Infancy exam 1 study guide
Infancy exam 1 study guide Psyc3260
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc3260 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Bourgeois in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Infancy in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Infancy 3260 SPRING 2016 Student Study Guide EXAM 1 Chapter 1 Know key terms (terms that are bolded) How did the early Greeks and Romans view and treat infants and children? How are infants and children discussed in the Bible? o Greeks and romans advocated harsh practices, and practiced infanticide. o Bible reflects the importance of children and discipline When did we begin to see the emergence of written philosophies of child rearing in Europe? o In late middles ages medical text gave advice on childbirth and infant care o Renaissance first written child rearing philosophies Compare and contrast Rousseau’s and Locke’s philosophies about children and child rearing. Which philosophical movement did each belong to? o Rousseau Romanticism Childhood is special priviledge. Children are inherently good. Education should be sensitive to the needs of the child o Locke Empiricism Early education is important but children need structure Mind is a blank slate Which theorist is most closely associated with maturation? o Arnold Gesell first scientist to use a one way mirror to observe infants What is meant by “nature” and “nurture”? o Nature= genetics o Nurture= environment and experience Read the section on methods of research on infant development. What is the difference between quantitative research and qualitative research; be able to identify each type of research. o Qualitative research information, meaning interviews o Quantitative: numerical Be able to recognize independent and dependent variable. What is control group? o Independent variable of interest o Dependent changed by IV o Control group does not receive intervention Understand the differences among classical conditioning and operant conditioning o CC Stimulus response o OC reward/ punishment How do reinforcers differ from punishers? What is the difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement? o Reinforcers increases the occurrence of a behavior. o Positive addition; negative removal What is parens patriae? How has the concept impacted public policy? o Children are viewed as their parents possession; government may only interfere in extreme circumstances Be familiar with questions from “In the Womb” video. Bold words reinforce terms from the text. (You do not need to know specific developmental milestones that we have not covered in the text yet). Chapter 2 Know key terms (terms that are bolded) What is the difference between a phenotype and a genotype? o Genotype= genetic make up; phenotype= physical appearance Know the difference between mitosis and meiosis. o Mitosis cell copies itself o Meiosis cell division in gametes without copying How many chromosomes are in gametes? How do chromosomes work? o 23; chromosmes work in pairs What is the difference between dizygotic and monozygotic twins? Why do you think human developmentalists are particularly interested in monozygotic twins? o Dizygotic (fraternal) two ova are fertilized and two different zygotes develop o Monozygotic( identical) fertilized zygote divides and splits into two separate zygotes. Monozygotic twins have same genes nature v nuture Understand methods of contraception List the major phases of prenatal development (including the “age” range) and briefly discuss the changes that occur in each phase o Zygotic fertilization until implantation about two weeks Develops into blastocyst Triggers secretation of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone Consists of embryonic dndk surrounded by amniotic sac and yolk sac o Embyonic implantationuntil 2 month Embryonic sac differentiates into endoderm (digestive), mesoderm (muscles bones and reproductive), and ectoderm (skin central nerves) Rudiental behaviors (heartbeats, respiration, jerky movements, limbs begin to differentiate and has all major organs o Fetal 2 9 month Spontaneous movements emerge. More localized movement, reflexes emerge. External gentials form Rapid brain development Hair (lanugo) on body Vernix caseosa protects skin Rapid growth Can feel pain Cry, grunts, yawn. Suck thumb opens eyes. Develops capacity to learn Briefly describe the stages of labor o *begins with contractions every 1020 mins 10 cm dialated o Opening of cervix o Passage of infant through vagin o Birth of the placenta What is sexlinked inheritance? Give an example. o Related to pehnotypes being tied to genes that appear on 23 chromosomes Color blindness, baldness, hemophilia What new technologies and medications to assist in childbirth are available today? What are the benefits and risks as a result of these technologies and medications? o Fetal monitoring (should only be used with high risk deliveries. o Forceps (may cause brian damage and spinal cord injuries if used too early o Vacuum extraction (risks are lower than with c section or high