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Study Guide Notes for Exam #1

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by: Danielle Nwefo

Study Guide Notes for Exam #1 Psychology 1101

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Psychlogy > Psychology 1101 > Study Guide Notes for Exam 1
Danielle Nwefo

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About this Document

These notes will cover what will be on our first exam!
General Psychology
Dr. Tim Flemming
Study Guide
Psychology, Genetics, brain, psych
50 ?




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1 review
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"Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Danielle!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol"
Valerie Botsford

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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Nwefo on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Tim Flemming in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 204 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.


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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Danielle!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol

-Valerie Botsford


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Date Created: 02/13/16
Psychology­ the scientific exploration of the mind (mental process) and behavior  from biological and socio­cultural perspectives Levels of Analysis: 1. Molecular Level 2. Neural  3. Physiological­ different brain areas 4. Mental: thoughts, cognitive 5. Behavioral 6. Social: the one we’re all most familiar with Goals of Psychology:  1. To find out WHY we do what we do 2. To PREDICT 3. To CONTROL (manipulation) Scientific Attitude: Skeptical, Critical, and Curious A. Use the scientific method B. Theory vs. Law:   law has evidence to support, more factual and can’t have ANY  evidence that refutes it  a theory is more of an idea C. Hypothesis: a testable prediction 1. Examine an assumption 2. Evaluate the evidence 3. Asses the conclusion: test other hypotheses disproving the null  hypothesis (opposite) 4. Replicate: check your work multiple times Experiments: Correlation does NOT equal causation A. Correlation­ 2 variables relate to each other 1. Only way to imply anything about causation is to set up an appointment B. Independent Variable: what you MANIPULATE C. Dependent Variable: changes as a result of independent variable; things you  MEASURE D. Design: 1 treatment/ conclusion per group 1. Between Subjects a. Experimental vs. Control groups: no intervention or treatment 2. Within Subjects: all groups get all the same treatment/ conditions  a. Less variability, less error, and subjects are their own control E. Representative Samples:  1. Variability and Reliability: get consistent outcomes 2. Size: Law of Large Numbers Gene x Environment Interaction: A. Genotype: genetic material B. Phenotype: physical characteristics, body type, personality 1. Eyes have 10 genes C. Polygenetic Genes: multiple genes 1. Genes and Behavior: tendency towards certain psychological/behavioral  phenotypes D. Hereditability: extent to which variability in a trait across a population can  be accounted for by genes 1. Example: height= 90% coded in genes, 10% environment 2. Personality is 35­45% genetic makeup 3. IQ: 66% genetic makeup E. Twin studies 1. Personality is acquired more through genes than the environment Brain: “adaptive brain is wired by experience” “neurons that fire together wire together” – DW Hebb  All mental activity and behavior ultimately arises from chemical and  electrical signaling Neurons  Cell Body­ keeps neurons and tissue alive  Dendrites­ branches, link up/make connections to other neurons; receive  messages from other neurons, listens  Axon­ sending message (long fibers); “speaking”  Myelin Sheath­ fatty tissue that covers and protects/ insulates neuron; speeds up transmission  Axon Terminals­ club shaped endings that connect axons to other nerve cells Axon Potential­ (aka electrical signal)­ change in voltage and across membrane 1. Resting Potential­ polarized; unequal balance of charges  more NA+ outside cell  more K­ inside cell 2. Depolarization­ attempt to balance charges; NA+ (sodium) flowing into cell 3. Repolarization­ NA+ (sodium) flows back out  4. Refactory Period­ “resting potential” Transduction­ sensory receptor activated by light waves, sound waves, physical  tough, etc.; transforming energy from environment (waves) into first neural  impulse  Neurotransmitters­ chemicals that jump the gap  Synaptic Vesicles­ membrane  Synapse­ gap/open space between neurons 1. Neurotransmitters get picked up by one receptor post synaptic neuron 2. Next action potential begins  Olfactory Neurotransmitters­ agonist: molecules that increase  neurotransmission  Inhibitory Neurotransmitters­ antagonist; slowing down chance  for signaling to continue to next neuron; decrease  neurotransmitter January 26, 2016 Phineas Gage­ after being shot in the head, his personality changed, morality  changed, his irrationality changed, and he was more irritable  Bullet went through frontal lobe  Incident was when we first understood specific brain parts have different  functions A. Lobes 1. Frontal: thinking, decision making, language  Also called