination), Highly automated tasks W Wernicke's Ar (Speech Comprehension) , Also part of the Superior Temporal Lobe The Limbic System: Thalamus:Sensory Relay Amygdala Fear Related Center Hypothalamus:Desire hormone, motivation Hippocampus:ew Memory Formation (Longterm) Basal Ganglialeasure/ Reward Related Actions Voluntary movement Page 12 Communication Pathway: Presynaptic NeuronsSending Postsynaptic NeuronsReceiving Two Types: “Resting Potential” When not active neurons have a negative charge “Action Potential” sending a chemical signal down axon. Movement of charged Sodium and Potassium ions/molecules change the charge of the environment (Polarization) Resting 70 mV Threshold 55 mV “Ligand” Any molecule that can affect a receptor site What triggers action potential? Neuron research “threshold” Voltagegated sodium channels open Propagation down axon Neurotransmitter is released Glial Cells:10x more than neurons, helps in support/cleanup/neural migration/forms myelin/facilitates neural communication. Cycle of a Neurotransmitter 1. Close up at the synapse 2. Synaptic Vesicles 3. Release into Synaptic Cleft Page 13 4. Binding at the receptor sites 5. Reuptake 6. Breakdown of neurotransmitter by enzymes. *Calcium helps move the neurotransmitter Mechanism of Drug Potential: Agnostic Creating an increase in the normal activity of a neurotransmitter, more neurotransmitter available. Some drugs can adjust calcium levels to be more active Reuptake levels are increased as well Drug mimics the same shape as natural neurotransmitter so that it can bind to receptors, activating/increasing the neurotransmitter’s effect. Antagonist Creating a decrease in the normal neurotransmitter activity. Creates enzymes to destroy neurotransmitter Can mimic the neurotransmitter and bind to the receptor and won’t allow the neurotransmitter to bind to it. Since there is a decrease in the number of neurotransmitter, there is also less vesicles and less number of neurotransmitters in them. Page 14 Chapter 4: Consciousness Section 4.1: What is Consciousness? How much are we really aware of? Inattentional Blindness: Failing to notice objects/processes when not diverting direct attention to it Priming: The situation influences our perceptions, thoughts, or actions without our own awareness Behavior Priming (“Walking old” when talking about old people) / Perception Priming (Ratman) Sleep and Dreaming: Deep to shallow cycle (90 minutes) “Slow Wave Sleep” Deep stages of sleep REM (Rapid eye movement) Dreaming/usually later in the sleep cycle, but close to the awakeness stage *Common for people to get less and less sleepy the older they get *During REM Stage of Sleep, the brain is very active/awake. Characteristics of REM Sleep: Sleepwalking/talking is done in the deep stages of sleeping. Low amplitude, high frequency wave lengths Vivid internal sensations Motor activity of extremities is nonexistent Frequent and rapid movement of the eyes (REM) Repetitive and thoughts that don’t make sense Dream Theories: Freud: he Psychoanalytic View Dream are seen as wish fulfillment Two levels of dream content Page 15 Manifest Content (Part of dream that is remembered) Latent Content (Hidden, true meaning of the dream) Opposing Theory: Activation Synthesis Hypothesis: The physiological processes of the brain cause dreams. Section 4.4: How do Drugs Affect Consciousness? Tolerance: Needing more of the drug to get the desired effect. Increased use is a theme of substantial abuse disorder. At the Physiology level: a. Downregulation of receptors b. Less synthesis of natural neurotransmitters/receptors Withdraw: Symptoms will be of the opposite effect of the drug The natural balance is broken, dysfunctional (i.e. For Caffeine/Cocaine that had the effect of concentration, someone going through withdrawal will have a feeling of poor concentration ) Alcohol Withdrawal> Agitation/High Blood Pressure Heroin Withdrawal> Subjective Pain, sweating, GI Distress. Addiction: Risk factors and Environmental Influences Impulsivity, sensationseeking, negative emotions Stress, exposure to use. Page 16 What we think we are doing: Dividing Attention What we are really doing: Task Switching *(We can only focus on one thing at a time (i.e. having an intense conversation in the car can be very dangerous) Research: Multitasking causes a stress response which disrupts “flow”, the feeling of getting lost in the moment of a task. This is not good for retaining information. Page 17 Name Description Glutamate Excitatory Involved in Learning and memory Too much glutamate can be toxic Forming long term memory GABA (GammaAminobutyric Acid) Inhibitory Important in… Preventing Seizures (GABA activity tends to curb seizures Emotion and behavioral regulation Selective Attention GABA Drug Can decrease anxiety *Too much will shut down body functions *Delicate balance between inhibitory and excitatory GABA hyperpolarizes neurons, lets in Chloride, which leads to action potential GABA levels increased by Benzodiazepines (Xanox), which is an Antidepression drug. Alcohol, anticonvulsants Serotonin Controls: Mood and Impulse , Feeling content, satiety (Feeling Full, feeling not empty), sleep. *Target of a lot of drugs. Norepinephrine “Fight or Flight” Arousal and attention (Sympathetic Nervous System activity) Increased by: Selective norepinephrine, reuptake, SSRIs (Selective serotonin Reuptake inhibitors) Antidepressant Drugs Dopamine Motor Control Award Center LDOPA > Parkinson's Disease Methamphetamine “Antipsychotic” Breaks from reality, Page 18 hallucinogens~Schizophrenic Acetylcholine Stimulates cortex, memory areas Key factor in Alzheimer’s disease Also affected by nicotine increase At Neuromuscular junction, Botox Blocks the neuroreceptor Also in the Parasympathetic System. *Alzheimer’s patients have decay of hippocampus. Endorphins Inhibitory> Body’s natural painkiller *Codeine, morphine, heroin Some Effects… Reduce subjective experience of pain Euphoria Cough Suppression Reduced Suppression Slowed Respiration/Heartbeat Constricted Pupils Caffeine Inhibitory: Blocks Adenosine *Adenosine accumulates over the day and makes people tired, sleeping gets rid of adenosine MDMA (Ecstasy) Stimulant and Hallucinogen Creates a dopamine burst > Norepinephrine and dopamine share a relationship When one is boosted, the other is boosted as well. *People who used during adolescent years have higher risk of impairments/brain damage at older ages. Marijuana THC a cts on “cannabinoid” receptors Blocks memory/pain Slower reaction time Increase Hunger Classified as a Hallucinogenic Drug. Page 19 Please let me know if you have any questions! Good Luck! Michael Page 20
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