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Exam 1 ( Chap 1-4)

by: Trung Do

Exam 1 ( Chap 1-4) bio 1134

Trung Do


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Biology 1
Evan Kaplan
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Trung Do on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to bio 1134 at Mississippi State University taught by Evan Kaplan in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
Exam 1: Chap 1­4 Review terms Biology The study of life and living things An organismic state characterized by capacity for  Life metabolism, growth, reaction to stimuli, and  reproduction 8 Characteristics of Living Organisms 8 Characteristics of Living Organisms ­Cells ­Use Energy ­Interact with Environment  ­Maintain Homeostasis  ­Growth and Development  ­Reproduce ­Evolve from One Generation to the Next ­All Species are Related by an Evolutionary  History Levels of Organization Cellular: atoms> molecules> (organelles)> cells ­Organismal  ­Population: population> community>  ecosystem> biophere Components of the Scientific Method ­Making Observations  ­Asking Questions ­Forming a Hypotheses  ­Making Predictions ­Testing the Predictions by Experimentation  ­Data/Results (Theory) Atomic Number Number of protons in its atoms Atomic Mass Sum of masses of its protons plus number of  neutrons of a single atom Isotopes An element that has the same number of protons,  but different number of neutrons (and atomic  mass) What makes one atom different than another? The number of subatomic particles Three different types of bonds ­Covalent ­Hydrogen  ­Ionic Covalent Bonds sharing of a pair of valence electrons between two atoms to fill the outermost level Hydrogen type of ionic bond; weakest bond of the three  because there is no direct sharing of electrons;  break and re­form with great frequency Ionic Bonds formed by electrical attraction between  ions bearing opposite charges Molecules Two or more of the same atoms linked by  chemical bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Electrons spend more time near the nucleus with  the more protons; unequal sharing of electrons Nonpolar Covalent Bonds Electrons are shared equally Why is water considered a polar molecule? The electrons spend more time around oxygen  since it is more electronegative than hydrogen Properties of Water Cohesion: most water molecules are bonded  together giving water more structure than most  other liquids Hydrophobic Any substance that does not have an affinity for  water Hydrophilic Any substance that has an affinity for water Macromolecules Large molecules that all contain carbon as a  component neutrons subatomic particles with no charge 7 neutral pH anion negatively charged ion solute component that dissolves in the liquid amino acids make up proteins genes segments of a DNA strand primary structure the sequence of amino acids secondary structure the coiled alpha­helix, beta­pleated sheet, or a  triple helix formed by hydrogen bonding peptide  bonds along the chain carbon a critical atom that makes life possible; most  commonly forms covalent bonds with hydrogen,  oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur atoms glycogen example of polysaccharides in humans (human  "starch") a polysaccharide with branching chains of  glucose molecules linked to each other by the  dehydration reaction lipids fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes very diverse group of molecules that have very  different structures; nonpolar What all do you need for a dehydration reaction? monomers, enzymes, and ATP tertiary structure the three dimensional structures formed by  folding and bending back on themselves quaternary structure the result of several polypeptide chains  interacting with one another in order to produce a  functional protein one sugar monosaccharides two sugar disaccharides multiple sugars polysaccharides phospholipids make up cell membrane; only 2 fatty acid chains  and a phosphate group; polar heads and nonpolar  tails polysaccharides longer polymers of monosaccharides proteins polymers found in all cells and play critical roles  in nearly all life processes; humans have tens of  thousands each with their own structure and  function Cell Theory discoveries of Schleiden and Schwann; all living  organisms are composed of one or more cells,  cells are the smallest units of life, new cells come  only from pre­existing cells by cell division, all  cells are similar in chemical composition, most of the chemical reactions of life occur within the  cell, complete sets of genetic information are  replicated and passed on during cell division larger cells tend to be elongated and irregularly shaped to  increase surface area matter, energy, organization, information Cell structure is determined by four factors: matter cells are comprised of atoms, molecules, and  macromolecules energy required by the cell to produce macromolecules  and to carry out cellular functions organization the cell is highly organized with the  macromolecules found at specific locations within the cell information the cell requires instructions to produce the  structures cytoplasm a fluid­like region of the cell rich in nutrients;  water, ions, and an assortment of  macromolecules; includes the cytosol and  organelles DNA All cells contain genetic material in the form of  ___. structure; function _________ correlates with ________. True True/False: Not all cells have the exact same  organelles not the same number of organelles. False True/False: All cells look the same and perform  the same overall function. metabolism the sum of the chemical reactions by which cells  produce the materials and utilize the energy  necessary to sustain life catabolism the breakdown of a molecule into smaller  components anabolism the synthesis of macromolecules (the opposite of  catabolism) the endomembrane system either in direct contact with one another or  connected indirectly via vesicles, small  membrane enclosed spheres; divides cell into  compartments, channeling the passage of  molecules through the interior of the cell and  providing surfaces for lipid and protein synthesis;  includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic  reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles,  peroxisomes, and plasma membrane endoplasmic reticulum accounts for more than half the membranes in a  eukaryotic cell; includes membranous, fluid­like  tubules called cisternae and internal spaces called  lumen; composed of two distinct regions, rough  ER and smooth ER prokaryotic cells the simplest and smallest of all organisms/cells Example: bacteria eukaryotic cells have a membrane bound nucleus, the organelles  have membranes, cell wall structure/make­up is  different, contain many DNA molecules, mostly  multi­cellular organisms Example: plants, animals, humans rough ER looks rough because ribosomes are attached to the outside; abundant in cells that secrete protein smooth ER looks smooth because it lacks ribosomes; rich in  enzymes and plays a role in a variety of metabolic processes Golgi apparatus consists of flattened membranous sacs, that look  like a stack of pancakes; collects proteins made  from the RER and will perform three functions,  processing, sorting, secretion lysosomes small sacs which are used for storage of digestive  enzymes called hydrolases peroxisomes breakdown hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other  toxic substances via enzymes called catalases plasma membrane encloses the cytoplasm of all animal cells;  provides a protective boundary between the  insides of the cell and the extracellular  environment; selectively permeable extracellular matrix helps to support and organize cells into tissues,  contributes to the physical properties of cartilage,  skin, etc., filters materials passing between  tissues, orients cell movements during  development and repair, allows for cells to  communicate with one another


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