prefrontal cortex and motor cortex 2. Temporal: auditory cortex­ hearing, understanding language 3. Parietal: Somatosensory Cortex­ sensory input planning movement 4. Occipital: visual cortex, vision B. Mapping Out the Motor Cortex­ Soma Topic Map 1. Location­ dedicated space in cortex for specific body part  2. Size­ how important or complex function of that body part is C. Older Brain Structures: developed first; older in terms of evolutionary  history 1. Brainstem­ regulating physiological functions: respirations, heart rate,  temperature 2. Thalamus­ sensory relay ­­­­­­­­> sensory integration 3. Limbic System­ border 4. Amygdala­ emotion 5. Hypothalamus­ sex, reward 6. Hippocampus­ memory center formation D. Hemispheric Specialization: SPEECH is mostly left brained 1. Corpus Collosum­  highway of communication between the 2  hemispheres 2. Split Brain­ when corpus collosum is severed; like having “2 selves” 3. Sensation vs. Perception­ sensation is detecting, perception is what you  see 4. Vision Detection of light  Wavelength  Amplitude  Retina a. Rods­ forms: black & white b. Cones­ color  Trichromatic Color Theory a. Short wavelength cones b. Medium wavelength cones c. Large wavelength cones February 4, 2016 Top Down Influence on Visual Perception: 1. Top Down Processing­ 2 people looking at same piece of art work but  perceive it differently 2. Context Effects 3. Perpetual Set­ “things you’re used to seeing  Priming­ shows various pictures that sets up what various groups  will see Perceptual Organization­ Gestalt Law­ the whole is different from some of the  parts 1. Figure­ Ground: things are grouped in either being a figure/ground 2. Proximity­ close things are grouped 3. Similarity­ physically similar objects are grouped 4. Continuity­ continue straight lines 5. Closure­ fill in or close a shape Binocular Cues­ Depth Perception (learned or innate) 1. Visual cliff Monocular Cues 1. Linear Perspective­ infer depth based on vertical distance and convergence  of lines 2. Relative size­ inferring absolute size based on size in the world 3. Infer Position­ if one object is obscured, it must be farther away Perceptual Constancy 1. Shape & size 2. Color Attention: 1. Sequential vs. Parallel Processing  Sequential­ Knowing stuff and placing attention on it consciously  Parallel­ unconscious flow of attention; rapid; simply knowing  something 2. Attention of Attention­ cocktail party effect 3. Intentional Blinders­ blindness because focus is on something else 4. Change Blindness­ easy to miss something if you don’t look for it a. Example: driving down the street and someone pops out February 9, 2016 Learning: receiving and sharing information, change in behavior or mental  associations due to experience   Associate learning­ making connections, neural networks 1. Terms and definitions 2. Cause (behavior) and effect (outcome of that behavior)…..operant  learning is associating your response with the outcome of your  response 3. Signals predict other kinds of outcomes  Classical conditioning­ prediction: basic pairing between the stimulus in an  environment  1. NS: neutral stimulus 2. US: unconditional stimulus 3. UC: unconditional response (reflex, elicited behaviors) 4. CS: condition stimulus; what we are pairing with the unconditional  stimulus; 5. CR: conditional response; oftentimes identical to the unconditional  response (UR); always in some ways related to the UR  Acquisition: pairing of NS to US to make NS into CS; learning   Extinction: CS alone; active inhibition; not forgetting  Spontaneous recovery: return of CR after time has passed with no CS or US  being  Generalization: making similar things equal (CSs)  Discrimination: making different things nonequivalent (CSs)  Implicit Association: unconscious; not being aware/no attention to 1. Fear conditioning­ Phobias  Example: US: stank UR: gag CS: sight of feet CR: fear of feet UR is caused by CS February 11, 2016 Skinner­ father of operant learning: behaviorist  Stated that anytime a behavior is followed by a good outcome, the behavior  increases  Behavior followed by a negative behavior, the behavior decreases 1. Strength of neural connection Thorndike’s Puzzle Box­ learning is incremental, not immediate Primary Reinforcement (motivation)­ anything that reduces biological drive  (hunger, thirst, sex, anxiety/arousal/comfort) Secondary Reinforcement­ money  Intrinsic Motivation­ doing something because you want to/fulfilling  Positive Reinforcement­ desirable outcome to a behavior Negative Reinforcement­ taking away something undesirable (aversive)  Avoidance­ performing a behavior to prevent presentation of aversive event  Escape­ performing a behavior to make aversive stimulus stop Positive Punishment (Reward)­ adding an aversive outcome when an undesirable  behavior is performed Negative Punishment­ removing a desirable outcome when an undesirable  behavior is performed Reinforcement Schedules: Continuous­ getting reward; Partial­ intermittent,  improves motivation  FR: x reinforcement for every x behaviors­ commission  VR: x reinforcement for every x behaviors­ less predictable; slot machines  are an example  FI: for every x min/time, you get X relief: hourly, salary Lowest productivity FI scallop procrastination  VI: for every x, you get x reinforced


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