forceps) o C section (should only be used when necessary) o Epidurals (mothers may develop fevers and are at increased risk of postpartum depression.) o Analgesia – pain relief ( newborns are slower to respond to breast feeding and had higher temps) o General anesthetics (affects newborns vulnerable organs) What is the role of a midwife? What is the role of a doula? o Midwife trained to assist women who are giving birth. Offer pre and post natal care. Work alongside doctors o Doula offer emotional support during labor and delivery List some behavioral pain reductions strategies used in labor? o Upright birthing positions o Lamaze o Yoga, walking music, acupuncture What are used as measures of fetal behavior? o Ultra sound o Spontaneous movement o Fetal heart rate o breathing Chapter 3 Know key terms (terms that are bolded) Define fertility. What are some causes of infertility? How can fertility be enhanced? o Infertility refers to being unableto conceive successfully for at least one year. o Female infertility is usually caused by failure to ovulate. Or unsuccessful journey of the ovum to the fallopian tubes o Male infertility is caused by smoking, tight underwear, saunas or injury, underdeveloped testes and some childhood diseases. o Fertility can be unhanced through natural nethods ( timing sexual intercourse) good health, diet exercise, or medical intervention ( IVF, artificial insemination) Discuss some common teratogens. What factors might influence the amount of damage done by a teratogen? o Alcohol, drugs, radiation, diseases o When exposure occurs, the size of dosage, the length of exposure o How does maternal depression and maternal anxiety/stress influence fetal development? o Some evidence that newborns of depressed mothers act somewhat depressed. o Stress fetuses higher activity levels. Cried more and fussed more, had difficulty with emotion regulation and social behavior. More likely to show symptoms of ADHD. Adolescents continue to show problems. Adults more susceptible to mental illness. Elevated cortisol levels in mothers affect the development of fetal brains What is the difference between genetic and chromosomal disorders? Give specific examples of each o Genetic disorders occur through inheritance and depend on geneenvironment interaction. Polygenic (spina bifada) Dominantrecessive (PKU, Cystic Fibrosis) Sex linked (Fragile X, hemophilia) o Chromosomal disorders occur during the process of meiosis Turners ( girl with only 1 x) Kleinfelter (xxy) Downs (trisomy 21) Discuss genetic counseling and the various types of prenatal testing currently available to mothers o Many birth defects can be diagnosed prenatally through genetic counseling and amniocentises and ultrasound. CVS diagnose wide range and can be done in first trimester Prenatal screening What is fetal alcohol syndrome? What are fetal alcohol effects? o Mental retardation, facial adnormalities, hyperactivity, growth retardation What is fetomaternal microchimerism? o Blood cells of infant can be found in mother and clood cells of mother can be found in child for decades. What physical changes might a mother expect to see during pregnancy? o Failure to menstruate. Nausea, fatigue Briefly discuss nutritional and exercise requirements during pregnancy? How much weight gain is considered average in pregnancy? o 2535 lbs o moderate exercise. Intense exercise may be helpful during first trimester o micronutrients, omega 3s and weight gain are essential How do mothers and father’s adapt to pregnancy? How do siblings adapt to pregnancy? o Adapt successfully when planned, presence of father, marital satification, low stress, social Support o Fathers see pregnancy as welcoming or threatening. Emotionally distant. Engage in extramarital affairs. Increase risk of abuse. o Siblings preparing child for another child doesn’t seem to affect the amount of later sibling rivalry. Conflict between the mother and the first child after 2 does. What are risks of teen pregnancy? How do we treat and prevent teen pregnancy? o Birth defects, infant death low birth weight. o Education o Focus on internal locus of control, contraception What types of assessment are used on newborns? What areas are assessed using the Apgar scale? o Screening indicate newborns ability to survive. o Neurological test for problems in central and peripheral nervous systems o Behavioral rate the presence and strength of behavioral responses to stimulation. o Dubowitz gestational age. o APGAR Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiratory effort. What is considered a normal, an atrisk and a critical score? o Normal 810 o At risk 57 o Critical below 5 What is considered low birth weight? o Low birth weight= 15002500 grams o Very low= 1001500 o Extremely low= less than 1000 What are some causes of prematurity? List some short term and long term effects. Identify interventions used with preemies (i.e. kangaroo care). o Prenatal smoking and alcohol use o Poor prenatal maternal health and nutrition o Stress o Infertility treatments o Low maternal weight gain o At risk for Health motor