Psychology 100:Midterm 1 Study Guide Dr. Ann Renken
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Chapter 1 Page 1
Chapter 2 Page 5
Chapter 3 Page 9
Chapter 4 Page 15
Chapter 1:The Science of Psychology
Section 1.1 What is Psychological Science?
1. Psychological science is the study, through research, of the mind, brain, and behavior. a. Mind: The mental activity of the person. Pertains to thought, memories, and feelings. We also discuss several other topics like What is social identity?
b. Brain: The mental activity that results from biological processes within the brain. c. Behavior:Characteristic studied through observable actions
2. Questions that psychologists often ask:
a. What do people do? (Interactions/ Actions)
b. What is it like to be us? (Mentality Getting into someone’s mind)
3. Therapies that did more harm than good:
a. Crisis Debriefing:
Talking about a traumatic event over and over again with a group of
people right after the occurrence of the event.
Later on, this actually led to more cases of posttraumatic stress disorder. b. Therapeutic Touch:
Emphasis on fixing the “biofield” around the patient. Mostly placebo.
Forcing a child to be “reborn again” by artificially creating the environment of giving birth by wrapping the child in cloth to stimulate an actual delivery This was lethal as often the child would be wrapped so tightly he/she would suffocate.
Don't forget about the age old question of What did the knights of labor do?
Section 1.2 What are the Scientific Foundations of Psychology? 1. The roots of psychology stem from ancient philosophy and medicine. 2. Commonly debated questions at the root of psychology is… We also discuss several other topics like What is calyx?
a. Nature vs Nurture Debate:
“Are psychological characteristics innate (nature) or acquired through experience (nurture)? We also discuss several other topics like Who was not in the holy alliance?
Modern View: How much of a trait is genetic?
b. Mind/ Body Problem: If you want to learn more check out Why are some people in the us uninsured?
“Are mind and body separate, or is the mind the physical brain’s subjective experience” We also discuss several other topics like How many centuries did the roman empire endure?
Modern view: Mind is viewed as a level of analysis of the nervous system Mindfulness training
Placebo and Nocebo Effects
*Nocebo Negative result from using a drug/ opposite effect of placebo
The Many Forms of Psychology:
Based on the concept that conscious experience can be broken down into basic components.
Laid the groundwork for how to understand mind and “breaking down the mind into parts” and developed the first experimental lab
“Trying to dissect the world around us into its elements and parts” basic processing
Performed experiments like seeing how long simple and complex mental tasks took.
Introspective Method “Self Reflection”
Studied elements of consciousness, a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences.
Wanted to develop a psychological periodic table
Didn’t work because of consistency issues with test subjects.
Evolutionary Theory: “How does the mind evolve and help us survive?” Addresses the purpose of behavior.
How the brain or mind helps humans function or adapt
Seeks to describe the whole experience, does not focus on the sum of its parts but rather a visual perception.
Contested against structuralism
Believed that in a split second, people can make a quick
Holistic thought processing that emphasized patterns and context in learning
Used FreeAssociation to reveal things in order to access the
Early Life as formative
Ivan PavlovFirst Founder
John Watson Conducted the “Little Albert” test, used operant conditioningto scare the shit out of a child whenever he saw something white
B.F. SkinnerModeling/shaping behavior, but mostly conducted animal research.
Emphasizes environmental forces in producing behavior
Reinforcement and Punishment (Used in Operant Conditioning)
Cognitive Revolution: “Return to the Mind”
Focuses on how thoughts influence behavior and studies neutral mechanisms underlying thoughts, learning and memory.
How people think, remember things, and make decisions
Evidence of learning without environmental influence
analogy to computers
Cognitive areas include memory and language
Focuses on situations and how interactions shape people.
