Study Guide Exam 1
Study Guide Exam 1 FCNS 280
Popular in MSTR Human Devel the Fam & Society
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicholas Petrusevski on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FCNS 280 at Northern Illinois University taught by J. Elizabeth Miller PhD in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 290 views. For similar materials see MSTR Human Devel the Fam & Society in Health Sciences at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
(FCNS 280 Exam 1 Study Guide) FCNS 280 Chapter 1 Intro. To human development -Augustine: original sin; humans are born with a selﬁsh nature -John Locke: blank slate; empirlcism, a child's mind is a blank slate...can be modeled by parents -Jean-Jacques Rousseau- innate goodness; all human beings are naturally good -Charles Darwin: kept baby biographies -G. Stanley Hall: ﬁrst scientiﬁc study of children -Arnold Gresell: established norms for physical maturation -Lifespan perspective: view that developed from conception to death should be studied from multiple disciplinary perspectives (Domains) -physical ex: puberty -cognitive ex: memory -social ex: individual differences in personality Prenatal: conception-birth Infancy: birth-language Early childhood: language-school Middle childhood: school-puberty Adolescence: puberty-18 Early adulthood: 18-40 Middle adulthood: 40-60 Late adulthood: 60-death Key issues in the study of human development: -Inborn bias: aspects of infants' appearance that motivate adults to care for them (Type of changes) Normative age- graded Ex: infants crawling Normative history- graded Ex: Great Depression (people born in) Normative Ex: genetic inﬂuences *critical periods are more common in animal research than in studies with humans *"double whammy" a vulnerable child in a poor environment Research methods and designs: -the goals of development science are to describe, explain, predict, inﬂuence age- related changes -experiment: manipulated independent variable -laboratory observation: behavior observed in controlled settings -Case study: in-depth study of a single individual -naturalistic observation: observation observed in a typical setting -correlation: mathematical relationship between two variables (Methods) -cross sectional: Quick detour but ignores individual differences -longitudinal: track individuals over time, time consuming -sequential: combine cross-sectional and longitudinal, also very time-consuming Why is cross cultural resource important? 1. And identiﬁes universal changes 2. It identiﬁes variables that inﬂuence development Issues: -Protection from harm -informed consent -conﬁdentiality -knowledge of results -deception FCNS 280Chapter 2 Notes (Three Major Theories) Psychoanalytic Theories: -could explain why babies put things in their mouths for deriving motor physical pleasure *Sigmund Freud -psychoanalytic theories believe that change happens because internal drives and emotions influence behavior Freud’s Psychosexual Theory- important conclusion was behavior is governed by both conscious and unconscious process -Libido: internal drive for physical pleasure Personality has three parts: 1. id: unconscious level and contains the libido 2. ego: conscious, keeps ego satisfied 3. superego: ego becomes more complicated Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory- -neo-Freudian, had greatest influence on the study of development -psychosocial, not sexual -ENTIRE LIFESPAN -must solve crisis -first stage: trust versus mistrust (birth to 1 year) -second stage: autonomy versus shame and doubt (1 to 3) -third stage: initiative vs. guilt (3-6 -four stage: industry virus inferiority *childhood to adulthood…. identity virus role confusion stage (John Watson) -views were very different from Freud, he believed that children could be trained to do anything -Watson coined the term behaviorism, which says that development is defined by environmental influences (Ivan Pavlov) -discovered classic conditioning, which means organisms can acquire new signals for existing responses EX: food oder triggers the salivary glands (Skinner’s Operant Conditioning) -learning to repeat or stop behaviors used on the consequences they bring with it A. positive reinforcement B. negative reinforcement -Extinction: gradual elimination of a behavior through repotted non-reinforcement -Partial Reinforcement: reinforcement of some behaviors on some occasions but not others -more common (Albert Bandura) -learning does not always require reinforcement -observation learning or modeling (Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory) -he was very overlooked -looked at how children think -he was surprised how similar they were -Scheme: internal cognitive structure that provides someone with a procedure to follow in a specific circumstance EX: pick up a ball use your picking up scheme -Assimilation: process of using schemes to make sense of experiences -Accommodation: changing scheme based on new information acquired through assimilation -Equilibration: is the process of balancing assimilation and accommodation to create schemes that fit the environment (4 Stages) 1. Sensorimotor Stage: birth to 18 months infants use their sensory and motor schemes to act 2. Preoperational Stage: 18 moths to about 6 years old, symbolic schemes like language and fantasy are acquired 3. Concrete Operational Stage: 6-12 years begin to think logically and are capable of solving problems 4. Formal Operational Stage: adolescents learn to think logically about abstract ideas (Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory) -says that children’s learning of cognitive skills are guided by an adult or older sibling (Information-Processing Theory) -explains how the mind manages information (Behavior Genetics) -focus on effect of heredity an individual differences -parents with high IQ scores more likely to pass them on -Ethology: focuses on the study of animals in their natural environment -Sociobiology: study of society using methods and concepts of biological science (Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory) -explains development in terms of relationships between people and their environments, or “contexts” FCNS 280 Chapter 3 (Chromosomes, DNA, And Genes) -chromosomes: strings of genetic material -heterozygous: individuals whose chromosome carry one dominant and one recessive gene for a given