Study Guide Notes for Exam #1
Study Guide Notes for Exam #1 Psychology 1101
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Nwefo on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Tim Flemming in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 204 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Danielle!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Psychology the scientific exploration of the mind (mental process) and behavior from biological and sociocultural perspectives Levels of Analysis: 1. Molecular Level 2. Neural 3. Physiological different brain areas 4. Mental: thoughts, cognitive 5. Behavioral 6. Social: the one we’re all most familiar with Goals of Psychology: 1. To find out WHY we do what we do 2. To PREDICT 3. To CONTROL (manipulation) Scientific Attitude: Skeptical, Critical, and Curious A. Use the scientific method B. Theory vs. Law: law has evidence to support, more factual and can’t have ANY evidence that refutes it a theory is more of an idea C. Hypothesis: a testable prediction 1. Examine an assumption 2. Evaluate the evidence 3. Asses the conclusion: test other hypotheses disproving the null hypothesis (opposite) 4. Replicate: check your work multiple times Experiments: Correlation does NOT equal causation A. Correlation 2 variables relate to each other 1. Only way to imply anything about causation is to set up an appointment B. Independent Variable: what you MANIPULATE C. Dependent Variable: changes as a result of independent variable; things you MEASURE D. Design: 1 treatment/ conclusion per group 1. Between Subjects a. Experimental vs. Control groups: no intervention or treatment 2. Within Subjects: all groups get all the same treatment/ conditions a. Less variability, less error, and subjects are their own control E. Representative Samples: 1. Variability and Reliability: get consistent outcomes 2. Size: Law of Large Numbers Gene x Environment Interaction: A. Genotype: genetic material B. Phenotype: physical characteristics, body type, personality 1. Eyes have 10 genes C. Polygenetic Genes: multiple genes 1. Genes and Behavior: tendency towards certain psychological/behavioral phenotypes D. Hereditability: extent to which variability in a trait across a population can be accounted for by genes 1. Example: height= 90% coded in genes, 10% environment 2. Personality is 3545% genetic makeup 3. IQ: 66% genetic makeup E. Twin studies 1. Personality is acquired more through genes than the environment Brain: “adaptive brain is wired by experience” “neurons that fire together wire together” – DW Hebb All mental activity and behavior ultimately arises from chemical and electrical signaling Neurons Cell Body keeps neurons and tissue alive Dendrites branches, link up/make connections to other neurons; receive messages from other neurons, listens Axon sending message (long fibers); “speaking” Myelin Sheath fatty tissue that covers and protects/ insulates neuron; speeds up transmission Axon Terminals club shaped endings that connect axons to other nerve cells Axon Potential (aka electrical signal) change in voltage and across membrane 1. Resting Potential polarized; unequal balance of charges more NA+ outside cell more K inside cell 2. Depolarization attempt to balance charges; NA+ (sodium) flowing into cell 3. Repolarization NA+ (sodium) flows back out 4. Refactory Period “resting potential” Transduction sensory receptor activated by light waves, sound waves, physical tough, etc.; transforming energy from environment (waves) into first neural impulse Neurotransmitters chemicals that jump the gap Synaptic Vesicles membrane Synapse gap/open space between neurons 1. Neurotransmitters get picked up by one receptor post synaptic neuron 2. Next action potential begins Olfactory Neurotransmitters agonist: molecules that increase neurotransmission Inhibitory Neurotransmitters antagonist; slowing down chance for signaling to continue to next neuron; decrease neurotransmitter January 26, 2016 Phineas Gage after being shot in the head, his personality changed, morality changed, his irrationality changed, and he was more irritable Bullet went through frontal lobe Incident was when we first understood specific brain parts have different functions A. Lobes 1. Frontal: thinking, decision making, language Also called prefrontal cortex and motor cortex 2. Temporal: auditory cortex hearing, understanding language 3. Parietal: Somatosensory Cortex sensory input planning movement 4. Occipital: visual cortex, vision B. Mapping Out the Motor Cortex Soma Topic Map 1. Location dedicated space in cortex for specific body part 2. Size how important or complex function of that body part is C. Older Brain Structures: developed first; older in terms of evolutionary history 1. Brainstem