and intellectual problems Newborn death Lack oxygen during birth jaundice mental and physical impairments Shorter and smaller, emotional and behavioral maturity, cognitive function and educational performance, language perceptual and motor functions, illness and mental retardation o Interventions NICU Rocking breathing teddy bear, nonnutritive sucking on pacifier, massafe, kangaroo care. Quiet environments If you had all the economic resources you needed, what would you do to decrease infant mortality? o Access to prenatal care to all families o Education and access to doctors o Decrease poverty o Supplemental nutrition for mothers and infants o Breast feeding o Growth monitoring o immunization Chapter 4 Know key terms (terms that are bolded) Be familiar with answers to Baby Brain Quiz What is an EEG? What is an ERP? o EEG recording of electrical activity o ERP record changes in the brains electrical activity in response to the presentation of a particular stimulus Describe the different brain imaging techniques discussed in this class o fMRI uses magnetic fiels to detect blood flow. Not very useful with infants bc they cant lay still o fNRI uses infrared light that passes through the skin to examine blood flow. Does not require laying down or special lab o PET radioactive material injected into brain. Not safe for infants What is a neuron Describe parts of a neuron o Neurons information storage and transfer cells of the nervous systems. Process electrical and chemical information. Understand the 3 types of neurons and their roles o Motor neurons o Interneurons – between sensory and motor o Sensory neurons What are glial cells? What is their role? o They perform critical supportive functions. Help define synaptic contacts and maintain the signalying abilities of neurons, What is neurogenesis? What is synaptogenesis? When are these taking place at high rates? Describe concept of pruning. o Neurogenesis creates new neurons. First four months produces virtually all. o Synaptogenesis making synaptic ocnnections. 7 months. o Pruning use it or lose it Know 3 major regions of the brain and basic understanding of what happens within each region of the brain. o Cerebellum controls essential body functions (balance, posture, coordination) o Limbic system relay emotions. Realted to memory, sleep wake sycle, emotional responses Includes amygdala – emotional memory hippocampus leanring memory hypothalamus development of states of arousal feeding and self regulation Thalmus controls attention span sensing pain. When the amygdala sense threat is send neuro chemicals to the HPA axis HyopthalamuspituitaryAdrenal glands (cortisol) High elvels of cortisol are linked with better memory. (extended periods of heightened levels of cortisol are bad for infant development o Cerebral cortex outer layer of brain.s covers the limbic system Identify functions of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex. o Temporal memories, processing emotion and auditory info. o Occipital vision o Parietal comprehension of stimuli. Integrates sensory input o Frontal creative thought, problem solving, judgement, attention, abstract thinking What are the functions of the right and left hemispheres of the brain? o Right Controls movements on left side. Majorite of social and emotional acitivity More holistic, creative, emotional st Very important in 1 wo years of life o Left Controls movements on right side. More specialized for thinking and language More analytical and rational Very important in development after 2 years old Describe brain plasticity. o Ability of brain to seek novelty, learn and remember by continuing to alter conenctions between neuron. Understand the difference between experience expectant and experience dependent neural pathways. o Expectant fully developed at birth o Dependent need environmental stimuli to develop Understand impact of stress on brain development. o Single most important factory of regulating individual differences in brain development. o Occurs when body cannot find a blance between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems Describe the role of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in the stress response. (Specifically, be able to explain HPA axis response to stress.) When the amygdala sense threat is send neuro chemicals to the HPA axis HyopthalamuspituitaryAdrenal glands (cortisol) o What are causes and effects of stress? o Neuroception nonconscious evaluation of environment decision made by autonomic nervous system. o When there is persisten prenatal or post natal stress cortisol is overproduces—becomes toxic o Caused by paternal anxiety. Stressful life events. Poverty. Nutritional deficits, disease. o Effects: premature birth or LBW o Delays in motor and cognitive development. Problems with executive function, self control, ADHD, lerning disabilities, anxiety, substance abuse. How can we foster healthy brain development? o Reduce family and societal stess o Safe enviornemntal o Adequate nutrtion o First 3 years are CRITICAL
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