Exam 1 ( Chap 1-4)
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Trung Do on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to bio 1134 at Mississippi State University taught by Evan Kaplan in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Exam 1: Chap 14 Review terms Biology The study of life and living things An organismic state characterized by capacity for Life metabolism, growth, reaction to stimuli, and reproduction 8 Characteristics of Living Organisms 8 Characteristics of Living Organisms Cells Use Energy Interact with Environment Maintain Homeostasis Growth and Development Reproduce Evolve from One Generation to the Next All Species are Related by an Evolutionary History Levels of Organization Cellular: atoms> molecules> (organelles)> cells Organismal Population: population> community> ecosystem> biophere Components of the Scientific Method Making Observations Asking Questions Forming a Hypotheses Making Predictions Testing the Predictions by Experimentation Data/Results (Theory) Atomic Number Number of protons in its atoms Atomic Mass Sum of masses of its protons plus number of neutrons of a single atom Isotopes An element that has the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons (and atomic mass) What makes one atom different than another? The number of subatomic particles Three different types of bonds Covalent Hydrogen Ionic Covalent Bonds sharing of a pair of valence electrons between two atoms to fill the outermost level Hydrogen type of ionic bond; weakest bond of the three because there is no direct sharing of electrons; break and reform with great frequency Ionic Bonds formed by electrical attraction between ions bearing opposite charges Molecules Two or more of the same atoms linked by chemical bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Electrons spend more time near the nucleus with the more protons; unequal sharing of electrons Nonpolar Covalent Bonds Electrons are shared equally Why is water considered a polar molecule? The electrons spend more time around oxygen since it is more electronegative than hydrogen Properties of Water Cohesion: most water molecules are bonded together giving water more structure than most other liquids Hydrophobic Any substance that does not have an affinity for water Hydrophilic Any substance that has an affinity for water Macromolecules Large molecules that all contain carbon as a component neutrons subatomic particles with no charge 7 neutral pH anion negatively charged ion solute component that dissolves in the liquid amino acids make up proteins genes segments of a DNA strand primary structure the sequence of amino acids secondary structure the coiled alphahelix, betapleated sheet, or a triple helix formed by hydrogen bonding peptide bonds along the chain carbon a critical atom that makes life possible; most commonly forms covalent bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur atoms glycogen example of polysaccharides in humans (human "starch") a polysaccharide with branching chains of glucose molecules linked to each other by the dehydration reaction lipids fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes very diverse group of molecules that have very different structures; nonpolar What all do you need for a dehydration reaction? monomers, enzymes, and ATP tertiary structure the three dimensional structures formed by folding and bending back on themselves quaternary structure the result of several polypeptide chains interacting with one another in order to produce a functional protein one sugar monosaccharides two sugar disaccharides multiple sugars polysaccharides phospholipids make up cell membrane; only 2 fatty acid chains and a phosphate group; polar heads and nonpolar tails polysaccharides longer polymers of monosaccharides proteins polymers found in all cells and play critical roles in nearly all life processes; humans have tens of thousands each with their own structure and function Cell Theory discoveries of Schleiden and Schwann; all living organisms are composed of one or more cells, cells are the smallest units of life, new cells come only from preexisting cells by cell division, all cells are similar in chemical composition, most of the chemical reactions of life occur within the cell, complete sets of genetic information are replicated and passed on during cell division larger cells tend to be elongated and irregularly shaped to increase surface area matter, energy, organization, information Cell structure is determined by four factors: matter cells are comprised of atoms, molecules, and macromolecules energy required by the cell to produce macromolecules and to carry out cellular functions organization the cell is highly organized with the macromolecules found at specific locations within the cell information the cell requires instructions to produce the structures cytoplasm a fluidlike region of the cell rich in nutrients; water, ions, and an assortment of macromolecules; includes the cytosol and organelles DNA All cells contain genetic material in the form of ___. structure; function _________ correlates with ________. True True/False: Not all cells have the exact same organelles not the same number of organelles. False True/False: All cells look the same and perform the same overall function. metabolism the sum of the chemical reactions by which cells produce the materials and utilize the energy necessary to sustain life catabolism the breakdown of a molecule into smaller components anabolism the synthesis of macromolecules (the opposite of catabolism) the endomembrane system either in direct contact with one another or connected indirectly via vesicles, small membrane enclosed spheres; divides cell into compartments, channeling the passage of molecules through the interior of the cell and providing surfaces for lipid and protein synthesis; includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, peroxisomes, and plasma membrane endoplasmic reticulum accounts for more than half the membranes in a eukaryotic cell; includes membranous, fluidlike tubules called cisternae and internal spaces called lumen; composed of two distinct regions, rough ER and smooth ER prokaryotic cells the simplest and smallest of all organisms/cells Example: bacteria eukaryotic cells have a membrane bound nucleus, the organelles have membranes, cell wall structure/makeup is different, contain many DNA molecules, mostly multicellular organisms Example: plants, animals, humans rough ER looks rough because ribosomes are attached to the outside; abundant in cells that secrete protein smooth ER looks smooth because it lacks ribosomes; rich in enzymes and plays a role in a variety of metabolic processes Golgi apparatus consists of flattened membranous sacs, that look like a stack of pancakes; collects proteins made from the RER and will perform three functions, processing, sorting, secretion lysosomes small sacs which are used for storage of digestive enzymes called hydrolases peroxisomes breakdown hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other toxic substances via enzymes called catalases plasma membrane encloses the cytoplasm of all animal cells; provides a protective boundary between the insides of the cell and the extracellular environment; selectively permeable extracellular matrix helps to support and organize cells into tissues, contributes to the physical properties of cartilage, skin, etc., filters materials passing between tissues, orients cell movements during development and repair, allows for cells to communicate with one another
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