regulating physiological functions: respirations, heart rate, temperature 2. Thalamus sensory relay > sensory integration 3. Limbic System border 4. Amygdala emotion 5. Hypothalamus sex, reward 6. Hippocampus memory center formation D. Hemispheric Specialization: SPEECH is mostly left brained 1. Corpus Collosum highway of communication between the 2 hemispheres 2. Split Brain when corpus collosum is severed; like having “2 selves” 3. Sensation vs. Perception sensation is detecting, perception is what you see 4. Vision Detection of light Wavelength Amplitude Retina a. Rods forms: black & white b. Cones color Trichromatic Color Theory a. Short wavelength cones b. Medium wavelength cones c. Large wavelength cones February 4, 2016 Top Down Influence on Visual Perception: 1. Top Down Processing 2 people looking at same piece of art work but perceive it differently 2. Context Effects 3. Perpetual Set “things you’re used to seeing Priming shows various pictures that sets up what various groups will see Perceptual Organization Gestalt Law the whole is different from some of the parts 1. Figure Ground: things are grouped in either being a figure/ground 2. Proximity close things are grouped 3. Similarity physically similar objects are grouped 4. Continuity continue straight lines 5. Closure fill in or close a shape Binocular Cues Depth Perception (learned or innate) 1. Visual cliff Monocular Cues 1. Linear Perspective infer depth based on vertical distance and convergence of lines 2. Relative size inferring absolute size based on size in the world 3. Infer Position if one object is obscured, it must be farther away Perceptual Constancy 1. Shape & size 2. Color Attention: 1. Sequential vs. Parallel Processing Sequential Knowing stuff and placing attention on it consciously Parallel unconscious flow of attention; rapid; simply knowing something 2. Attention of Attention cocktail party effect 3. Intentional Blinders blindness because focus is on something else 4. Change Blindness easy to miss something if you don’t look for it a. Example: driving down the street and someone pops out February 9, 2016 Learning: receiving and sharing information, change in behavior or mental associations due to experience Associate learning making connections, neural networks 1. Terms and definitions 2. Cause (behavior) and effect (outcome of that behavior)…..operant learning is associating your response with the outcome of your response 3. Signals predict other kinds of outcomes Classical conditioning prediction: basic pairing between the stimulus in an environment 1. NS: neutral stimulus 2. US: unconditional stimulus 3. UC: unconditional response (reflex, elicited behaviors) 4. CS: condition stimulus; what we are pairing with the unconditional stimulus; 5. CR: conditional response; oftentimes identical to the unconditional response (UR); always in some ways related to the UR Acquisition: pairing of NS to US to make NS into CS; learning Extinction: CS alone; active inhibition; not forgetting Spontaneous recovery: return of CR after time has passed with no CS or US being Generalization: making similar things equal (CSs) Discrimination: making different things nonequivalent (CSs) Implicit Association: unconscious; not being aware/no attention to 1. Fear conditioning Phobias Example: US: stank UR: gag CS: sight of feet CR: fear of feet UR is caused by CS February 11, 2016 Skinner father of operant learning: behaviorist Stated that anytime a behavior is followed by a good outcome, the behavior increases Behavior followed by a negative behavior, the behavior decreases 1. Strength of neural connection Thorndike’s Puzzle Box learning is incremental, not immediate Primary Reinforcement (motivation) anything that reduces biological drive (hunger, thirst, sex, anxiety/arousal/comfort) Secondary Reinforcement money Intrinsic Motivation doing something because you want to/fulfilling Positive Reinforcement desirable outcome to a behavior Negative Reinforcement taking away something undesirable (aversive) Avoidance performing a behavior to prevent presentation of aversive event Escape performing a behavior to make aversive stimulus stop Positive Punishment (Reward) adding an aversive outcome when an undesirable behavior is performed Negative Punishment removing a desirable outcome when an undesirable behavior is performed Reinforcement Schedules: Continuous getting reward; Partial intermittent, improves motivation FR: x reinforcement for every x behaviors commission VR: x reinforcement for every x behaviors less predictable; slot machines are an example FI: for every x min/time, you get X relief: hourly, salary Lowest productivity FI scallop procrastination VI: for every x, you get x reinforced
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