Attitudes, relationships, influences
Conformation versus Obedience
Psychological Science Now Crosses FourLevels of Analysis:
1. ) Biological Level:
a. Most basic level, which part of the brain is active
b. animal research, brain imaging
c. How the physical body (brain) contributes to mind and behavior Neurotransmitter hormones, animal, and drug studies
Genetics gene mechanisms, heritability
twin and adoption studies
Nurture vs Nature
2. ) Individual Level:
a. Personality, gender development, age groups, selfconcept
b. Perception/Cognition: Thinking, decision making, language, memory, seeing, and hearing.
c. How differences in personality and in mental processes affect perception d. Behavior: Observable, action responses, physical movements
3.) Social Level:
a. Interpersonal Behavior: Group relationships, persuasion, influence, workplace b. Social Cognition: Attitudes, stereotypes, perceptions
c. How group contexts affect both interactions and individual influences on one another.
4.) Cultural Level:
a. Thoughts, actions, behaviors in different societies and cultural groups b. norms, beliefs, values, symbols, ethnicity
c. How individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and actions differ across culture Page 4
Chapter 2: Research Methods
Section 2.1 How is the Scientific Method Used in Psychological Research? Ethics in Research: Balance Scientific Progress with Protecting People i. The Institutional Review Board:
Security of Data
Research Ethics Training
ii. Two Required Steps to Inform Participants after experiment:
Random Sampling:Each member of the sample pool has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample
Selection Bias is the unintended difference between participants in different groups.
Key Principles of the Scientific Method:
Connecting to past studies
Relevancy, what works/doesn’t
To make sure data samples are same throughout
Reviews, References, Journal Publications
Bias: To publish only significant differences won’t publish if nothing changed
When someone is trying to replicate an experiment, but fails and then declares the experiment as inadequate after only a few trials. Sample Size(#) and Statistical Fluke (Error in # Stats)
Evaluating Research Tools:
Consistent does not mean reliable
Descriptioninforms psychologists how, when, where, and how often a phenomenon occurs
Three Types of Validity for Good Research Qualifications: 1. ExternalConcerns cognitive psychology
Do the results generalize…
To a broader group of people?
Does it apply to everyday life?
A study’s findings can be generalized
ex: Improvements do not apply to all populations claimed
ex: The gains in task performance don’t predict gains in realworld cognition
2. InternalIs there experimental control?
Only true experiments have internal validity
A study’s results are due to the independent variable rather than to confounds
ex: Surveys of users indicate that they feel mentally sharper
3. ConstructDoes the research gets at what it is supposed to do? Variables measure what they claim to measure
ex: The tasks do not train intelligence, as intended but train
performance on the tasks
The six steps in the scientific method for conducting research: 1. Form a hypothesis
2. Conduct a Literature Review
3. Design a Study
4. Conduct the Study
5. Analyze the Data
6. Report the Results
2.2. What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?
Discrete, better in external validity
Frequencies with a behavioral checklist
qualitative notes (Open, not constrained by a checklist, but downside is that there is too much detail and it isn’t focused on one particular subject. Record time or measure
Researcher joins the study group in secret
a. Illusory Correlation:
Just because two things seem to go together, doesn’t mean that they really do b. Spurious Correlation:
Random Statistical Correlation
Why correlation does not equal causation:
i. The Directionality Problem
(Selfesteem level and frequently exercising)
ii. Third Variable Problem/Confound
(Number of leaves on the ground and commute time)
Two Types of Stats:
a. Descriptive Stats: What the data looks like
Mode> Most Frequent NUmber
***Median and Mode are not affected by extreme statistics
b. Inferential Stats:
Analyzing results and comparing it to a larger population
How statistically significant?
*0.05% TScore = Statistically Value
Terms to know for Chapter 2:
The Hawthorne effect is a phenomenon where people improve or change their behavior when they know they are under observation.
Experimental groupThe people who receive some level of the independent variable
Control group the people who receive none of the independent variable, to serve as a comparison
Dependent variable the measured variable in the experiment
Operational definition the quantifiable description of a variable, a definition that qualifies (describes) and quantifies (measures) a variable so the variable can be understood objectively.