trait -zygote: an entirely new cell formed when sperm and ovum unite to form 23 pairs of chromosomes -phenotype: individuals particular set of observed characteristics -gametes: cells that unite at conception -genes: pieces of genetic material that control or inﬂuences traits -dizygotic: describes twins that develop from two fertilized ova -homozygous: individuals whose chromosomes carry either two dominant or two recessive genes for a given trait -mitochondria: DNA- bearing structures outside the nucleus of the ovum -genotype: unique genetic blueprint of each individual -Dominant-recessive: single pairs of genes; trait occurs if one dominate or two receive genes present; eye color, blood type, sickle-cell, Huntington’s disease -Polygenic: many genes; genes from some polygenic traits include dominant/ recessive pattern, others do not, skin tine, eye color, height -Multifactorial: genes and environmental variables interact, psychological traits *most autosomal recessive disorders are diagnosed in childhood *most autosomal dominate disorders are diagnosed in adulthood *red-green color blindness in a sex-linked disorder that is more common in males (When do these following things take place in a pregnancy) -ectopic pregnancy: ﬁrst trimester -weekly doctor visits: third trimester -Fetal movement felt: Second trimester -breast enlargement: ﬁrst trimester -premature labor: second trimester -ultrasound to locate placenta: second trimester (What stage do these milestones take place in?) -migration of neurons to lifelong positions in the brain? fetal -brain begins to produce pattern of electrical activity embryo -neural tube swells to form brain embryo -synapses between neurons form fetal *prenatal differences in sex hormones may be a factor of male/female differences in physical, cognitive, and social development *why do some researchers believe it’s important to establish norms establish norms for prenatal behavior? norms can help health-care professionals better asses fetal health and predict postnatal problems *Teratogens are most harmful during the embryonic period of prenatal development -Heroin: can result in a miscarriage, premature labor, early death, postnatal addiction and withdrawn symptoms -Cocaine: difﬁcult to determine due to inﬂuence of multiple co-occurring factors like poor maternal health, poverty, lack of prenatal care, postnatal neglect -Marijuana: Tremors, sleep problems, postnatal lethargy; short stature -Tobacco: low birth rate. risk of learning problems and antisocial behavior -Alcohol: Fetal alcohol syndrome, short stature -Rubella: can cause blindness, heart defects, and deafness -HIV: can cause aids -syphilis: blindness, brain damage, deafness -genital herpes: blindness, death, brain damage -cytomegalovirus: brain damage, deafness, intellectual disability *CVS is done during the ﬁrst trimester and amniocentesis is done during second trimester *Which of the drugs that women take during the birth prices enter the fetus’s body? All drugs that enter the fetus’s blood stream 1. contractions far apart 2. ﬂattening of the cervix 3. cervix dilated to about 10 centimeters 4. women has urge to push 5. newborn’s entire body emerges from womb delivery of the placenta 6. *immediately after birth, health-care professionals use the Apgar scale to asses the newborn’s condition *most low-birth-weight newborns who weigh more than 1,500 grams and are not small- for-date catch up to their peers during the ﬁrst few years of life FCNS 280 Chapter 4 - Synaptogenesis: process of synapse development - Pruning: elimination of unused synapses - Plasticity: brain’s capacity to change in response to experience - Adaptive reﬂexes: reﬂexes that help the infant survive - Primitive reﬂexes: reﬂexes that disappear during the ﬁrst year of life *Esther Thelen’s dynamic system theory proposed two types of inﬂuences work together to shape motor development… 1. inborn genetic factors 2. environmental variables, for example: availability of adequate nutrition *Breast feeding is not recommended for women who take prescription or illegal drugs. However, some infants require formula instead of breast milk (depends on the situation) -deﬁcient in calcium and vitamin C = micronutrient malnutrition -due to the fact she doesn't eat a lot Daisy an 8-year old weighs as much as a 4-yaear old = marasmus -low protein diet… that risks permanent brain damage = Kwashiorkor -type of malnutrition that is the leading cause of death among children under age 5 = micronutrient malnutrition -why is saying healthy babies don't need to go to the doctor false? Because infants need their progress monitored, also they need immunizations -*SIDS can be prevented by…. -lying baby on back -having a fan on baby -have baby on ﬁrm, not soft mattress -for babies, auditory acuity is way better at birth than visual acuity -infants are attracted to sweet taste, which may explain their attraction to breast milk *Franz devised the preference technique to study perceptual development in infants *infants can discriminate more speech sounds than adults *the visual cliff experiment showed that 6-month-olds have depth perception *intermodal perception is possible as early as one months old (Nativist View) -perceptual skills are inborn -newborns can make perceptual discriminations (Empiricist View) -perceptual views are learned -the development of perceptual skills depends on experience FCNS 280 Chapter 5 -milestones of the sensorimotor stage in order 1. object permanence 2.A-not-B error 3. means-end behavior 4. differed imitation *object permanence does not rely on infants’motor skill development *Spelke argued that babies are born with built-in assumptions about objects *during the second year infants begin to imitate models they view as successful *organization of experience into expectancies is called schematic learning *Rovee-Collier’s research showed that context is important in infant memory -behaviorists emphasize the role of the environment in language development -infant-directed speech is the simplified, higher-pitched speech that adults use with infants and young children 1. cooing 2. babbling 3. 1st words 4. holophrases 5. naming explosion 6. telegraphic speech -infant intelligence test measure primary sensory and motor skills infant intelligence tests tend to underestimate later rates of impairment
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