Independent variable the manipulated variable, or the variable that gets manipulated in a research study
hypothesisa testable prediction, derived from a theory
scientific method thesystematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena Occam’s RazorLaw of parsimony. Less Assumptions = More Accurate Theorya model of interconnected ideas that explain observations Research Theprocess of data collection
ReliabilityA study’s measurements are consistent over time.
Accuracy Errors do not occur while measuring data.
Mean: The average of a set of numbers
Median:The exact middle of a set of values
Mode:the most frequently occuring value
Standard Deviation: Measure of how far each value is on average from the mean
Chapter 3: Biology and Behavior
Name, identify on diagram, and discuss the function of….
a. A gyrus (Bumps, foldings) versus sulcus (fissure, grooves)
b. The longitudinal, central and lateral fissures, and the corpus callosum (Divides and connects the two hemispheres)
The Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex:
Frontal Lobe (Control of Motor Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Broca’s Area)
Parietal Lobe(Somatosensory cortex, Association Areas)
Occipital Lobe(Primary visual cortex, destination and function of the what and where pathways)
Temporal Lobe(superior, medial, and inferior temporal gyri, and auditory, memory and object recognition areas within
TheCerebellum and Medulla
Know the Names and functions of the Basal Gangliaand Limbic System structures
*Notes from Class*
FThe Primary Visual Cortex: (Inside the Occipital Lobe) Looking for basic stimuli
G Ventral Stream: Object recognition, takes place along the inferior temporal lobe. Dorsal Stream: Recognition of objects in space and guidance of actions
H Fusiform (Part of the Ventral Stream) , recognition of faces
I Inferior Temporal Lobe
J Medial Temporal Lobe:
On the outside cortex level somantic knowledge/ memory (immediate memory) The Hippocampus Storing memory
K Superior Temporal Lobe:Auditory Cortex, basic hearing analysis
L Cerebellum (Balance/Coordination), Highly automated tasks
W Wernicke's Area(Speech Comprehension) , Also part of the Superior Temporal Lobe
The Limbic System:
Amygdala: Fear Related Center
Hypothalamus: Desire hormone, motivation
Hippocampus:New Memory Formation (Longterm)
Basal Ganglia: Pleasure/ Reward Related Actions
“Resting Potential”When not active neurons have a negative charge “Action Potential” sending a chemical signal down axon.
Movement of charged Sodium and Potassium ions/molecules change the charge of the environment (Polarization)
Resting 70 mV
Threshold 55 mV
“Ligand” Any molecule that can affect a receptor site
What triggers action potential?
Neuron research “threshold”
Voltagegated sodium channels open
Propagation down axon
Neurotransmitter is released
Glial Cells: 10x more than neurons, helps in support/cleanup/neural migration/forms myelin/facilitates neural communication.
Cycle of a Neurotransmitter
1. Close up at the synapse
2. Synaptic Vesicles
3. Release into Synaptic Cleft
4. Binding at the receptor sites
6. Breakdown of neurotransmitter by enzymes.
*Calcium helps move the neurotransmitter
Mechanism of Drug Potential:
AgnosticCreating an increase in the normal activity of a neurotransmitter, more neurotransmitter available.
Some drugs can adjust calcium levels to be more active
Reuptake levels are increased as well
Drug mimics the same shape as natural neurotransmitter so that it can bind to receptors, activating/increasing the neurotransmitter’s effect. AntagonistCreating a decrease in the normal neurotransmitter activity. Creates enzymes to destroy neurotransmitter
Can mimic the neurotransmitter and bind to the receptor and won’t allow the neurotransmitter to bind to it.
Since there is a decrease in the number of neurotransmitter, there is also less vesicles and less number of neurotransmitters in them.
Chapter 4: Consciousness
Section 4.1: What is Consciousness?
How much are we really aware of?
Failing to notice objects/processes when not
diverting direct attention to it
Priming: The situation influences our perceptions,
thoughts, or actions without our own awareness
Behavior Priming (“Walking old” when talking about
old people) / Perception Priming (Ratman)
Sleep and Dreaming:
Deep to shallow cycle (90 minutes)
“Slow Wave Sleep” Deep stages of sleep
REM(Rapid eye movement) Dreaming/usually later in the sleep cycle, but close to the awakeness stage
*Common for people to get less and less sleepy the older they get *During REM Stage of Sleep, the brain is very active/awake.
Characteristics of REM Sleep:
Sleepwalking/talking is done in the deep stages of sleeping.
Low amplitude, high frequency wave lengths
Vivid internal sensations
Motor activity of extremities is nonexistent
Frequent and rapid movement of the eyes (REM)
Repetitive and thoughts that don’t make sense
Freud: The Psychoanalytic View
Dream are seen as wish fulfillment
Two levels of dream content
Manifest Content(Part of dream that is remembered)
Latent Content(Hidden, true meaning of the dream)
Activation Synthesis Hypothesis:
The physiological processes of the brain cause dreams.
Section 4.4: How do Drugs Affect Consciousness?
Tolerance: Needing more of the drug to get the desired effect. Increased use is a theme of substantial abuse disorder.
At the Physiology level:
a. Downregulation of receptors
b. Less synthesis of natural neurotransmitters/receptors
Withdraw: Symptoms will be of the opposite effect of the drug The natural balance is broken, dysfunctional
(i.e. For Caffeine/Cocaine that had the effect of concentration, someone going through withdrawal will have a feeling of poor concentration )
Alcohol Withdrawal> Agitation/High Blood Pressure
Heroin Withdrawal> Subjective Pain, sweating, GI Distress.
Addiction:Risk factors and Environmental Influences
Impulsivity, sensationseeking, negative emotions
Stress, exposure to use.
What we think we are doing: Dividing Attention
What we are really doing: Task Switching
*(We can only focus on one thing at a time (i.e. having an intense conversation in the car can be very dangerous)
Research: Multitasking causes a stress response which disrupts “flow”, the feeling of getting lost in the moment of a task. This is not good for retaining information.
Involved in Learning and memory Too much glutamate can be toxic Forming long term memory
GABA (GammaAminobutyric Acid)
Preventing Seizures (GABA activity tends to curb seizures
Emotion and behavioral regulation Selective Attention
GABA Drug Can decrease anxiety *Too much will shut down body functions *Delicate balance between inhibitory and excitatory
GABA hyperpolarizes neurons, lets in Chloride, which leads to action potential
GABA levels increased by
Benzodiazepines (Xanox), which is an Antidepression drug.
Controls: Mood and Impulse , Feeling content, satiety (Feeling Full, feeling not empty), sleep.
*Target of a lot of drugs.
“Fight or Flight”
Arousal and attention (Sympathetic Nervous System activity)
Increased by: Selective norepinephrine, reuptake, SSRIs (Selective serotonin Reuptake inhibitors)
Motor Control Award Center
LDOPA > Parkinson's Disease
“Antipsychotic” Breaks from reality,
Stimulates cortex, memory areas Key factor in Alzheimer’s disease Also affected by nicotine increase
At Neuromuscular junction, Botox Blocks the neuroreceptor
Also in the Parasympathetic System. *Alzheimer’s patients have decay of hippocampus.
Inhibitory> Body’s natural painkiller
*Codeine, morphine, heroin
Reduce subjective experience of pain Euphoria
Inhibitory: Blocks Adenosine
*Adenosine accumulates over the day and makes people tired, sleeping gets rid of adenosine
Stimulant and Hallucinogen
Creates a dopamine burst >
Norepinephrine and dopamine share a relationship. When one is boosted, the other is boosted as well.
*People who used during adolescent years have higher risk of
impairments/brain damage at older ages.
THC acts on “cannabinoid” receptors Blocks memory/pain
Slower reaction time
Classified as a Hallucinogenic Drug.
Please let me know if you have any questions! Good Luck! Michael